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This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sedrick Shanahan on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL244 at University of Louisville taught by JamesAlexander in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/228359/biol244-university-of-louisville in Biology at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
EX 1511 D0 lichens prefer the northern aspect of trees Unit 15 The Fungi Q BIOLOGY 24405 BIOLOGY 24475 MARCH 4 2009 TA JUDY METCALF Classi cation Kingdom Fungi Division Phylum Zygomycota Zygote Fungi Genus Rhizopus Division Ascomycota Sac Fungi Genus M orchella Genus Saccharomyces Genus Penicillium Division Basidiomycota Club Fungi Genus Coprinus Genus Agaricus Division Deuteromycota Fungi Imperfecta Characteristics shared by most fungi Lack chlorophyll Multicellular a few species are unicellular Heterotrophic saprobes or symbionts Chitin in their cell walls bodythallus consists of mycelium composed of hyphae aseptate septate Zygotic life cycle Dika otic hyphae b zygote karyogamy plasmogamgar A sexual repmd me1os1s adult 6 mitosis 9 SP ores spores asexual repro d Classi cation M egg is 39 Kingdom Fungi Division Phylum Zygomycota Zygote Fungi Genus Rhizopus Division Ascomycota Sac Fungi Genus M orchella Genus Saccharomyces Genus Penicillium Division Basidiomycota Club Fungi Genus Coprinus Genus Agaricus Division Deuteromycota Fungi Imperfecta Zygomycota Algallike 0r zygote fungi 0 Most primitive of true fungi 0 Terrestrial freshwater and marine Rhizopus stolonifer black bread mold 3 Division Zygomycota algal like fungi zygote fungi Coenocytic aseptate hyphae Elgaaliy iz il a ii Young Gametangla wuth zygosporangium 39 0 haplo39d nuc39el heterokaryotic C 1 rail l reproduction Mating type Sporanglum a W 6 M ycelia v n a 1 Diploid 05 ng s 39br nuclei germination a at a 9 quot a i Sporangla a u 9 3m E Haploid n 9 a Dispersal J Heterokaryotic Asexual and 1 Diploid 2H reproductlan r germination Me Mycelium Copyilgmis Pearson Education Inc publlshlng as Banlamin Cummings Ci EX 151 examine a culture of zygomycete Rhizopus sloongffer Demonstration area EX 152 slide of Rhizopus mycelium sporangia zygosporangia Prepared Slide Classi cation M egg is 39 Kingdom Fungi Division Phylum Zygomycota Zygote Fungi Genus Rhizopus Division Ascomycota Sac Fungi Genus M orchella Genus Saccharomyces Genus Penicillium Division Basidiomycota Club Fungi Genus Coprinus Genus Agaricus Division Deuteromycota Fungi Imperfecta Ascomycota Sac fungi 0r ascomycetes 0 Terrestrial freshwater and marine Unicellular yeast or have hyphae with uninucleate cells and septa Examples ofAscomycetes o Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast 0 Peziza cup fungus o Morchellea morel mushroom LTuuidiJ Life cycle of the Ascomycota gt Auvgunmm I A t l 39rlchnmm J 39I 39I 394 apart I v w I Alllhundlum a A I H riled slag 39 weal nnn 4 unnuko ng l umulion of quotm D Funlmunm ul d39ahryuxm hyplm EX 153 slide of a 13 through an ascocarp of Morchella hymenium asci ascospores slide Prepared Classi cation Kingdom Fungi Division Phylum Zygomycota Zygote Fungi Genus Rhizopus Division Ascomycota Sac Fungi Genus M orchella Genus Saccharomyces Genus Penicillium Division Basidiomycota Club Fungi Genus Coprinus Genus Agaricus D1v1s1on Deuteromycota Fungl lmpertecta Basidiomycota 0 Club fungi or basidiomycetes o Terrestrial Mushrooms and toadstools 0 Some edible others poisonous o Ecological functions 0 Obligate parasites Wheat rust and corn smut o Unicellular yeast similar to ascomycete yeast 0 Wood decaying organisms bracket fungi Examples of Basidomycetes o Agaricus bisporus commercially produced edible mushroom lilkarwtlc mycellum Life Cycle of the Basidiomycota Basldlum with tour appendages Baaldlum containing tuur haploid nuclei Diplold nuclai I Haptnid n ammu FE Diploid Zn EX 154 fresh basidiocarp of Agaricus stipe pileus lamella annulus Demonstrataion area Cap Pileus Richard Manon Scales E lwgg Gills Lamellae Ring Annulus n Stem stape Cup Volva Mycelial threads EnchantedLearni ngmm EX 155 slide of cs of pileus of Coprmus lamellae basidia basidiospores Pre n are Slide Classi cation M egg is 39 Kingdom Fungi Division Phylum Zygomycota Zygote Fungi Genus Rhizopus Division Ascomycota Sac Fungi Genus M orchella Genus Saccharomyces Genus Penicillium Division Basidiomycota Club Fungi Genus Coprinus Genus Agaricus Division Deuteromycota Fungi Imperfecta Deuteromycota Fungi imperfecti or deuteromycetes Polyphyletic taxon without a phylogenetic base Multicellular fungi molds o Rapidly growing asexual fungus o Moved to appropriate group when a reproductive structure is eventually produced 0 Unknown sexual phase Ecological functions 0 Obligate parasites wheat rust and corn smut o Unicellular yeast similar to ascomycete yeast 0 Wood decaying organisms bracket fungi Yeasts Unicellular fungi in moist or aquatic habitats Live commensal or as parasites eg Candida l O O Sexual phase not known for many therefore lumped into l Deuteromycota Many in Ascomycota like Saccharomyces Reproduce asexually by budding EX 156 yeast solution wet mount Demonstration