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by: Zaria Shields


Zaria Shields
U of L
GPA 3.69

Greg Leichty

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Greg Leichty
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zaria Shields on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 304 at University of Louisville taught by Greg Leichty in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/228371/comm-304-university-of-louisville in Communication at University of Louisville.

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Date Created: 10/23/15
Syllabus 30401 Argument in Everyday Life Fall Semester 2011 Instructor Dr Greg Leichty Professor of Communication 308D Strickler Hall Email gregleichtylouisvilleedu telephone 4737480 Class Meeting Time amp Place 1002 15 TRDavidson 103 Catalogue Description Surveys theory and practice related to the creation and analysis of arguments in public communication Topics include argument structure evidence types and limitations of inferences and the adaptation of messages to particular contexts Critical Thinking Component Argument in Everyday Life is designed to help you develop your critical thinking skills The University of Louisville has adopted the following definition quotCritical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing applying analyzing synthesizing andor evaluating information gathered from or generated by observation experience re ection reasoning or communication as a guide to belief and actionquot The university has given priority to emphasizing the importance of critical thinking in the curriculum Argument in Everyday Life engages your critical thinking faculties by the very nature of its content Student Learning Outcomes In this course you will learn how to identify the type of reasoning used in an argument identify the often unstated premises and warrants that operate in everyday argument describe or depict speci c arguments using Toulmin s model evaluate the quality and sufficiency of evidence used in support of a claim evaluate the soundness of warrants used in arguments identify reasoning fallacies in everyday examples of argumentation explain how argument fields and forums in uence argumentation standards provide dispassionate evaluation of a debate using relevant criteria explain the distinctive features of the major institutional spheres of argument in contemporary society eg legal scientific etc Apply the stock issues framework to identify critical issues in a controversy Apply a stock issues framework to evaluate the soundness of an overall affirmative case research and analyze dysfunctional forms of narrative reasoning ie conspiracy theory Class Atmosphere As this is a class in public argumentation we will touch on some controversial topics as we proceed through the discussion of argument in contemporary society I agree that people have aright to their opinions but I strongly disagree with the misguided notion that people are entitled to their own facts I will make every effort to acknowledge and respect differences in values that we encounter along the way When it comes to questions of fact however then each of us must make do our best to judge dispassionately as to the probable truth or falsity of a factual claim In any venue of argumentation the person who makes a claim should also feel responsibility if requested to provide substantiation or support for disputed claim I strongly encourage you to ask questions and to participate in class discussions IfI don t specifically ask for your questions which I often will please take the initiative to do so Ifyou have questions of a private nature please contact me via email or wait until after class when we can discuss your matters of concern in a way that can maintain confidentiality If you arrive in class late and ask a question that I have already answered that day I do reserve the right to ask you to see me about the question after class Please turn off your cell phones because they can create debilitating disruptions to the continuity of the class for both the instructor and your classmates I also request that when it comes to making arrangements to miss class because of university sponsored trips please send me an email that gives me the specific information As I have over 100 students this semester I may forget what you tell me Course Procedures Although this course is a facetoface course we will rely on Blackboard a lot throughout the semester Blackboard is the official archive for the course The official version of the syllabus is on blackboard When changes in schedule occur the syllabus on Blackboard will be updated For questions related to the syllabus and to the schedule please consult with Blackboard first Copies of assignment sheets and test study guides are also to be found on Blackboard The official grade register is on Blackboard as well Please check your grades on blackboard occasionally to determine if I have omitted anything or have registered a wrong entry I welcome timely queries on these matters I will not accommodate claims that are more than two weeks old however unless you have documented evidence such as a marked paper to support your claim There are also are several exercise sets that are set up for Blackboard These are sets that will give you some practice in developing skills in such things as applying Toulmin39s model of argument and learning to identify fallacies These exercises will be set so that you can take them until you get all of the questions correct As these points that you can all get 100 on you will definitely want to complete these tasks Timely communications between student and instructor are very important in any course If you have a question about a personal issue such as an illness or being out of town on university business please contact me on a timely basis via email at gregleichtylouisvilleedu You can also call me at my home phone at 4737480 if you call before 1000 PM Please do not leave messages on my voicemail at the University as I check it rather infrequently Please email me as soon as possible when major issues emerge that will interfere with your ability to attend class or to meet deadlines We can usually work something out if you make requests at least 24 hours before the deadline Our time in class will be about equally divided between class lectures and class activities and case studies that look at particular examples of argument Tegrity presentations of many lectures are available on the website For class activities however you must be in class to accumulate the participation points that go along with these activities In some cases I will take role in other cases I will ask you to turn in your written