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by: Michelle Gulgowski DVM


Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Chemistry > CHE 101 > MOLECULAR SCIENCE FOR CITIZENS
Michelle Gulgowski DVM
GPA 3.91


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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Gulgowski DVM on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 101 at University of Kentucky taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/228300/che-101-university-of-kentucky in Chemistry at University of Kentucky.




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Date Created: 10/23/15
EHE1D13lt a Take your score out of60 Multiply by 56 to get ascore out of 50 Add this to the Woodmm soore out of 50 and the Meier scorediyided by two to get ascore out ofSO The result out of 150 is worth 60 of your grade You can multiply this result by 06 to get the number of points out of 100 you already have for the coulse We expect to have approximately 70 ofthe clae receive an a B The nal will be cumulative but with emphasis on Miller last seoion which was not covered in any midterm test Why there is an ozone hole over Antartica Ozone 03 Generation and Depletion I Generation 3 O2 hv gt 2 O3 7 stratosphere hard UV radiation I Trapping of Cl and C10 during most of the year 7 cl CH4 a HC1 CH3 7 C10 No2 a CIONo3 During antartic winter our summer I Dark so O3 production stops I Extreme cold permits the formation of tiny ice crystals I HCl and ClONO2 converted back to C12 During antartic spring Sept Oct I Depletion e c12 hv e 2C1 Some 2 depletion per day 7 O3Cl gtClO 02 7 03 ClO gt C1 20 chain reaction goes on and on 7 Once the polar vortex dissipates ice crystals melt ozone destruction ceases t 5 weeks Ozone 03 Depletion I Halo uorocarbons Freons a Freon 12 FClZCaCCle Freon 114 e CClZFZ by a C1 CC1F2 CFC712 e JOC1 H 3 H a HOCl l a HO t s 5 D FailLEM II CFC5 Mlmr39 Equot 915 1139 lean II ll a M Hen4 Chm ind IIEMIHFII rJl CFC 39th 92511 1351 331 9 quot313m 9 54 1 795 13133 I mn year a l Even after CFC production halts atmospheric levels will persist 50 100 years vtlrimpa rsrm of 1111 s HURTS and l Il II S Relative to CFCl 1 Jr lireon ll 1 HI 31F Zomptmn Harme Global Attrmsphe Taxir at lFlammahl cl DESEI MCEEf manning t iC e n Lifetime it391 st lI EZlZEI EE 5quot 3 had 31 Rome El l no 2112le ppm lItllr39ti l 23 2 13 ad 343 Wt we 3 l 391 ppm rm IHEZIZ39EZlTg HHS134a No threat 50 21 LUUE no 21411112153 we we ppm Major Re pl at e m lent Used New for Zara etc PIPE1431a a o threat 12E 1 54 l 2341122113 Will s ppm HIKE152a No threat 3 5 we 2 l 39J yes 2H 31211 1132 lI EIHI l 24 2 bad l 552 5 unknown no ZHEII lit 11 we me C0 C02 and NO and others are so called greenhouse gasses The Green h DUI 59 Effect dim ItalEmma gas muss mmwmls t5 Inwarml Ete Emma s surface and me luwer Elmasphere Some of 3113mm radla on passes Mast radlatlun ls assumed by me earlh39a surface and Imus It EPAGlobalWarmingClimate Yosemiteepa govoarglobalwarmingnsfcontentEmissionshtml Light intensity Figure 167 L J I l39 nial 39 l 71 100 167 Wavelength um gt Climate average weather including temperature rainfall and sizes of swings The average temperature during the last ice age was 9 F cooler than now and was associated with ice sheets extending to New York city The average temperature has risen 11 F in the last century The 10 warmest years of the 20th century all occurred in the 15 last years of the century An additional increase of 25 104 F is predicted based on current information This increase is larger and 10 to 100 times faster than has occurred in the last 10000 years The exact effects of climate change will vary with location beneficial in come places disastrous in others changes in rainfall temperature storm severity and frequency ocean water levels abal 39 39lmpmla hllm channu mmm Year mu mmmmm Em Greenhouse gases have increased especially CO2 30 CH4 more than doubled and NO 15 We think of the atmosphere as huge and inexhaustable and constant but we have significantly changed it Combustion of fossil fuel is