PRNCPL OCCUPATIONAL ERGO
PRNCPL OCCUPATIONAL ERGO IE 580
U of L
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IE5 80EM5 82 Syllabus amp Expectations Introduction to Human Sciences Research Principles INTRODUCTIONS THE BASICS Cell Phones Text Messaging Please Silence Cell Phones Lecturing vs Debating Points of View Discrimination and Harassment Professionalism Expectations why are you here Competition Communication email blackboard SYLLABUS Course Catalog Description An introduction to the effect of physical environment on human sensory motor and information processes Topics include heat noise light vibration sleep loss illness work load work durations workrest scheduling etc Credits 3 Schedule Wed 530830 Instructor Dr GT Holman Assistant Professor of Industrial Engineering Director Center for Industrial Ergonomics O ice JB Speed Room 309 Phone 5028522274 Email talle homan louisvilleedu Office Hours by appointment GTA Scott Hoover Course Materials Textbook l Wickens CD Lee JD Liu Y and Gordon Becker SE 2004 An introduction to human factors 2 d Edition Pearson Education Inc Upper Saddle River New Jersey USA ISBN 0131837362 Textbook 2 Floyd RT amp Thompson CW 1998 Manual of Structural Kinesiology l3Lh Edition WCBMcGrawHill USA ISBN 0815146302 Textbook 3 Reference Manual on Technical Writing amp APA style Other Materials will be provided during the course progression Course Website Blackboard SYLLABUamp Statement for Students with Disabilities ny a ui auiiit 39 39 Disability Services and Programs each semester Hence a letter ofveri cation for approved 39 L 39 4 4 quot 39 L in the semester as possible U theconcept oi ie pectiui Statement on Academic Integri ofT 39 nntimal 39 iiiuuue L of others Wlll be 1 u a in tnirtnr academic work from misuseby others as well as to avoid using another s work as one s own All students c Ill in r quotE r academically dishonestwill be handledbased on University guidelines For more information consult The Code oi 39 39 39 quot 39 conduct Homework Assignmenm m be iven inplace of nui e will L 39 class on the due date Optional selfstudy homeworks are not graded and will be posted with an answer ke Exams Exams will be given in class Makeup exams will be giving on a case by case basis Makeup exam s content and method of testing are at the instructor s discretion SYLLABUamp Proien basis i Theprojectwlll n i n nu igi for topic approval will be announced at a later a e goyenn these t a Final niin iiaptii presentation session CONFERENCES Human Factors and Ergonomics Society HFES American Society ofSafety Engineers ASSE E Applled Ergonomics Conference and E 0 Conference of areadiscipline of application APPLICATIONAREAS Healtlncare Manu Service etc Productlvlty Simulation Optimization Safety etc Bad Designs http www baddesigns com g 5 210 TO HELP WITH IDEAS e lu collaborators Project Collaborations Student enrolled in the class may collaborate together on projects Miltidisciplinary projects ar d ml r rd d ll should be recognized Proien 39 Reportswlll i e technical writing The structurewillb d n in A your conference ofoholce The reportwill be Pmm eibmi inn worth a minimum includes two parts 111 CLASS a hard copy ofthe report ELETRON IC a copy ofthe reportword document or all presentation materials Project Posters amp Presentations The last day ofclass will be presentations Postersession will be glven in a galley f tano to n p tel t n in staff and evident n end ofthe galley session r SYLLABUS Submitting Work To ensure that all student work is handled etiiciently and quickly the header of all submitted work unless otherwise stated should have the following infmmation Failure to comply will result in a onetime warning subsequent violations will result in a 10 penalty student Name Last First 39 IE 5 80 Name ofWork eg Assignment 1 Date of Submission Late Submissions Work received a er the due date and time will result in a 10 penalty for everyday it is late Work must be received by a person instructor TA etc unless otherwise speci ed Extra Credit Bonus No individual extra credit is given during semester Evaluation oi Student Periormance Final grade will be given out on a point system To iigure the points needed for your desired grade multiply the letter the total 39 Below approximate point values for the grading criteria and the grade scale It Points Letter Grade Percentage Homework amp Quizzes 200 A 90 0 N 100 other 200 B 80 0 N 89 9A1 Project 200 c 70 0 N 799 idter 200 D 0 n 599 Final 200 F Below 500 a will a d a copy ofall submth 0r N TF 39 presented work QUESTIONS Human Science of Ergonomics amp Human Factors Reference Material Chapter 1 of Wickens et al 2004 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design improvement and installation of integrated systems of people materials information equipment and energy It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems HUMAN FACTORS Def The study of factors and development of tools that facilitate the achievement of these goals ERGONOMICS Def Literal de ned as work laws Ergonomics can