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Date Created: 10/23/15
Fall 2009 Chapter 22 Questions amp Answers 1 What was the generally accepted explanation for life s diversity prior to the 18th century Divine or special creation supported by scholars such as Aristotle life consists of ideal formskinds that are constant and unchanging Earth is 6 10000 years old maximum Organismal complexity increased in a stepwise manner like a ladder organisms are static since creation 2 What was Carolus Linnaeus main contribution to science Taxonomy or the naming and categorization of organisms nested classification system including species genera families etc binomial system of naming organisms 3 How did the field of paleontology lay the groundwork for Darwin s ideas What was the contribution of the French scientist Georges Cuvier to the beginning of this field Cuvier developed the study of fossils by digging in the Paris Basin note that deeper strata contained remains oforganisms much different from present day organisms proposed the concept of catastrophism the idea that each stratum boundary was caused by a drought ood or other environmental catastrophic event and same area was repopulated by immigrant organisms from other areas 4 How did the ideas of the geologists Hutton amp Lyell differ from that of Cuvier What were the main ideas they put forth some of which were included in Lyell s book Principles of Geology They recognized that slow and gradual mechanisms are responsible for the changes in the earth s surface and are still operating eg erosion of rock by rivers uplifting of sea surface by changes in the earth s crust the age of the earth must be much more than 6000 years old gradualism signi cant changes can occur via cumulative effects of slow and continuous processes uniformitarianism the same geologic mechanisms that molded the earth in the past are still working today at the same rate 5 Identify the theory of evolution put forth by Jean Baptiste Lamarck what mechanism did he propose as the driving force for organismal change Theory of evolution via inheritance of acquired characteristics eg cumulative product of generations of successive levels of neck stretching in giraffes produced their long necks concept of use and disuse teleological thought change with a purpose organisms changed in response to a need which implies intention and knowledge ofthe future noted adaptations of species to speci c environments provided a mechanism to explain evolution 6 What characteristics set Charles Darwin apart from other naturalists of his time He read Lyell s book Principles of Geology he understood that landforms and thus the environment changes he was able to theorize on a grand scale he was detail oriented and he was able to compile arguments for and against ideas 7 What did Darwin observe when he compared the flora and fauna of the western coast of South America and the Galapagos Archipelago He noted that fossils greatly outnumbered extant forms and found fossils of aquatic origin on the tops of mountains SA amp Galapagos were separated by a major geographic barrier an ocean yet he noted similarities between species on both areas island populations resembled continental populations yet they were distinct hypothesized that the island varieties were descended from continental varieties that had emigrated there the new species conformed to the different island environment and grt endemic species found nowhere else in the world 8 What is the selective force in Artificial Selection How did the concept of Artificial selection affect Darwin s concept of evolution after the Voyage of the Beagle Man is the selective force in AS which brought to light the idea of common ancestry Darwin noted that many divergent varieties of pigeons could be derived from a single common ancestor and this was true of many different types of organisms the concept of descent with modi cation summarized Darwin s perception of the unity of life and states that all organisms are related through descent from an ancestorthat lived in the remote past the history oflife is like a tree with multiple branches from a common trunk to the tips of the youngest twigs that represent the diversity of living organisms 9 How did Thomas Malthus essay on human population growth and its capacity to overreproduce affect Darwin s development of evolutionary theory Malthus ideas supported the contention that in most cases far more offspring are produced than ever could be supported by available resources for survival this ultimately led to a struggle for existence by all organisms Darwin took this further to say that only the best adapted organisms compete adequately to survive and reproduce differential reproductive success favored traits are disproportionately represented in successive generations this leads to increases in frequencies of favored traits in a population 10 Describe how the following concepts related to Darwin s theory of evolution by natural selection overreproduction of populations limited resources and heritable variation Species have the potential to produce more offspring than survive over reproduction leading to competition for limited resources and a struggle for existence populations exhibit a range of heritable variations some ofwhich confer advantages to their bearers that make them more likely to leave offspring than others that are less well suited over time this natural selection can result in a grater proportion of favorable traits in a population this is called evolutionary adaptation 11 Why was Darwin reticent about disclosing his ideas about evolution What events led to his publication of his theory of evolution by natural selection Evolution was counter to prevailing beliefs that all organisms were static and immutable in form since their creation the death of Darwin s rst child and the receipt ofAlfred Russell Wallace s manuscript detailing the same theory as Darwin s although less substantiated by evidence 12 What is