the most important source of the C02 Although plant respiration and decomposition release 10 times more CO2 than human activity respiration and decomposition have been balanced by photosynthetic trapping of CO2 for the last centuries CO2 levels have increased and this is due primarily to human causes The 31 increase in atmospheric CO2 observed since pre industrial times cannot be explained by natural causes CO2 concentrations have varied naturally throughout Earth39s history However CO2 concentrations are now likely higher than any seen in at least 420000 years EPA 2020Global20WarmingClimateScienceDetailhtm Global Warming Warming EPA climate science detail EM E l l l m mayh emm h m WEE 1Tm1m 150 O O 50 i Tropospheric Global warming percent of total 0 4 Global cooling 150 Figure 1613 251333 35 m E 39m Amspheric Concantrati E Measured Directly g 9 11am g E E E a i lih li E F E a Atmsphuric Concentrations 39 5m lm Denvedfmm Ice Gongs 39 I a a mi WEE El ll WEE 1W EMilitia 13M WEE 1 1111M When WWM may irmmm W m 20 Tonnes of C02 emitted per capita annually 8 SaudifArals ira gt I g l gr 39 1 i h g a 3m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1213141516171819 Rank by total emissions Figure 1616 Other sources of global climate change Fluctuaions in solar energy flux Depletion of upper atmospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons cooling Screening ofsolar energy by particulates volcanoes industrial emissions coolinQ Screening by SO2 from power plants and industrial sources aldebo cooling These latter have probably masked asignificant fraction of the effect of increased greenhouse gasses Ongoing buildup of 61 L L y climate in the 21 century Melting of Polar ice mp5 Light sunlight refleced ore absorbed more HEAT absorbed increasingly rapid warming Rising ocean levels 35 in e 3 prediced in215 century Redirection of global ocean circulaion and storm tracks These could lead to changes in average temperaure of up to 10 c in one century or less EPAgGlobalWarmingiClimale him www nutramed comenvimnmemairpollulionimro c araic Lead pollution Several pollutants are accumulated in the bone Initially the bone39s ability to pul away39 the lead is protective However when the lead is released it can be very damging a times of bone loss such as pregnancy lactation menopause and old age Thus the effects can occur A I A A L L andis often L39 L39 L T quotA cigarettesmoke and children o en consume lead in chips of leaded paint The downfall ofthe Roman empire has been blamed at least in part on lead poisoning ofthe rich ruling 01 which consumed water carried in lead pipes Thus the waer carried lead and indeed the word plumbing39 derives from Pb When polluted foods are eaen the consumer can be exposed to Molecular TOXiCitieS angerous levels Thus exposure to pesticides organophosphaes PCBs dioxin arsenic mdmium lead and mercury can be via food Molecule LDISO lgkg m5 t t 1quot DDTirsecici e 1 human 500 Other pollutants are particular to certain workplaces including 33mlquot m c sea 6 L200 asbestos co ust acrylonitnle butylate hydroxytoluene 24713 hemicide 245 Agent mange 400 p9ly y 1 hydf mb m These can a GI and Swhagea 24SLTgt TCDD herbicideedioxin 400 e 001 d sea e39 mamquot Camequot paraqua herbicide used on mari39uan 25 Tabun chemawar are agent 06 human 00l Sarin chemawarfare agent 04 human 00l KCN 64 HCNgas used for some prison executions l 0033 min Aspirin 02 gkg Glucose 258 ykg Cyani e 64 mgkg Carbon Monoxide Review slides from Dr Miller 2005 Also the slides from each lecture I thought best captured the essence of the lecture I lecture Note that this material should be Considered illushahve not comprehensive Themes from Oct 21 lecture Energy is stored in molecules in the guise of bonds that are high in energy Reactions that convert high energy bonds to low energy bonds make energy available OxidationConversion to CO and OH bonds releases the energy so we can use it to do work make heat and make other molecules Energy is conserved In biology CH bonds are common energy storages Oxidation vs Energy Themes