be de ned as laws of work to assure human comfort and wellbeing From an industrial standpoint ergonomic referred to as fitting the job to the person S HUMAN SCIENCE Social Psychology Training Decision Making Communications ENG39NEERING Personality PSYCHOLOGY Experimental Psychology Displays Workload Biological Psychology Psychology Selection Stress Cognitive Science COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS Bioengineering ENGINEERING Industrial 3 I Psychology lomechan cs H MAN Anthropometry Management Job Workplace Design Layout Operations industrial Eng39 eer39 9 Engineering Aeronautical Computer Am cial 39 gusltr39a39 SC39ence Intelligence 95 9quot Nuclear information Transportation Systems FIGURE 13 The relationship between human factors shown at the center and other related disciplines of study Those more closely related to psychology are shown at the top and those related to engineering are shown toward the bottom THE CYCLE Performance Analysis Identification of Problems Techniques Task Statistics Accident 1 DESIGN Equipment i Task 39 impiement Environment solutlons CV vtion Training m FIGURE 1 1 The cycle of human factors Point A identi es a cycle when human factors solutions are sought because a problem eg accident or incident has been observed in the human system interaction Point B identi es a point where good human factors are applied at the beginning of a design cycle CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN FACTORS 1 Proactive vs Reactive Bene ts 2 Tradeoffs 3 Most common method of assessment is task analysis 4 Goal of HF 1 Enhance Performance 2 Increase Safety 3 Increase user satisfaction 5 Generalization amp Prediction are the key concepts of HF 6 Observation is the key to effective Generalization amp Prediction OTHER DEFINITIONS Philosophy Knowledge Data Method Approach Goals Design Criteria Job amp Product Biomechanics Work Physiology Responses Physical Physiological Behavioral How do we evaluate Reference Maten39al Chapter 2 of Wickens et al 2004 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Def Its goal is to describe understand and predict relationships between variables Steps 1 Define Problem 2 Specify the experimental plan 3 Conduct the study 4 Analyze the data 5 Draw conclusions LABORATORY VS FIELD RESEARCH Research Characteristic Laboratory Field Setting Setting Realism Disadvantage Advantage Control Advantage Disadvantage Generalization Disadvantage Advantage Safety amp cost Advantage Disadvantage New variables Disadvantage Advantage Precision Advantage Disadvantage Practical research Disadvantage Advantage Theoretical research Advantage Disadvantagle l DETERMINE RESEARCH METHOD COLLECT DATA ANALYZE DATA DRAW CONCLUSIONS REPORT Sounds Easy Right ETHICS IN RESEARCH Human and Animal Subjects History Nuremburg Code Belmont Report Declaration of Helsinki l Gene va Genventien il Advocate Rights 10 Guidelines Governed by Internal Review Boards IRB Penalties Jail time individual Civil Litigation individual amp institution Loss of Federal Money institution 10 DRAWING CONCLUSIONS Type Errors 7 Natural error that occurs from setting statistical limits the 5 allowance in 95 con dence testing Type II Errors 7 Comn Broad Brushing Bias In uence quotYou ave mmplelely tree lo carry out whaleva research you want so long as you come 0 lhese conclusions QUESTIONS Question what assumption is this all based on The Human Body Systems Overview LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL 12 i NTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY 5 Chapter I 1 Mt EXHIBIT 11 PRINCIPAL SYSTEMS OF HUMAN BODY REPRESENTATIVE ORGANS AND FUNCTIONS nnnnnnnnnnnnn ry 2 Skeletal Definition The skin and structures derived from it such as hair De nition All the bones of the body their associated canilages nails aaaaaaaaaaa oi l g l a n d s a n d t h e ioi tttttttttt dy Function Helps regulate body temperature protects the body Function Supports and protects the body provrdes leverage eliminates wastes synthesizes vitamin D and recei v e s c e r p r w u c e s b lood cells and st0res mi mmmm s tain stimuli such as temperature pressure and pain 39r Integumentary Function regulate body temperature eliminate waste 31 a quotr 39 43 l 2 u N l W ls allquot 7m in I39 If I i v V I 39 a Via 5 39 39v v 9 f 39 A synthesize vitamin D j 7 Ca 9e etc Skeletal Function Supports and protects the body N r p I c t it gsE 2 4 9 p Toenail 3 Def Ion All the scle tissue at the ody inclu in skeletal shown in the illustration Visceral and cardiac Function Particupates in bringing about movement maintains posture and produces heat C Muscular Function Participates lt2 tg I movement maintains l I t posture and generates hea 17 lye Ill 4 Cardiovascular Q 9 x t 4 K i F unction Ur 39 a transport system Maintains acidbase protects against invasion disease protects external integrity of the body blood clots Regulates body temperature 5 Lymphatic 6 Nervous De nition Lymph lymph nodes lymph I and lymph Del t Brain spinal cord nerve d vesse s inton s an sense organs