Introduction to Animal Form and Function
Introduction to Animal Form and Function Biol 204
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Benthem on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 204 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Marcy Litvak, Dr. Tom Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Plant and Animal Form and Function in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Introduction to Animal Form and Function Lectures 1 and 2 I. Animal characteristics: multicellular heterotrophs that feed by ingestion, symmetry, true tissue layers, motile at some point in life cycle, muscles coordinated by nervous system, collagen. II. Adaptation A. No such thing as perfectly adapted – always a trade of 1. Muscles: Type I muscles – cardio, oxidative, endurance. Type II muscles – Fast-twitch, glycolytic, strength 2. Cell membranes – saturated membranes stack, lead to fluidity in warmer temperatures and lack of fluidity at lower temperatures. Unsaturated don’t stack, leads to fluidity at cooler temperatures and too much permeability at higher ones. III. Tissue layers – endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm IV. Epithelial tissue – skin (from ectoderm) and digestive tract (from endoderm). Rapidly divide, which is why cancer is common in them. V. Connective – tendons, ligaments, bones, blood, adipose. Needs collagen, which needs oxygen in order to be produced. A. Bones – originated in osteichthyes. B. Blood – made in bones. Multipotent stem cell diferentiates into diferent blood cells. Involved in immune system. C. Adipose – fat and energy storage as well as protection D. Muscle 1. Skeletal – Motion/locomotion. Attached to skeleton, contract in order to move 2. Cardiac – heart, constantly contracting and releasing your entire life 3. Smooth – around esophagus and intestines, helps move food through digestive tract E. Nervous Tissue – neurons, dendrites, and axons. Receive, process, and transmit information VI. Organ systems A. Digestive system – tube from mouth to anus. Length corresponds with diet. Plants are harder to digest, so herbivores have longer small intestines so that the food spends the maximum amount of time in the digestive tract. Omnivores have middle length. Carnivores have shortest. 1. Peripheral organs – appendix likely holds good gut bacteria during illness so that they stay in the body VII. Body size A. Surface area to volume ratio – volume increases faster than surface area. B. Metabolism – larger animals need less energy proportional to their mass (mass specific metabolism). This is due to having less surface area proportionally, so they lose less heat to the environment for their size. The relationship between size and mass specific metabolism is non-linear C. Energy allocation and use – thermodynamics 1. Conservation of energy and systems tend towards higher entropy. 2. Every time energy is transformed, entropy increases. Animals combat this entropy increase by doing work to maintain order. This work causes heat loss. 3. Larger animals cannot dissipate heat as well due to decreased surface area, placing an upper limit on body size D. Quantifying energy use – measure O2 and CO2 1. 10% of energy travels between trophic levels, limiting predator size. Predators have to eat more and more prey as their body size increases compared to herbivores. Too large predators can’t find enough prey. E. Heat loss places a lower bound on body size. Small animals have high surface area, so they lose heat faster, meaning they have to consume more energy. F. Size efects body plans – larger animals have less surface area to difuse gas across, so they need other modes of transportation, e.g. circulatory systems VIII. Homeostasis – constant internal environment that difers from the outer environment. Islands of low entropy A. Two approaches – confirmation (relying on environment, ectotherm) and regulation (requires energy to maintain, endotherm) B. Membrane fluidity in fish depends on temperature of water C. Cells maintain homeostasis with energy – 20% of energy goes to maintaining membrane potential D. Homeostasis is maintained through negative feedback – something goes wrong, body sends signals to fix it 1. Behavioral reactions – fanning yourself in hot weather, panting when running 2. Ketoacidosis – When the body is starved of glucose (diabetes, some diets), muscles think they’re starving and send a signal for the body to break down fat. This releases ketones, which are acidic. In order to maintain proper blood pH, calcium bicarbonate is released, providing a bufer. The bones provide calcium, so ketoacidosis can lead to weak bones E. Thermoregulation 1. Endotherms – can always be active, requires a lot of energy 2. Ectotherms – less energy, rely on environment for activity 3. Heterotherms – endotherms that can vary body temperature wildly. For example, hibernation and torpor. 4. Homeotherms – animals whose body temperature only mildly fluctuates. Endotherms or ectotherms who live in consistent environments
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