from last time 0 gee A balanced equation has the same number of each type E of atom in the reagents as in the products I 40 0 St01ch10metr1es are the relative numbers of equivalents of 750 molecules needed to react with other molecules in a reaction J 80 Energy is conserved 100 Reaction energies can be calculated from the formation energies of the products minus those of K H the reactants Mc u Stepwise oxidation makes just as much energy available M39 W Z d39gt m quotmg v 53 W m as complete combustion but in smaller packages Ener ies g A few themes CH4 1202 CHEOH AG end point 7 starting point 7296 Cal vs CHEOH 02 CH202 H20 AG 7996 Cal vs C112021202c02rtzo AG y9 597565 848120 71504 7 848 0 pH H 0 7 0 do CH4 202 gt C02 2H20 AG 71948 Cal for4 C70 formed H H O irstead of OH 0 c H H r TP is the instantaneous energy cunency 39cash39 It is supponed by amedium tenn reservoir in muscle cells creatine phosphase checking account Both are continuous1y replentished by CATABOLISM of glucose k pay C so G1ucose is the on1y fuel used by the brain except under starvaion conditions credit card Fa CD5 Aerobic metabolism Chapters 17 and 18 Creatine phosphate Anaerobic metabolism Chapter 14 Energy a Seconds Minutes Hours a Sources ul39ATP During Exercise In the lnltlal seconds exerclse ls powered by extstlng mgr phosphoryl transfer compounds ATP and creatlne phosphate Subsequently the ATP must be regenerated by metabolic pathways Rererence J M BergJ L Tymoczko andL stryer5tochemtstty 2001p 380 Recommended Dietary Balance Fat lt 30 of daily calories minimize saturated fat Proteins 1015070 to 70 e 100 gday note essential amino acids Carbohydrates 60 high fiber min processing choose 5 fruitsvegetables intensely colored ones are best Note who is responsible for the recommendations do they have a vested interest 7 Themes from last time ATP is energy cash recycles on a time scale of mirl Glucose is used on a time scale of mirlrhrs Reactions are catalized by ENZYMES Glycolysis Big theme Phosphate P04 groups on the move on the sugar intermediates and then transferred to ADP to yield ATP adenarine tripharphme Three conceptual stages ime t e pump divide and conquer payback time Glycolysis feeds into the citric acid cycle which yields much more energy the turbine Themes From Oct 31 Relatively little energy is garnered from glycolysis itself only 2 ATP net 2 invested 4 produced per glucose When 02 is available two NADH are produced When 02 is absent the NADH are recycled to NAD lactic acid or ethanol is formed When 02 is available the products of glycolysis are fed into the citric acid cycle with release of C02 The citric acid cycle churns out NADH and FADH which feed electron transport to O which becomes H10 which in turn drives oxidative phosphorylation ADP egt ATP More CD is released in the process The citric acid cycle produces starting materials for production of fat protein and nucleic acids DNA The amount of material fed into the citric acid cycle by glycolysis is tightly regulated in accordance with body needs and resources Efficiency of energy capture each ATP is worth 73 Cal mole Glucose 2 0 2 ADP2 H egt2 ethanol 2 cq ZATP 2 H10 26 efficient 2 of glucose s total possible energy Glucose 2 0 2 ADP egt2 lactate ZATP 2 H10 53 efficient 2 of glucose s Lp energy Glucose 2 0 2 ADP 4 NAD egt2 acetate 2 col zATP 4 NADH 4H 10 efficient 2 of glucose s Lp energy Glucose 6 02 30 P04 30 ADP gt 6 COZ 6 H20 30 ATP AG 76839 energy captured in ATP 30x73 219 32 efficient old math yields 41 efficiency All these reactions are catalyzed and controlled by ENZYMES Many of the enzymes contain a Vitamin which they can t function Without Enzymes can accelerate reactions by up to X 1019 X106 is typical Many enzymes are subject to regulation These enzymes are PROTEINS Proteins are polymers of amino acids linked by Peptide bonds Themes from last time Nov 7 A gallery of amino acids and Vitamins Essential amino acids must come from your diet and not all protein sources are complete Vitamins are often responsible for the chemical reactivity of enzymes Other