such glands Such as the spleen thymus gland arid tonsus as the eye and e Function R t 39 S S M S cells and protects against disease Y I E o F 1 Lymphatic Function Nervous Function regulates body activities through stimulus nerve impulse reaction heat cold humidity etc ar e urns proteins and plasma to the cardiovascular Function Regulates body activities through nerve impulses system transports tats from the digestive system to the car diovascular system litters the blood produces white blood Supports Cardiovascular system with proteins and plasma lters blood Produces white blood cells Oights disease Definition All glands that produce mummies Definition The lungs and a series of passageways leading into FunleOn Regulates body actuvntres through hormones trans and out of them ported by the cardiovascular system Function Supplies oxygen eliminates carbon dioxide and 7 Endocrine 8 Respiratory helps regulate the apidrbase balance ot the body SYSTEMS Endocrine Function Uses the Cardiovascular system to distribute and maintain a hormonal balance throughout the body Respiratory Function Supplies 02 by process 02 from air while disposing of K7 1 C02 from the blood 1 stream Helps maintain acid J base balance in body 14 9 Digestive 10 Urinary De nition A long tube and associated organs such as the sali De nition Organs that produce collect and eliminate urine vary glands liver gallbladder and pancreas Function Regulates the chemical composition 0 blood elimi Functron Performs the physrcal and chemical breakdown of food nates wastes regulates fluid and electrolyte balance and vol lor use by cells and eliminates solid wastes ume and helps maintain the acid base balance ol the body SYSTEMS Digestive Function performs physical and chemical breakdown of food for use by cells and eliminates solid waste l l w 39 7 39 Urlnary mama Urinary bladoe regulate the chemical composition of the blood 2 regulates by eliminating 3 waste to maintain an electrolyte balance and bl ooa volume helps to balance acid base balance in body 11 Reproductive De nition Organs testes and ovaries that produce reproductive cells sperm and ova and organs that transport and store reproductive cells Function Reproduces the organism SY S TE M S 39 O 1 1 Reproductlve Ductus vas deferens Function reproa uce organism Seminal vest le Uterine Fallopian tube r 39 39 x Aquot s I 39 r I Vagina Urethra Prostate gland L Testis Penis T j v I j J 6 1 av we 15 WHAT IS THE POINT m Any external force or event that acts on the body Environmental Work Psychological Strain To stretch or force beyond the normal or I customary or legitimate limits 0 I O 1 Homeostasis Atendency toward uniformity or stability in the normal body states of the organism INTEREST AREAS SELECTED o Skeletal System 0 Neuromuscular System 0 Muscle Metabolism 0 Cardiovascular System 0 Oxygen Transport 0 Respiratory System 0 Response to Temperature 0 Employee Placement and Selection 0 Repetitive Motion Disorders QUESTIONS Neuromuscular System USES OF MUSCLES 0 Blood Circulation 0 Breathing 0 Motion and locomotion postural maintenance 0 Control of Blood Pressure 0 Movement of food in GI Tract and urinary ow 0 etc MUSCLE CHARACTERISTICS o Excitabilitv how easy is it to excite some call it fast twitch slow twitch o Contractility Capability or quality of shrinking contracting o Extensibility Capable of being extended or protruded Example an extensible tongue 0 Elasticity The ability to be stretched and return to natural form being exible TYPES OF MUSCLES Lama 9 Sje11ell Smooth muscle cell 0 Skeletal Typically of what people think of as muscles Composed on light and dark fibrous bands which give a distinct crossstriated look categorized as typically voluntary 0 Cardiac The hybrid between the two muscles Striated in appearance and is associated with involuntary functions but can be voluntarily controlled 0 Sl IlOOth defined as Involuntary muscle being found in the digestive tract blood vessels and various ductwork in the body These muscle promote directional flow udeus I 1 v 239 quot h I 39 I uquot 39 s nuclws quot g B FIG39 ls Con acmc tissue Av mmusclc bch Likel fal muscle bers C cardiac musclciffzgx 18 SKELETAL MUSCLE CHARACTERISTICS 0 Attached to bonegt lt Via tendons o Crossstriated multinucleated individual bers 0 Voluntary nervous control 0 Exists in bundles bound together by a tendon at each end mm CARDIAC MUSCLE CHARACTERISTICS 0 Located in the heart only 0 Striated ie Alternated dark and light bands branched bers With intercalated discs 0 Control arrows show discs l9 SMOOTH MUSCLE CHARACTERISTICS 0 Located in walls of hollow viscera organs and blood vessels 0 Nonstriated uninucleated spindleshaped bers 0 Involuntary nervous control Lawm um lknmr Lulllm m mome N 39AT 7m uqnnl m MUSCLE ELEMENT TERMINOLOGY o EPIMYSIUM Connective tissue surrounding a muscle group 0 PERIMYSIUM Connective tissue around each bundle of muscle fibers 0 MYOFIBRILS Primary element of contraction composed of actin and myosin protein 0 SARCOMERE A contractile unit in a striated muscle fiber