the evidence for descent with modification see pages 460 465 in the text The fossil record artificial selection anatomical homologies vestigial organs similarities in embryonic development among vertebrates molecular homologies biogeography 13 What are the necessary ingredients for natural selection as a mechanism for evolution Biological variation time selective advantage 14 What are the two inferences of Natural Selection that are based on four observations as detailed in the text on page 458 of the text What are all the tenets of natural selection Descent with modification Reproduction potential is large for most species amp population sizes tend to be stable Resources are limited causing competition and a struggle for existence among members ofa population ultimately not all members of the population survive to reproduce Biological populations vary in their characters and no two individuals are alike much of this variation is heritable and survival is dependent upon inherited characters Individuals whose inherited traits give them an advantage in a particular environment are more likely to leave more offspring than others 0 Environment is the selective force 0 Variations are random 0 Selectionsurvival is not random NS works on phenotype not genotype NS works at the level ofthe population not the individual population is the smallest unit of evolution NS leads to a gradual change in a population with favorable characteristics accumulating over generations NS gives rise to populations adapted to speci c environments What is adaptive in one environment is not adaptive in another N8 is differential reproductive success NS results from interaction between individuals that vary in heritable traits and the environment Adaptation heritable characteristics that enhance an organism s ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment Evolution via N8 is an editing rather than a creative process 15 Do you think that adaptation of a population to changing environmental conditions is more likely in a sexually or asexually reproducing population Support your answer An asexually reproducing population produces clones or genetically and phenotypically identical offspring thus reducing the chance for different and possibly better adapted individuals to arise Sexually reproducing populations vary in many characteristics which allows adaptation to occur faster than in asexually reproducing populations Chapter 7 Cell Membranes Monday September 21 2009 524 PM Last Exam no curve Average grade was a 69 My grade was passing but low All membranes are constructed with a phospholipid bilayer Can be artificially create these by putting them into water they naturally from a membrane Pours membranes are not only made of phospholipids but with other proteins and chemicals Membrane model Gorter amp Grendel constructed the first model in 1925 I Phospholipid I First model first based on red blood cell E Red blood cell is simply a membrane sac filled with hemoglobin Davidson amp Danielli derived the phospholipid model in 1935 I Protein lipid protein I quotSandwichquot Singer amp Nicholson made a fluid mosaic model in 1927 I Globs of protein sin a phospholipid bilayer floated around freely Proteins are floating around in the phospholipid bilayer and they are asymmetrical so they don t look the same on the cytoplasmic side of the layer as they do on the extracellular side of the membrane Proteins are proven to move because of a mouse cell protein mixed with a human cell and they eventually mix Phospholipids laterally move at approximately 10quot7 times per second They also flipflop about once per month not common Membrane fluidity Increased fluidity has phospholipid bilayers that have unsaturated fatty acids with kinks cis configuration Viscous of decreased fluidity contain almost all saturated fatty acids Cholesterol within animal membranes are embedded within the phospholipid tails and helps with stabilization in warm and cool temperatures I Restrains the movement in warm temperatures and maintains fluidity Carbohydrate chains are usually not found on the cytoplasmic side ofthe phospholipid bilayer Proteins that go through the phospholipid bilayer are usually hydrophobic thus stay inside the layer Usually alpha configuration of the form Membrane protein function Transport I Movement of solutes from the extracellular side of the membrane to the cytoplasmic side and vice versa Enzymatic Activity Signal Transduction I Proteins that trigger a cellular response such as insulin lntercellularJoining Celltocellrecognition Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix Membrane Permeability Lipid bilayer Biology 240 Page 1 Transport Proteins I Channels I Aquaporins I Carries Direction of traffic Diffusion of one solute Solute is highly concentrated on one side of a membrane I Substances always move from an area of a high concentration to an area of lower concentration to reach equilibrium Molecules move across the membrane The eventually have the same concentration on both sides yet still move but at the same rate I Energy increases and entropy decreases Define Diffusion I Equilibrium D Diffusion 9 Molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration B Chemical Equilibrium 9 Forward reaction rate equals the reverse reaction rate D Thermal Equilibrium 9 Temperature changes and eventually become one temperature ie ice in a drink Diffusion of two solutes ln diffusion one chemical doesn t affect the other Passive Transport Define I Diffusion I Across membrane I Energy released No metabolic energy needed for passive transport Osmosis I Water in a lower concentration solution has more energy because it has more free molecules U tube experiment D Membrane permeable only to water is placed in the middle of a u tube with a high concentration solute on one side and a low concentration on the other D Equilibrium looks like the waterfills up the high concentration side to equalize energy Water quotconcentrationquot Higher water