Area Mycorrhizae Mutua1istic association of plant roots and fungi over 90 of plants in nature Fungus mycelium surrounds roots increases surface area for absorption Trade of nutrients and organic matter EX 157 mycorrhizae Demonstration area Plastimounts 39 r f v39 39 a EX 158 Compare sporocarp ascocap and basidiocarp Demonstration area Water Plastimounts Lichens Mutualistic association Fungus mycobiont ascomycete few basidiomycetes Alga phycobiont unicellular algae or cyanobacEria l Iquot Asexual reproduction soredia Three basic forms of growth Crustose attened crustlike m leafy looking Fruticose branching cylinders or tubes bushy appearance EX 1510 Examine display of lichens Demonstration Table EX 159 slide of lichen thallus Prepared Slide Fungal hyphae Upper layer of fungal hyphae Photosynthetic cell layer 7 m 3 39 2 m w may Loose layer of m m 3 439 quot r 4335 H r Lower layer of fungal hypl lac Snbstratum 01995 SinauerAssociates Inc Unit 13 Plants ll Gymnosperms amp Angiosperms Biology 24405 Biology 24475 February 25 2009 TA Judy Metcalf Plants 11 Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Kingdom Plantae Gymnosperms the naked seed plants Division Coniferophyta conifers the pines and relatives Pinus Angiosperms the owering plants Division Anthophyta owering plants Monocotyledonae Dicotyledonae iiiiiiiiispiiiy and Hsismspmy Homos pmy ubiyibpimyms and almost aii the piimii39ive vascuiai seedlies plants mime iyps of spam sporophyte Single WPBgt bisexual 0 Spore gametophyta Heiemspm y usvoms piimii ive vascuiai pianis and vascuiai piaiii s Wit1 seeds iLWO di eieiii kinds of SpOl CS 0 wigs spoms iiisgaspoms gt fsmaiie gam mphyie o smaii spoics miCiospQIres Z mails game iophyie gametophyteq egg male gametophyte Sperm microspore gt Gymnosperms Four Divisions Cycadophyta Ginkophyta Gnetophyta Coniferophyta Coniferophyta gymnosperms with largest number present day genera and species Pinus Genus we will study in lab Naked seeds not enclosed in a fruit Wind pollinated Most are monoecious unisex male and female structures on different parts of the same plant 132 slide of the pollen grain slide box Made of two prothallial cells a tube cell and a generative cell Tube cell produces pollen tube Nucleus enters pollen tube Generative cell enters pollen tube Undergoes mitosis to produce a sterile cell and spermatogenous cell Spermatogenous cell undergoes mitosis to produce sperm Sperm travel down tube an immature gametophyte becomes a mature male gametophyte with sperm EX 131 prepared slide of the microsporangiate cone mature male strobilus median 15 slide box Ex 133 slide 0fa1s of an immature pine ovulate Slide box quot9 ametoph va 1N3 Euthagmmjm EX 136 slide of a pine mature embroy 1s Seed coat From Mulil mldJ39a Tnolkif far Ewcafors in le Plan Science Produced by Mlchnd Clayton Used allquot permisslm Plants 11 Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Kingdom Plantae Gymnosperms the naked seed plants Division Coniferophyta conifers the pines and relatives Pinus Angiosperms the owering plants Division Anthophyta owering plants Monocotyledonae Dicmyiedonae Angiosperms Flowering plants largest and most conspicuous group of living plants Production of owers that give rise to seeds enclosed in an ovary fruit Major classes Monocotyledoneae Monocots Seeds with one cotyledon Flowers 3X Parallel leaf veination Fibrous roots Monocotyledoneae Monocots Seeds with two cotyledons Flowers 4X or 5X Parts of the Flower Four whorls MG A Calyx se als I p Perianth MNTU39BE B Corolla petals C m lament and anther androecium D 131 ovules gynoecium one ore more Pistils stigma style ovary Complete all 4 whorls present Perfect both androecium and gynoecium present Mummic me k crmphr WM Monocot vs Dicot Monocotyledoneae Monocots Seeds with one cotyledon Flowers 3X Parallel leaf veination Fibrous roots Vascular bundles scattered Dicotyledonae Dicots Seeds with two cotyledons Flowers 4X or 5X NetLike leaf veination Taproots Vascular bundles arranged in a ring Tube nucleus Pollen I tube l Sperm i 39 Formation of j pollen tube Generative cell Microspores r 8nucleote embryo sac Doulfle Meiosis megogametophyte lerhllzahon Pollen mother cell Megaspore mot er in cell 17 39 Meiosisquot Anther L Aclult sporopliyte Wlll t Flowers D39o an I13 ponengmm Female gumampme mmm Fruits and seeds Rippend oVaIies of the carpals Flashy uim and 3 types of eshy uim Simple from a single ovary consisting of a single carpel or a number of fused carpals eg dmpes berries ovary with many seeds pomes smrounding owering tissue Aggregate compound gynoecium of a I number ofunfused carpals Slmple Multiple fused ovaries ofmany owers multiple Dry fruits Typically one ovary With no eshy material around seeds Fruits that split at maturity legume beans capsule Fruits that usually do not split at maturity achene sun owers cereal grains caryopsis samaras maples ashes elms nuts EX 1310 Slide of lily anthers Lilium anthers Xs tetrads of microspores 1 Fr n g a g u 6 Ex 13 ll Germinated lily pollen lilly pollen tubes Ex 132 slide oflily ovary Lilium megaspore Megaspore momor megaspcmcyxe y
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