cell extending from Zline to Zline o ZLINE Physical structure in the cell to which the actin filaments are attached 0 SARCOLEMMA The thin elastic noncellular membrane enveloping the individual muscle fibers 0 MYOSIN The contractile protein that makes up the thick myofilaments of muscle fibers cells o ACTIN The contractile protein that makes up thin I myofilaments in muscle ber cells 20 Muscle Contraction Muscle Fiber Filaments conlalning amin and myosin MECHANISM OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION o Sliding filament theory 0 Myosin crossbridges move like oars of a boat against tl actin myofilaments and pull the actin myofilaments 7 J Transverse tubule inward thu s shortening the A C Eir c ufar quot Contraction What are Muscle Cramps 21 MUSCLE STRUCTURES Kb in admin nhmwnl mack mymmp mame 1 I hand A Baht I mm M mm gt gt4 39 Samaritan u M MID ltltltltltltltlt u 239 Mi I 2 use 39 m adln39 Ilamcnl 39 quot2 gm mm 1LmnaMs lt i mm mm If m Gupynghlbzom Emlwmmmmmm an lmp nl at Autumn Malay Longimn Inc ACTIVITY DURING CONTRACTION 0 Electrical 0 Chemical 0 Physical Motor Synaptic end plate terminal T mbule 3 Sarcoplasmicr re iculum 39 releases Ca 4 Active site 8 Actlve Shes exposure covered no crossbridge crossebriqge binding intera btian SIMPLE DIAGRAM 22 X Electrical Rough diagram of the events involved in a musc e twitch Motor nerve electrical anthrin mW Muscle membrane Electrlcal astriin quotWin lintraceilular calcium eve kg m M Fa roe generatlnn by the muscle N i Time seconds I 1 c Keg ilp Fi T r I 39 J Samalmm 1 2222222 c K I Lgt I O 22 xxxxx 39 v W z z I ADP ATP am L151 Ib A mm mm 77 Thin mailer Mamaam 7 Truck mymm luamon39l 1 l T in I hand 40 mm I nan1 M Bria L n n n K P Iii1 239 1154 Thu ramm lmmm I i 39I 395 m g m clapping armm Hmrwmm Eamm mm za am Imprlnl uI Athensan Wham LJJNdl il NI39L In QUESTIONS 2 Nervous System ORGANIZATION OF NERVOUS SYSTEM Central SPINAL N l 532 quot39 BRA N cono CNS AFFERENT SYSTEM EFFERENT SYSTEM Conveys information conveys in orma on from receptors to the from the centra39 central nervous system nervous SYStem to muscles and glands Peri heral Ne ous sommc NERVOUS SYSTEM ANS System conveys nformauon PNS Conveys information from the 68mm from the central nervous system 0 new sysmm to smooth muscle cardiac skeletal muscles musc39e and wands SYMPATHETIC PARASYMPA IHETIC NERVOUS NERVOUS L SYSTEM SYSTEM FIGURE 161 Organization of the nervous system Body Functions and the Autonomic Newuus System I 39 BODY FUNCTION smart1 39 Eljnud vessels the abdomen I l r r Small intestine Larga Intestine r we Earth PNAL AND CRANIAL NERVES Key Peripheral nerve origins 5 6 axillary nerve y L4 L5 1 52 common bular pereneal nerve l L2 L3 L4 temora lnerve L1 L2 genilofemoral nerve L1 ilionypegastric nerve L5 SI L2 inferior gluteal nerve 5 6 C7 lateral oord L2 L3 lateral femoral cu aneous nerve long thoracic nerve G5 longthoracic nerve me la eor quotme um mws CE C7 0311 median nerve MHZ quotENE 05 06 c1 musculoeutaneous nerve L2 L3 L4 obturator nerve 5 CB 7 cs T1 posterior cord 51 52 3 posterior femoral taneuus nerve 2 53 4 pudendal nerve C5 06 C7 88 radial nerve median nerve L4 L5 51 52 53 sciatic nerve CE 07 ca superficial branch of radial nerve 39 39quotamgwe L4 L5 31 upexiul glutenlnelve L4 L5 511 2 53 tibial nerve C8 TI ulnar nerve deep branch of radial nerve lateral cutaneous nerve ol larearm super cial branch of radial nerve pudendal nerve dorsal digital nerve i 39 l rv Ulla 3918 E pasterlorlemoral cutaneous nerve common fibular nerve peroneall lateral cutaneous sural nerve clliary ganglion pterygopalatlne ganglion trlgeminal ganglion occipital medial cumneous sural nerve saphenaus nerve tibial nerve Key Cranial nerves l otlaptory nerve VII tacial nerve II a tin nerve VIII vesttbulccochlear nerve Ill oculomotur nerve lX glossopharyngeal nerve I IV trocnlear nerve X vague n V trigeminal nerve XI accesso nerve VI abdueens nerve Xll hypoglessal nerve PHYSIOLOGY OF NERVES nervous s o Neurons sttuctural and functional unit of ystem o Sttuct39ure of neurons 0 Cell body amp Nucleus o Dendrites receiVeIs o Axons conducting ber 0 Function of neurons 0 Picking up stimuli tmnsmittels o Conve ing stimuli to neIVe impulses 0 Conducting nerve impulses to other neurons muscle beIs or glands NEURON STRUCTURE Dennrlles v 7 Axnn Termlnzls recewerstlt d l l V tramsmltters Schwznn39s Nude nf Axnn the cunductmg Myelm Shea ber m msulztmg fatty layer that speeds transmlssmn mm quotHam x Enchamedtearmngcnm FACTORS EFFECTING MUSCULAR FORCE 0 Age 0 Sex 0 Type of contraction Isotonic o Isometric 0 Load 0 Initial resting length of muscle 0 Cross sectional area of bers amp Whole muscles 0 Frequency of contraction 0 Muscle stimulated 0 Number of bers stimulated 0 Duration of contract HAND DYNOMAMETER 0 Maximum Voluntary Contract MVC o Guideline for job design 29 ELECTROMYOGRAPHY EMG o A quantitative technique for recording electrical activity of muscles e W MMG 21m 0 Used to evaluate active muscle groups Vasti A measured EIUIG El Simulated muacle activity 013115 