Vitamins carry H atom equivalents or defend against undesirable reactions Vitamins usually must be obtained in the diet Some fatty acids and all essential minerals must also be obtained from our diets The molecules we can t make tend to be the difficult ones branched chains heterocycles Back bone Side Chains R NAD FAD H O 7 V 42 Glycolysis m gt no 02 Phospho i ylavn Alanine lactate 02 0 39ation of fatty acids s i 7 r J Other amino acids E Sterords fatty acrds NADH FADH Citric Acid cle CO2 lt2 gt co2 Themes from last time Nov 8 The many many reactions that go on all the time in your cells are orchestrated and regulated by complex intercommunication Hormonal regulation insulin vs glucagon Feedback inhibition by downstream products Stimulation by abundant starting materials Catabolism vs Anabolism at traffic intersections Job One Glucose Homeostasis maintenance of a constant status Brought to you by The Liver Different tissues use different fuels have different storage abilities and different metabolic abilities Different tissues respond differently to stress Fed resting fasting starving Themes from last time Hormones alter the balance of energy storage and release Also profoundly affect other aspects of metabolism including blood pressure the immune system sexrelated charactelis cs Peptide hormones amino acidderivatives steroids Effects are diverse and farreaching longterm and often irreversible Another example of control Neuraransmitters affect minuteatoaminute funaions immediate symptoms often revelslble ormones many kinds small differences matter steroids represent the stereotype Mimicks serve as drugs Example drugs in high cholesterol management multiple strategies mimicking true substrate to block synthesis of cholesterol or cholesterol uptake from food On Acetylcholine on Aoetylcholine estelase degrades acetylchollne si r Never on Anmgonists tie up receptors so Ac can 39t in Always on Agonists activate receptors but eva e Neuron delivering signal Synapse Neuron receiving signal Aoetylcnoline Paranion LDED 3 mgkg Themes form Nov 23 Pesticides Chemical types Inorganic organic Life time persistent vs not Polarity bioaccumulation Interference With neurotransmlsslo CHECHg O C CH S El l Malathion CHECHz O C C H2 LD5D 885 mg CHa The LD50 is the dose that is lethal to half the population on average Themes from Nov 28 amp before Some pollutants are very persistent and accumulate in fat They are bioaccumulated in the food chain eg PCBs Endocrine e fects Furan and dioxin contaminants interfere with hormone mediated processes and cause long term damage often with few shortterm symptoms often gender specific Wildlife studies reveal their threat Endocrine related to hormones Synergistic e ects the toxicity is greater and different upon exposure to two stresses than expected based on the sum of the effects of each stress alone Plants produce pesticides for their own benefit as well as compounds with beneficial estrogenic properties Ozone in the lower stratosphere is protective 70 km Fi ure 151 g Mesosphere 50 km Stratosphere 30 km O3 here benefits us Ozone layer 15 km Troposphere O3 here is bad for 1 Themes from Nov 30 Pollutants from combustion primary pollutants VOC NOX CO CO2 02 Acid rain from SO4 from coal burning from NO3 from other fuels too secondary produced upon reaction of NOX and 02 with OZ Ozone CO VOC are toxic what does VOC stand for CO is really dangerous why Ozone protects us from mutagenic UV radiation Hole in ozone layer over Antarctic thinning over all what is the formula for ozone Global Warming Note that the concentrations of CO2 are very low but a little goes a long way 100 ppm 001 Warming EPA climate science detail Elem E glme gm Wig h fiia m aim 5 HR WEETm g E Alwospnene Co a enrranl r lv39loasurcd Directly Em f f m muma llmini Trams meei f mm L ab 11 Ex 13 AIIV gtquotMIlt Curriz fml lmm I F T De nec rrom Ice quotquotsres L39 O I quot11mm Mi mmmu a WWW 11f quotd FEE 39TJWE am Hm ilWE mm WEE I l HEM W195 Emma Mam Irlmmm z mm 231 Whatever you can do or dream you can BEGIN IT Boldness has