gt Lower water Lower solute gt higher solute Tonicity Comparative term Solute concentration lsotonic I Equal concentration of solute as another you are comparing it to Hypotonic I Lower solute concentrate than the one you are comparing it to Hypertonic I Higher concentration of solute as compared to another solution Biology 240 Page 2 Facilitated Diffusion Aided by transport proteins Aquaporins Channels I Open pre that allows a cretin shaped protein to pass through Carriers I Change in shape once the solute binds with is and then is released on the other side ofthe membrane Protein specific Active Transport Up or agents concentration gradient Requires metabolic energy ATP Aided by membrane protein I Carrier protein I Pumps D Sodiumpotassium pump animal cell 9 Sodium moves out to high concentration from low concentration and is replaced by potassium from a low concentration to a high concentration by use of ATP D Proton pump plant cell 9 Used to drive the transport of sucrose into the cell Bulk Transport Exocytosis I ER or GR vesicles Endocytosis create vesicles inside the cell from the membrane I Phagocytosis I Pinocytosis I Receptormediated endocytosis Biology 240 Page 3 Chapter 2 Chemistry WednesdayAugusi 26 2009 530 PM 0 Define matter Anything that takes up space and has weight 0 What is an element A pure substance that is not corrbined with anything else 0 Corrpounds A n139xture of two elements with unique properties Naturally occurring elements in the hurran body 0 N K CI 00000000000 0 a What is an atom mostly node of o Errpty space Aton139c nurrber nurrber of protons Mass nurrber nurrber of protons neutrons nass of electron nakes adding its weight negligible Isotopes 0 Carbon 12 found in nature protons 6 neutrons 0 Carbon 13 stable 6 protons 7 neutrons 0 Carbon 14 unstable 6 protons 8 neutrons Elements are more stable when valance electron spots are filled Valance bonding capacity Four Basic elements Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen O O O O Covalent bonds are when pairs of electrons are shared Corrpounds and molecules 0 Covalently bonded atoms form molecules 0 Are molecules corrpounds no 02 H2 N2 Biology 240 Page 1 39 H20 C02 Electronegativeity 0 Non polar I H2 02 CH4 0 Polar H20NH3 2H2 39 3902 39ltgt 2Hzo39 Equilibrium 0 Forward reaction reverse reaction 0 Products does not necessarin reactants Morality o What is the molecular weight of NaCl 0 AMofNa AMofCl 23 35 58 0 Prepare 1M solution of NaCl Dissolve 58 grans of NaCl into some water After such add more water until totalwater NaCl 1 liter 58 gL 1M NaCl 29 gL 5M NaCl 2 5 x 10391M500 mM 29 gL 005M NaCl 5 x 10392M 50 mM Context Seawater has 05M NaCl 5 x 10391M 500 mM Intercellular Ca2 1 x 10395M 1 uM Intercellular K 1 x 10391M 0 mM Biology 240 Page 2 Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Monday October 19 2009 530 PM Cell Division Why do cells divide 39 They become too large 39 They become damaged Why do cells divide 39 Reproduction 39 OrganTissue repair 39 Others 39 Nerve cells cannot divide nor can muscle cells Can mitosis occur without cytokinesis 39 Yes How do chromosomes move Reproduction Asexual Reproduction 39 Normally when two cells unicellular prokaryotes some multicellular eukaryotes reproduce 39 Exchange DNA not cells Sexual Reproduction The exchange with carrier cells which contain DNA and create ma multicellular organism Changes in chromosomes during mitosis They are compacted and attached to spindle fibers Eukaryotic Chromosomes Composed of chromatin Histones and DNA Some cells two sets 2n Gametes One set n Biology 240 Page 1 Chapter 1 The Properties of Life Monday August 24 2009 30 PM Define these terms Adaptation 0 Change due to environment Equilibrium Level out balanced Energy 0 Force work What are the Properties of Life Reproduction i Summitry Complexity Diversity Energy Exchange Order Growth Organization Adaptation Environment specific Response to environment Regulation main Development Levels of Organization Biosphere gt Ecosystems gt Communities gt Populations gt Organisms Organs and Organ Systems Tissues gt Cells gt Cell gt Organelles gt Molecules gt Atoms Emergent properties of life do we explain this with respect to hierarchies Energy transformations are not 100 efficient Form fits function The Cell the smallest organization of living things What are the two main forms of cells Prokaryotic Euka otic What are their similarities What are their differences Heredity genetic information passed down from generation to generation Nucleotides in a particular order code for nucleotides in which to make protein Regulation What is homeostasis o i tain a set point of anything in the face of biological change 0 An organism will not survive if it doesn39t adapt Diversity of life How do we categorize forms Domain Bacteria 3 DJ 5 2 O 339 D D D Domain Euka Which is the most inclusive grouping Family Charles Darwin 0 Noticed common ancestry 0 Different populations fit to different environments 0 Not the first to see th39s Biology 240 Page 1 0 Natural selection Population of Organism Overproduction and Competition Heredity Variations Differences in Reproductive Success Evolution in Adaptation in the Population 0 Adaptations vary with environment 0 Variation exists in the beginning environment forces change What is the primary mechanism of evolution 0 Natural Selection 0 Decent with modification Science 0 Inquiry 0 Empirical 0 Observations 0 Quantitative data 0 Qualitative data 0 Inductive reasoning o quotwhatquotand quothow manyquot questions 0 Generalization Hypothesis based science 0 quotHowquot and quotWhyquot science 0 Hypotheses o Deduction o Perception 0 Experiment Take one variable at a time Battery vs light bulb 0 Increasing number of dents 0 Dent sha e Square Hexagon Round Hypotheses o Tentative answer 0 Testable o Controlled experiments 0 Not quotprovenquot 0 Supported or refuted Science 0 Theory vs Hypothesis 0 Limitations Biology 240 Page 2
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