Cilutcus maximns D I 2 04 DE DE G 1 Lite LL39S himaim us 3 3115 x ACTIVITY DURING CONTRACTION REVISITED a Physical Electrical Chemical Ruugh diagram of the events involved in a muscle twitch 39 A i 39 K 70 iLr i I Motor nerve 7 5 V V I 1 7 l i Q i i i V V V r i 39 I z EIEC HIEEJ ECWIW W i l 4 u i A i222222220 v xkx O i i 4 mu 3 39 r 39 w v Yr 7434 I 3 K i 39 t i A 4 e 7 J z 39 7 5 w i v v i i o L r 39 r i 39 39 i r I 139 z 7 V l 2 l o 2 E KK M use Ia mem bra n e gt F a electrical actwity Dam Lima 39 aquot b 5 mm litmn quot x mu Ihn unihm Emmanl Hui myurm mamm39 inna ceilula r calcium revBis mM 39 39 7 V K 5quot L 1 In I Emmi A bille I band I Luv Sm H a MilEra Fa me generatlan I dig1 I 2 i154 TilB1 eaam 1115mm quotti M by the mUSClE m i i t 39 39 quot Elam Ian illmncaga l i i 9 Time SEEGI IESS w i l Thrive l39 li ES ill quot 39 ta Gmwmjhl agem Hairw lm h m ll l an umprln i of Aan 39IWEUW Liwimn In QUESTIONS Assignment Review slides from today amp Lecture 2 31 IE5 80EM5 82 Human Anatomy Metabolism amp Energy Liberation Cardiovascular System amp Oxygen Transport ResBiratOQ System Please Silence Cell Phones ACTIVITY DURING CONTRACTION REVISITED Physical Electrical Chemical 7 39 v a Rough diagram of the events involved in a muscte twitch Swimml mnma 7 r i i i o i n c K o i Motor nerve electrical activity mw HAW 7 WM1 1m i22222222 39 i O l i i i 1 i A A t l l A d xxxxxx 7 a v 39 39 A Tjj E z i v V I I i q Muscle membrane 3 ATP 39 p quot1 electrical 32th ATP ADP ADP tam Lbf li l 39 q Emu M A mm m 3 H f In H a ch aimst Th I39 b39In I39Li39 m l 7 n 1 quot quot Hquot Fntraceilularcanmum Flick mycxsmz damnHI levels mm L l1 C I kind 0 bum I hand D Snicmmme M Ema quotquotquotquotquot quot 2 am I 3 m5 Fa me generation Fran eaHm nlamm 7 1 I by the muscle N Etaarm awn illmncema Time sect nds 39 39 a m mquot F5 u i Scrpyrghl Ei i Huiig39lmm Cls lml lilmi an iraprlnl Ii Audimn 39n39i39h5ii w Lungquotnan In Metabolism amp Energy Liberation TERMINOLOGY 0 Energy def Capacity to perform work 0 Work def Application of force through distance BASIC FORMS OF ENERGY 0 Chemical 0 Mechanical 0 Heat 0 Light radiant 0 Electrical 0 Nuclear ENERGY CONVERSION IN HUMAN BODY BASICS OF ENERGY CONVERSION FA CT 1 Energy liberated during breakdown of food is not directly used to do work FACT 2 Food is used to manufacture a chemical compound called adenosinetriphosphate ATP FACT 3 ATP is stored in muscle cells after formation FA CT 4 Only from the energy released by the breakdown of ATP can the cell perform its specialized work FACT 5 The structure of ATP contains 3 phosphate radicals phosphatmdical connected by high energy phosphate wa bonds that yields about 12000 Q O E o E o N N calories of energy during physical exertion amp 7300 for nominal conditions ENERGY CONVERSION ATP TO ADP BIOENERGETICS HIGH ENERGY PHOSPHATE BOND e ge ATP A A Figure 22 A Simplified structure of ATP showing high energy phosphate bonds 8 Breakdown of ATP to ADP and free phosphate Pi with liberation of useful energy ENERGY CONVERSION GLOBAL Food 02 ATP Heat H20 002 External Work ATP Energylnternal Work Food 02 Basal Metab Waste Heat Products Water 302 Other TERMINOLOGY o Metabolism o Aerobic Food 02 gt Energy Heat H20 0 Anaerobic Food gt Energyilt Waste Products 0 Phosphocreatine ENERGY EXCHANGE The main steps in the energy exchange in the muscle cell can be summarized the following way BreakdownofATp 1 ATP 1 ADP P free energy Anaerobic 2 Phosphocreatine ADP 1 creatine ATP ReformationofATP 3 Glycogen or gIUCose P ADP lactate ATP Aerobic 4 Glycogen and free fatty acids Pi ADP 02 gt C02 H20 ATP FOOD SUBSTRATES 0 Proteins o Carbohydrates o Glycogen o Glucose 0 Neutral Fats RESPIRTORY QUOTIENT RQ 7 Volume of CO2 Produced RQ 7 Volume of O2 Produced FOOD RQ ENERGY Kcal CaIbs 10 505 Conversation Table Fats 07N08 470 Proteins 08 4 40 Mixed Diet 09 483 llitre 02 SKcal QUESTIONS Cardiovascular System amp Oxygen Transport TERMINOLOGY 0 Cardiovascular CV System 0 Body uids 0 Blood 0 Heart 0 Blood vessels 0 Circulation 0 02 Transport 0 Physical Measures 0 Red Blood Cells 0 White Blood Cells 0 Thrombocytes 0 Plasma CV SYSTEM COMPOSITION 0 Blood 0 Heart 0 Blood Vessels FUNCTIONS OF CV SYSTEM Distributes oxygen and nutrients to cells Carries CO2 waste from cells Maintains the acid base balance of the body Prevents hemorrhage by forming blood clots l 2 3 4 Protects against diseases 5 6 Helps regulate body temperature BLOOD Erythrocytes 4854 miltlon Formed elements 45 I Blood ex gt m ihnds39 Plasma 55quot 55 92 VOLUME BODY WEIGHT Plasma liquid part of blood A dilute solution of salts glucose amino acids vitamins uree proteins and fats White blood cells involved in immune system Platelets involved in blood clotting Red blood cells involved in carrying oxygen Leucocytes 50009900 Thromoocvtes 250000400000 Neutroohils 6070 Eosinophils 249 Basoohits 05 10 Lymphocytes 2025 Monocytes 38X FORMED ELEMENTS tmmber pet cubic millimeter LEUCOCYTES tditterential count Water 9 t5 Albtmlns 55x Globulins 38 Fbr39noqen 7X Other solutes 15 PLASMA weig FIGURE 121 Components