genius power and magic in it Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Biological chemistry and the chemistry of our planet Unbelievably complex interconnected resilient but precious Changes in lifestyle and ATTITUDE are necessary NOW for the sake of our children The optimist can nonetheless take inspiration and wonder in every detail of our extraordinary world and life Humans actually have a very good record of solving problems once they set their minds to it Please see above Old business Toxics in your home Example Lysol Toilet bowl cleaner Form the front label Active ingredients 95 Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen chloride The prepared in advance homeowner familiarizes himherself with the active ingredients of products he she buys immediately Material afety Data heets describe the hazards safe handling procedures symptoms of exposure and treatments A place where you can access msds httpwwwilpicommsds Poison Center Louisville 1 800 222 1222 Themes from last time Nov 10 l N322 39 Z 4 D On39datx39ve thplmrylatx39unvt 02ADP 4 m mm uffutty uddk 3333 NADH FADH E vim Ketones the q k k Fats tIiacyl glycerides brain s backup vs 3 fatty acids glycerol K fuel mm shims my mi h drn r a l ism l a D butyrae serve a alternaive a a w a Wm my J s cm4m fuels for mime l WA quot A gt ELI A 4 m i in w s Dji f m A44 quotquot 39 They are alsothe only fuel mam We va D which the brain can resort J em under starvaiou when W a m a a WWW insu cienlglucoseis le A k 3 k W NJ i Hydmxybutyra gives risewmi ii i 259 to acetone which makes l m T which one39s breahsmell bad WW rme m This is asignal of kausis m w Brain Glucose is the preferred fuel for the brain Brain uses some 420 Calday 60 of resting state glucose consumption Not stimulated during mental activity Brain can t use fat because it doesn t cross bloodbrain banier Ketones are the brain s emergency fuel liver supplies glucose and ketones Muscle Maintains a glycogen reserve glucose is the preferred fuel for bursts of activity During intense activity when 02 is depleted does glycolysis Pyruvate is converted to lactate or alanine which are onverted back to pyruvate for complete consumption by liver this borrows time Muscle also transaminates amino acids to make them usable as fuels in the citric acid cycle Resting muscle derives 85 of its energy from fatty acids Heart muscle does not readily resort to glycolysis and does not maintain glycogen reserves Citric acid c cle activity is crucial Fatty acids are the major fuel ketones in a pinch Fat Tissue Adipose tissue Contains huge reservoir of fuel fat The triacyl glycerols need to be broken into fatty acids plus glycerol backbone first When triacyl glycerol is to be consumed removal of the first id is rate limiting This step is under hormonal regulation stimulated by adrenalin epinephrine Fatty acids are synthesized in liver and assembled into triacyl glycerols in fat ce s An intermediate of glycolysis DHA is needed If lots of glucose is available and therefore lots ofDHA triacylglycerol is reformed Otherwise the fatty acids are released into blood for use by other tissues in musclejliv To burn or to store triacyl gly cerol Glycolysis gt DHAP g 3 gt glycerol A 3 ReCoA glycerol lllacy glycero a fa molecule Race 7 glycerol 7 gt glycem a consumption RrCoA a in lnusclejliver Liver cells Blood leer A metabolic hub Be nice to your liver Removes all sugars other than glucose from blood Makes reserves of glycogen up to 400 Cal worth Leaves some glucose for other tissues which ones 7 Excess glucose gt acetyl CoA a faty acids When glucose runs short makes it from lactate alanine nuscle glycerol fat When fuel is very scarce tses faty acids as fuel 39dation and home production This is regulated in oppositely to faty acid synthesis When amino acids must be burned the liver dos this too a er removal d excretion as urea comm2 The C skeletors at kao acids are is to make glucose or fatty acids Liver uses at keto acids 5 fuel NOTglucose which it sends back into blood for the brain and mlscle Job One Glucose Homeostasis