of blood in a normal adult Nomrotein nitrogen NPN substances Foods Regulatory Substances Respiratory gases Electrolytes BLOOD CHARACTERISTICS EXHIBIT 121 SUMMARY OF PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD Wscosity 45 55 Temperature 38 C 1004 F pH 735 745 NaCl concentration 085 090 percent Total body weight 8 percent Volume 5 6 liters for males and 45 liters for females BLOOD PLASMA o A strawcolored liquid 915 H20 85 solutes o Acts as carrier for the formed elements ie red and White cells 0 An electrolyte solution 0 Controls the pH of the blood BLOOD FUNCTIONS o Distributes Nutrition 0 Aids Respiration 0 Maintain Fluid Balance 0 Propagates Waste Excretion 0 Protection and Body Defense 0 Temperature Regulation 0 Hormone Distribution 0 Sustains AcidBase Balance IiEBXFKF FUNCTION RIGHT ooHeot ATRIUM blood from 20w QJDD pump LEFT Wood l ood VENTRICLE to to lungs body 397 I RIGHT SIDE LEFT SIDE ooHeot l ood frorn lqus LEFT ATRIUM RIGHT VENTRICLE HEART FLOW I y uomoaml lg 11quot v vquot v Sumzflor r I vaua39oa xa Ligamemtum anerlosum ngm pulnlonarngj arterles 7 f 5 L I FQl r G a 39i ru k f Fossa f 4 walls 1 Pectmale muscles a 5 39f l e I quot er quot e pulmonary a l 39 7339 39 I i T an I t39r um f 353 5 39 a Interairlal septum Aoriic semillmar valve I P39rl oz uawo e AV QiiLo39fT ff 2 V lg swgapesga mg TIESIII 337 A39 lef39iriguspid H 72 Tl abeculae T 22 Chordae cameae lendir laae Fawillaw 39 k 39En auscigg y iglnliarwri 1 l vmaaava 39 39Le 2 j i gt A QEHEEICIQT quot 39 quotL fa lr ewemlrioular quotTRIQI I E W iiquot I quot quot Lw il fiti i l Moderator band NV gt 2 V septum 39 De c dl g hm l l i ii fiia 39aI39Ii 39 a VI 10 HEART CIRCULATION amp CARDIAC CYCLE Circulation Heart Beat Analysis r HEART DISEASE RISK FACTORS o Coronary Artery Disease 0 Atherosclerosis o Coronary Arter Spasm o Congenital Defects o Arrhythmias 0 Heart Block Flutter and Fibrillation Premature Contraction o Congestive Heart Failure 0 High Blood Cholesterol Level 0 High Blood Pressure 0 Cigarette Smoking 0 Obesity 0 Lack of Regular Exercise 0 Diabetes KY 1 state of onset of type 2 diabetes 0 Genetic Disposition QUESTIONS Sounds good No wait that s my iPod Circulatory System v r 12 TERMINOLOGY o Arteries o Arterioles o Capillaries o Venules o Veins Blplllnn s nanule ma canlllanas TISSUE elie Ve39quot FLOW CIRCUITS Jrv ew uh CC 39vwr Inon 13 Median cubital vein CGI I IWIDI I lilac vain Internal lilac vein VEINS amp ARTERIES External 8 Internal carotid artery capillarg wall Common carotid artery 139 any to vein Brachiocephallr artery Subclavian vein quot Subclavlan artery Internal lugular valn Axillary vein Cephalic vein Brachial vein 335quot I 33 quot artery Capillary Microcirculation nmmon lllac artery mood ow Internal Illac artery lnte rstitial fluid Ranal vain Radlal artery Ulnar artery External iliac vein External iliac artery Femoral vain Deep femoral artery Popliteal vein Femoral artery Ca pillary Popliteal artery Venous end Peroneal artery Posterior tibial artery Peroneal vein Great saphenous Vein Anterior tibial artery CAPILLARY STRUCTURE f 7 Arteries Metarterioles act as a lpre apillary bypass channel and SDhlnCEBFS regulate ow into Meriole capillary beds wall is l Venule l smeom lTIUSCi Bu in M will U E u a a E E E E E 5 Small E W 3 3 quot A gt venule 395 E E E 20 E 7 lt J m lt Arteriove ous quot i 739 4 FIGURE 19 6 l ncssums in dill39crcnl pansol39 r 39 39 r l quot 39 the systemic circulalion a bypass Pre aplllary r sphincters RENAL ARTERY BLOOD FLOW BY ORGAN BASE CONDITIONS Brain 14 Iieart 4 Bronchi 2 B dkmom 22 Ijver 27 Portal 21 Arterial 6 Muscle 15 Bone 5 3km cool weather 6 Thyroid gland 1 Adrenal glands 05 Other tissues 35 Total 1000 700 200 100 1100 1350 1053 300 750 250 300 50 25 175 5000 Based mainly on data compiled by Dr L A Sapilstein 15 BLOOD FLOW BY ORGAN BASED ON ACTIVITY LEVEL Blood Flow Distribution Organs Percent 01 Cardiac Output Heavy Work Moderate Work Resting 21 C 70 F 38 C WWI 391 Muscles 15 20 YD 75 45 Skin 539 1 0 24 Brain 15 3 4 g 4 Ema 3 5 05 1 Kidneys 20 2 4 265 Digestive 20 25 3 5 System Heart 4 5 4 5 545 BLOOD PRESS 0 Pressure Blood F10WQ X Resistance Controlling Factors For Arterial Pressure Pumping Action of He Blood Volume Arterial Walls Elasticity Blood Viscosity Peripheral Resistance QUESTIONS Physical Measures STROKE VOLUME 0 Stroke Volume SV 0 Factors affecting SV 0 Venous return to heart 0 Distensibility of ventricles 0 Force of contraction of the ventricles in relation to the pressure in the artery Aorta or Pulmonary artery 0 Sympathetic and hormonal stimulation HEART RATE 0 Heart Rate HR 0 Factors affecting HR 0 Sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation of sinoartial SA node of the heart 0 Hormonal stimulation 0 Temperature 0 Age STROKE VOLUME VS HEART RATE 100 80 60 Percent of maximal stroke volume 40 200 180 160 140 120 Heart rate 100 o 80 O 6039 O 20 40 60 80 100 Percent oi maximal oxygen uptake Figure 23 Stroke volume in percentage of the individual39s maximum and heart rate at rest and during exercise The oxygen uptake on the abscissa is expressed in percentage of the subject39s maximum Circied dot at quot100 percent represents 11 of the 23 subjects Measurements we made with the subjects in the sitting position same subjects as in Fig 419 18 CARDIAC OUTPUT 0 Cardiac Output Q Heart Rate HR X Stroke Volume SV Lmin beatsmin Lbeats 10 Increasing stretch of heart a FIGURE 20 1 Effectofincreasedcw 50 100 300 39 l the heart s ab j to urn 150 200 250 dlac ning 0 W p p blood Ventricular volume ml ml also commonly used 15quot U EFFECTS OF AGE ON HEART RATE From Astrand and Christensen 1964 M A Le Head Rate 200 vmk 322535 e k Mc 2 150 m m 5 O xxx I 100 lt2 1 so a o Maximal exercse a u SO o 0f maximal oxygen uptake Age l9 ACTIVITY DURING CONTRACTION REVISITED Physical Sammiemma Mu lee hand Hm anmu tam Lbzalli A M e39n mama IJbund hm Luann l JJ39grlrn39Iaril Flick myesmz damnn1 L lh Tgl g c I WHU A bum I hand Ln arcmmma 3 39 M Ma quotquotquot 39 39 F disc I Than radium1115mm i N Eta5115 mini Manama Theta Invites mt 39 39 39 i A Swagrpghl EEC3V1 Hui39gml39um Cummings m1 lmprlnl Il39 nudismI Week m Lunvgy nan Inn Electrical Chemical Rnugh diagram of the events involved in a musete twitch I W o z o 7 K o L Motor nerve EIECH ICEJ activity A 7 r J 7 7A 4 1m 22222222 v k iio y i A l 39 a Q xxxxx 7 W A V i A E zz 1 Muscle membrane 3 ATP E IE39CUHCSI activity ATP ADP ADP quotWW Fntra cenlula r ca cium levels ITIij Fa me generation by the muscle N Time sate has QUESTIONS Assignment Review slides 20 Respiratory System TERMINOLOGY o Gases 0 Atmosphere 0 Nose o PharynX o Larynx o Trachea o Lungs o Bronchi o Bronchioles 0 Cardiac Notch o Alveolar Duct o Alveoli o Chemoreceptors o Conductive Airway o Transitory Airway o Singlecell organism o Multicell organism o Parasympathetic o Sympathetic o Complemental Air 0 Tidal Air Volume 0 Supplemental Air 0 Residual Air 0 Vital Capacity 0 Pleural Pressure 0 Alveolar Pressure 21 RESPIRATION SYSTEM 0 Primary Function 0 Ideal Characteristics 0 Provide large contact area between air and blood 0 Satumte and heat inspired air 0 Controledrapid gas to blood exchange 0 Match 02 uptake ie V02 with C02 production 0 Primary Components 0 Conductive Airways O Respiratorv Airwavs O Alx39coli l DETAILED Nam Paranasal rm i Nose Reagalory hairs Ep g m Esophagus ef Tracl39vea 1 Wm Pulmonavy mu vessels and39u Ribs Heart lntercosial Pleural x mu cles membrane 3 i Muse s D39W39Egm attached in maphvagm BRONCHIAL TREE Brenelli Brnnehial Tree and Lungs 5 v Wetrm 5 a l Traehea Seee ndary bre nehi Tertiary hrenehi Eirenehielea Q kq sr A 3 1 d 1 a 39nquotquot uquot vigilaw r vr Cardiac match 7 Pulmonary artery a F39ulrrrenaryrrein J Alveolar duet Alveeli CONDUCTIVE amp TRANSITORY AIRWAYS Trachca Bronchral tree Conduclrve zone N Bronchroles j 4 Terminal bronchroles t 57 K 17 Resgrratory bronchioles l 18 l K 19 P 39 T3 20 Alveolar ducts 1 6 7221 r I Transrlory and res iralor zone 39139 23 Alveolar sacs framing ff r39r39ii r Firmquotaware eermmawr mamera Ema rare alarmsmead 23 SYSTEM CONTROL nervous to respiratory o Parasympathetic o Sympathetic FUNCTION air conditioning o Adjusts air temperature 0 Moistens air 0 Conserves body heat and water 0 Entrapment nose trachea bronchi and bronchioles o Destruction phagocytosis Alveolar macrophages 0 Waste Removal Ciliated Cells IMPAIRMENTquot Alveoli 0 Physical breakdown of alveoli walls 0 Thickening of alveoli walls o Denser cell wall 0 Physical obstruction Impairment means loss of OZCO2 transfer capacity BREATHING CONTROL RESFIEETDRV LE I 1 was 1 7 he linvedulla 39gg Thalamul E quots Cerobtum Hypothalamu Hnul gland Cmbonum HUMMTORY Mldbuln m Pneumomlo ml Pitulmy gland no we um AD 0 Pom 39 m Impmory am quotm m Explmuy am Modulll Oblongm I Spinal cord FIGURE 2211 Aomoximam location 0 area at the respimory center 24 BREATHING CONTROL 0 Rest steadystate o Chemoreceptors 1Peripheral located near the aortic bodies and take there signals from the blood 2 Central part of the central nervous system located near the mendual brain and act on the Ph of spinal uid 0 Activity Activated levels 0 Neural Theory Neural in uences are initial regulations o Humoral Theory Humoral in uences are primary regulators at higher activity levels MECHANICS OF BREATHING Rib cage gets smalleras rib muscles Sternom asloids Scalenes Dlaphragm contracls s ow move 1 n 25 BREATHING Volume Pressure amp Capacities Lung Capacity Distributed Volume at Rest Tidal I 4500cc iaa iiiii n1e i n f 51335 395 r 39C mplemenl39al I U 1 Air I L 393 g i 3000rc Zi EH 5 39 39 7 Vii ai r L I Tidal Mr V Ca at Fif jl riiilrlr La 39hgxif39 I 3500 ccw J v 7 y Jirnniapiiele i3 3 Supplemen i al 391 r 39 Fieeewequot d 39 quot39di i a IGDGCGC g a a i V a i 4 i 1 Residual ii I w m H Pl IfLI Ital l p I aau r if i l39 I l l i 7 if 43 39 I LBJ 3 FIG SID Thu capacztyr of the lungs 521 text ee J E a I PB I mid1 i V A 1 Respiratory Val aggroW 39 tf and Capacities I 1 4 t 1 I ir LUNG VOLUME CHANGE Ilters i 39 i v 55 E i I n a t l I y i l L 39 E39 r ing il amw inspiramw reserve Vital czapa ity VDNUH IE capitalquot