maintenance of a constant status Brought to you by The Liver Just after a meal Insulin rises glucagon drops in response to elevated blood lucose Insulin stimulates glycolysis in liver to make DHA gt fat Insulin stimulates glycogen formation in muscle and liver resses gluconeogenesis in liver Glucose itself inhibits glycogen degradation Insulin stimulates uptake of amino acids by muscle too and inhibits protein degradation Many hours after a meal after the surge Insulin levels drop again glucagon is secreted as the glucose leve ro Lower insulin gt less uptake of glucose into muscle and fat Glucagon acts at the liver to stimulate mobilization of cogen Also release of fatty acids from fat cells It also inhibits glycogen formation and fatty acid synthesis Muscle and liver use fatty acids as fuel not glucose Once glycogen is exhausted glycerol from fat is used to make glucose for export to brain Also amino acids from protein Fasting Although a wellifed healthy adult carries reserves for 7 mo Most of this is fat Carbohydrate reserves are exhausted after 2 1 da Blood glucose must be maintained for the sake of the brain Fatty acids can 39t be made into glucose only the glycerol oteins must be used with loss of function Instead our organs undergo a metabolic shift rom glucose to fatty acids liver and ketones brain Muscles switch from glucose use inhib by low insulin to fatty acids 5 oxidation Acetyl CoA and citrate rise and shut down glycolysis at point of production of acetyl CoA Instead pyruvate alanine and lactate are used to make glucose for brain Prolonged fasting three days Liver begins producing ketones and the brain increasingly uses these acetoacetonate instead of glucose Ketones can be made from fatty acids whose oxidation via the citric acid cycle is not possible any more now that oxaloacetate is depleted by gluconeogenesis About a third of brain activity is now supported by ketones and the heart begins to use these too Several weeks into a fast Ketones become the major fuel for the brain they can pass through the bloodibrain barrier Only 40 g glucose needed per day vs 120 g on first fasting day Fat is used instead of muscle 20 gday vs 75 gday early on When fat runs out you use protein from muscle heart liver kidney and die ATP Phaspllm ylutwn a m 39n uffatty m39ds Other amino acids Nucleic acids r Steroidsfzttyzcids sun39sma 12 NADH FADH CO coZ Themes from Oct 21 lecture later be remeved later wood or much later coal thtthe minus Sign means More elaboth unstable malenals represent an energy rnvestmenl Lb energy can Complete combustion of methane Reaaants CH4 ao2 gt b H20 cco2 produos not balanced c x 1 Start with elements that only appear in one molecule on each side C 1x1 Complete combustion of methane CH4202 2H20 co2 Energy of Complete combustion of methane CH4 202 gt 2H20 co2 Energy change Where you end up 7 where you started H20 and 02 7 CH4 and 02 AG 2 7565 79 e 71212n AG all numbers are Cal mole Standard states for 0 this is 02 gas For C it is solid C graphite For H it is H2 gas Typically a naturallyeoccurring state in which the element is pure but may a rea y contain energy investment in some Bonds like a bank account required to maintain a 500 min We have to pump energy into 02 to get 2 atomic 0 But no real reaction begins with atomic 0 so the calculation doesn39t either Complete combustion of methane II CH4 202 2H20 C02 Energy change Where you end up 7 where you started Carbon dioxide and waer e methane and oxygen gas AG 2 7565 7939 e 7121 2 n AG 71130 7939 7121 AG 72069 121 4948 Cal AG negative value Some partial combustion reactions 114 V202 gtCH30H AG 7 CHgOH 02 gt CH202 H20 AG 7 H H H OH OH l C C H C H H H H O Why 12 02 CH4 202 CHEOH AG Energies based on heats of formation given 5114 1202 gtCH30H AG end point 7 starting point 7417 7 7121 120 H H H OH 417 1 7296 Cal mole c c H H H H vs aCHEOH b 02 a c CHQOZ d H20 C1130H 02 a CH202 H20 AG products 7 reaaants O H CPH c H 0 work possible 498 Cal per mole CH bonds replaced with C70 bonds Energies CH4 120 CHEOH AG end point 7 starting point 