O Esf 39f z 4 5 6 PLEUHAL PRESSURE cm H2 0 dg i t h gure 39 2 Compliance diagram in a normal person This w diagram shows the compliance of the lungs alone 1 H a Total lining W I anw apaEWy i among i anon an Funn naf residual Residual capacity I val 11mg reserve uninvme a1ml mun 1 gun Lung volume in miliiiiters BREATHING RESISTANCE o Airway Resistance 0 Pulmonary Tissue ie Tissue Resistance 0 Chest wall Resistance ie Compliance Work sss ss ss 0 V l I II II I I II III b n o L C l k 39 h manna 039 I 39p 390quot Se quot or s L Wk act cx c 39 tozzzatsR t L 1b su ms gtssVQssssss5m gt gt ssssvs ss xssvpu s c 3 ssxvsxsxvussssss O Q xx o CHANGE IN LUNG VOLUME llters b OI 0 l l l J CHANGE IN PLEUHAL PRESSURE mm Hg gure 39 3 Graphical representation of the three different rpes of work accomplished during inspiration 1 compliance rork 2 tissue resistance work and 3 airway resistance work WORK OF BREATHING 0 Work WgtXlt Pressure P X Volume V Recall Work Force X Distance ie W F X D 26 l f yam wnke bmeantjm ung Diffusion Process 27 DIFFUSION RED BLOOD CELLS Capillary basement Epithelial membrane basement membrane Interstitial space Captllary endothelmm Alveolar epithelium Fluid and surfactant layer Alveolus Capillary DllfUSlOl t Oxygen Diffusion blood The same red blood Carbon dioxide Fxc 51 Passage of oxygen from alveoh into 8 its journey through cell is shown in three different positions durin the capillary l 1 I 1 Soft T1ssue 2 Released 35 E Diffusion of 2 for CO2 Ftc SZ Passage of oxygen from blood into the tissues same red blood cell is shown in three different positions during Its purncy through the capillary Compare With g 51 DIFFUSION PRESSURE 1m 20 quotquotquot39 Inspired an Expired an 90 3 so fxygenalted blood 8 eaV1n un s H0 47 E 70 g g H H CO 60 12 o 159 116 g 39139 50quot 10 E N 50 1 565 Returning blood 71 40 a E l return1ng from t1ssues 3039 quot6 ai39 I 20 Muted Partial 1o 2 The venous pfeSSt e Arterial o I I l I I l o I o to 20 so 40 so so 70 so 90 100 no 120 130140 Oxygenhemnglnbm 47 H O 47 Gaseous pressure of 02 mm Hg dlssnmatmn C we39 46 4O 40 0 100 N2 v 1 39 N2 Tissues Figure 5 14 Typbalvduesdgasmhinp nd mampmm wm resLBarometricpressue760mllg1mmllgx 133mloralrmidtythohspampodai Beonsiderodhee anwaterdqTuuimdoxygmmdcameoxidovubammh Wisblood unci eremmhniamggasmhmbbodmnm andnmsdearepreserned FACTORS DETERMINING DISFFUSION 0 Concentration Gradient 0 Absorption Area 0 Solubility of Molecules 0 Size of Molecules MEASUREMENT OF O2 CONSUMPTION 0 Equation A02 A02 02 Inspired 02 Expired VI x FIOZ VE x FE02 0 VB versus V02 v02 vE FIOZ FE02100 VE Linear relationship at low activity levels V02 0 Volume Expiratory gas VE Volumeminute vE fTidal Volume Breathing Rate x Tidal Volume NOTE VE at rest 5 8 lmin VE at max 180 2201mm NOTE At STP VI VE due to adding CO and H20 to expired volume EFFECTS OF C02 CONCENTRATION Figure 12 26 Effects on resPiratlon of increasing alveolar Partial Pressures And Bubble Farm atlun Pco by adding tarbon dioxide to inspired air Tetal sea level pressure TED PE Sudden decempressiun A ten sea level 32 P4T PJICF39u W II F gram Um 1 atmabs I I 3 pm 713 0415 1gg I V Alveolar palllal 3 Pl T13 0056 40 quot tEHSiC HS 321339 7 a E 28 quot P44 713 0194 556 J l 33 at the stall 39 a v jg 24 l l E Alpha39llIlII mlquot M in total water 3 ml 43mm TiSSUE F3939 3504 1 20 l N infatljssu 51 l l 3933 ml N gt 2 g 16 E E I z 12 2 NJntotal water will 3 1 DUDMFESMFEM 180 ml ll 2 llL ir i fallisalE El il ODD 52504550 3212 ml N g E 8 h quotquot39 k xii x 33quot 39 i 39 TFquot54 allnelnsl l l 4 39 39 3U4Cl 4 2993 J J l l l l l l Diving PIL7z39isn4 38 4o 42 44 46 43 50 Fig 19 4 ltlllc alveolar FCC mm Hg i T resplralory mlnulevolumo lltersmm 5 393 5 l l l l l l l l l l l l 100 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 percent oxygen in inspired air Figure 1228 Effects of altering the oxygen content ol inspired air on ventilation in normal man The points are the average values for all subjects Adapted from Comroe 29 QUESTIONS 7 v w Respiratory Problems 30 RESPIRATORY ABNORMALITIES 0 Lung Cancer 0 Respiratory Failure 0 Bronchitis 0 Common Cold Flu o Bronchial Asthma 0 Pulmonary Embolism o Emphysema 0 Pulmonary Edema o Pneumonia 0 Carbon Monoxide o Tuberculosis POISOHIHg Confluent alvooll 39 t 39 39 39 39 Iquot 0 39 39 V o i u quot 1 u 39 u o 39 o 39 I 1 39 y l s I 39 1 r I 39 u 39 l 39 39 I t g 39 5 o r p l 439 39 a 39 r 393 39 3 A J u A t 1 o v 3 Normal Pneumonla Emphysema FIGURE 28 8 Hlstologlc appearance of the normal lung of the lung with pneumonia and of the emphysema tous lung HYPOXIA Hypx ic Conditions 1 Hypoxic Hypoxia CL 5 4 Tran mm far g Samplee 0 flow slow Flmgrlmlury 1 i 39 ElmigmlEaI l lm 2 Stagnant mimm Failure Hypoxna my 3 lllmgtaljl Li afrliia Henri Mimi L I K 1 l l l x I l W lnltlplw Draw 9 39 HLmurirhiglr 53th 3mm Blood anemic quot c 39 5 3 Anem39c Hypox39a flame f Pui39llilmialliitzurhil 1 Cl I L i DunksL iquotxgt17 I l Cells unable to use oxygen 4 Histotoxic Hypoxia The types of hypoxia QUESTIONS Assignment Review slides from today amp Lecture 3 32