7296 Cal vs CHEOH 02 CH202 H20 AG 7996 Cal vs CH2021202pC02HQO AG r939756S848120 71504843 Some Course Information Supporting Reading can be found in Snyder s Book The Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things 3 copies are on reserve in the CP library Hc OH 0 50394 843 Dr Miller s mateIial is mainly in chapters 0 dc 656 Cal 39 14 15 16 17 18 21 CH4 202 gt cow 2H20 AG 71948 Cal for4 00 formed H H CID irstead of CH C H H r Web sites That may amaze and help you Assignment wwwexpasyorgcg1 binshow quot nl 1a Learn to draw a molecule structural WWWW011hpublisherscomlehninger fonm a that has 10 or more nonH atoms bcsthreemeancombiochen stry5 1b Be able to WIite down two reasons for choosing that molecule one sentence each 1c Be able to correctly wn39te the molecule s name Example Adrenaline Stimulates heart rate and force of heart contraction dilation of CHZ pupils constriction of pen39pheral BICNH circulation relaxation of smooth COH muscle of digestive tract the Fightor ight response 0H Produced in the adrenal medulla 0H How many molecules 250000 beads are in the Cylinder 14 million in l 3 liters 7gt 5 2 liters for 106 beads one million The dimensions of the CF building 348 it long 207 n Wide 48 8 feet high Mr David Keizer 1044m x521 m x145m 94555304 l The volume of the building 94 5 million liters The entire building would only hold 2 10quot beads 94 5 i 1011 5 2 beads One grain or sugar 03 mg contains 11039 moles 5 10quot molecules 300000 buildings rull or beads would hold as many beads as mere are molecules orsugar in one small Crysml 510quot210B 3 i 105 That is more buildings than there are beads in this cylinder Themes from last time Nov 8 Reading in support of these lectures Snyder Chapters 16 17 19 15 Baird and Glof e 7 9 1012 Relationships between different branches of metabolism and how they are coordinated The possibility of regulating enzyme activity makes 39 ssib e to harmonize the many different metabolic activities of a cell and to have our bodies be responsive to our needs till P mvn O2 Steroids fatty aeids Other amino acids quoti can0AM 12 NADH FADH coZ Processes pathways glycolysii oxidation offatty acids citric acid cycle oxidative ghosgho latiori Those that require 072 to recycle NADFAD vs those Production of ATP vs building blocks for other materials Anabolic buildup vs catabolic breakdown reactions Control points glucose pyruvate acetyl CoA Energy stores in different organs for a 1551b male in Calories Fat molecules T Fa tissue NADFAD MHZO 3039 gt ATP Pyruvate 0239 CO1 ADP 4 Acetyl Co A I coz amp yae NADH FADH col Secretion of glucagon Secretion of insulin Liver degmdes glycogen Liver takes up glucose amp releases glucose amp makes glycogen n im 39 glycerol acids which liver converts to glucose LOW Pancreas High Glucose consumption Glucose i J ATP citrate glucagon TAMP My ATP JG Q I l c1trate Glucose storage Glycogen in liver and mlscle GEE e ATP pyruv ate J3 J5 4i c1trate Glucose mobilization Glycogen in liver and muscle Tglucagon low ATP need for c precursors Glucose generation Glucose Q 1 Citrate glucagon J AMP Glucose is made for use by the brain ATP pyruvate Synthesis of glucose gluconeogenesis is regulated in the opposite sense ff mCgt no 02 I Pnusph lavn Pyruvate 02V coz ADP 4 Acetyl Co A c A ole NADH FADH coz amp a CO NADFAD Pyruvate is a hub H20 Interconversion of sugars Glucose 4 and roteins 41 u39datx39 p m PhusphklaVn no 02 02 ATP lactate ADP39 4 al I pyruvate Acetyl Co A 3111116 ltl other aa 39gt I lrmsmnirmilm elmCAI d2 NADH FADH coz amp a CO vate is a hub Acetyl CoA another control p01nt feeding draining Glucose pyruvate the citric acid cycle i TATP CoiA citrate CO2 KetonesltlA t C A Equot ATP oxaloacetate cnoiesiemi ce y 0 alanine lactate gt Pyruvate AcetylC OACit1ic A cycle low 2c supply B oxidation xoxaloacetate Via citric acid cyc e 11 Citricgcitgycle NADH FADH Acetyl Co A fatty acids Ketone bodies acetoacetate hydroxybutyrate acetone CitIic Acid Cycle ff mm Phuspl lavn NADH FADH lg 13 012 A g col


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