work in conjunction with the class activity Course Text amp Instructional Materials Text Richard Rieke Malcolm Sillars amp Tarla Rai Peterson 2008 Argumentation and Critical Decision Making 7th Ed Pearson Allyn amp Bacon An electronic subscription for this text can be bought from the publisher at about half of the price of the hardback text athttpwwwcoursesmartcom CourseA 39 andE 39 quot There will be ve exams They will be midsized exams that will cover approximately 3 weeks of material at atime They will draw from assigned readings course lecturespresentations and course exercises and assigned practice sets on Blackboard Each exam will include 13 essay questions along with multiple choice and matching questions The exams will be administered on Blackboard You will ordinarily have a two day window to take each exam The questions on the exams will be randomly ordered and the answers for each question will be randomly ordered as well The tests will be timed as well though the amount of time will be a little more liberal than if we were administering the exams during regular class time The exams will count for 250 points out of a total of 700 points The second component of evaluation will include class activities and practice sets Class activities will include discussion exercises and case studies which ask you to engage in critical thinking Attendance will be taken indirectly on days that involve class activities Ordinarily I will assign you to small groups and ask you to hand in a paper that summarizes the group consensus If you are not in class on the day of a discussion task or case study you will not receive the points for that activity Assigned problem sets that are available on Blackboard will also fall in this category Class activities and practice sets will be count for up to 150 points The third component of the course evaluation will be two papers In the papers you will apply course concepts to contemporary examples of argument The assignments include the following 1 Debate Reasoning Analysis You will analyze a public policy discussion You will systematically analyze the quality of the reasoning in the debate Your evaluation will be approximately 1200 words in length You will receive an assignment sheet that will describe the criteria that you are to apply in your evaluation as well as the form of your evaluation The assignment will be worth up to 100 points 2 Conspiracy Theory Case Study Narrative reasoning is an important mode of reasoning in many societies Conspiracy narratives are a form of narrative reasoning that have some problematic aspects For this project you will research and write an analysis that J a form of I39 J 39 that has widely circulated in our society You will describe how the conspiracy theory has developed and spread analyze the nature of its appeal for certain audiences and critique the reasoning embedded within it A detailed assignment sheet will be provided for the project The paper will be approximately 2400 words include research citations and will be worth up to 200 points Disabilities Statement The University of Louisville provides access to programs and services for quali ed students with disabilities Ifyou have a disability and require accommodation to participate and complete requirements for this class notify me immediately and contact the Disability Resource Center Robbins Hall 8526938 for veri cation of eligibility and determination of speci c accommodations that may be needed Assignment Related Policies 1 Assigned deadlines are assigned deadlines If you are going to need a variance from a deadline please make arrangements with me 24 hours prior to the deadline I am reasonable in making adjustments when you negotiate deadlines with me IN ADVANCE Otherwise there is a standard 10 deduction for each day that the assignment is late 2 Paper assignments need to be typed All writing assignments must be your own work with appropriate attribution and citation Any case of documented plagiarism will result in a 0 for the assignment 3 For any missed test there will be a makeup test given during nals week that draws from all of the previous tests given over the semester Grading Scale Scale A9039 B8889 B8287 B8081 C7879 C8287 C7l72 D6869 D6267 D606l Flt60 Total points1000 Schedule The schedule is provisional In recent years oods windstorms icestorms and watermain breaks have all disrupted our semesters in a signi cant way In addition we must be exible enough to consider prominent issues that are in the news and public discussion at a particular time Adaptations of the syllabus will be made when appropriate Departures from the syllabus will be announced in class be announced on blackboard and you will receive a notice via your email Week l August 22 August 26 Readings Chapter lDe ning Argumentation Chapter 2Appraising Argumentation Presentations V J J39 quot J J39 amp 39 J quot to Argumentation ActivitiesSurveyWhy does quotArguingquot have a bad reputation Week 2 August 29 September 2 Readings Chapter 6The Nature of Arguments Lectures Toulmin s Model of Argument amp Forms of Reasoning Toulmin Practice Sets 1 amp 2Describing Arguments Case StudyLying With True Facts Week 3 September 5 9 Readings Chapter 4 Critical Analysis to Find a Proposition Lecture Background Analysis to Argumentation Activities Practice Sets 3 amp 4Forms of Reasoning amp Identifying Implicit Warrants Test lSeptember 1012 Week 4 September 12 16 ReadingsChapter 3Making Sense of Argumentation amp Chapter 7 Support Evidence Lectures Conventions of Argumentation amp Forms of Evidence Case Study When Opportunists Deny the Facts Week 5 September 19 23 Readings Chapter 8 SupportValues amp Chapter 9 SupportCredibility Lectures SupportValues amp Credibility Activities Problem Set Perella s Hierarchy of Evidence Test 2 September 2426 Week 6 September 26 30 Readings Chapter 10 Refutation amp Chapter llRefutation of Fallacy Claims Presentations Refutation amp Reasoning Fallacies Blackboard Practice SetIdentifying Fallacies Debate Analysis Paper Assigned Weeks 7 amp 8 October 3 14 ReadingsChapter 5 Case Building October l3Debate Analysis paper due Week 9 Oct0ber 17 21 LectureSome Observations about Conspiracy Theories Case Study Were the Apollo Moon Landings Faked Conspiracy Theory Paper Assigned Test 3 October 2224 Week 10 October 22 26 Reading Chapter l6Argumentation in Government amp Politics LecturePolitical Argumentation Case Study in Political Argumentation Week 11 October 29 November 4 Reading Chapter 12Argumentation in Law amp Ledbedder BriefsAvailable on Blackboard LectureLegal Argumentation Case Study The Lily Ledbedder Case Week 12 November 7 11 Reading Chapter lSBusiness Argumentation Lecture Argumentation in Business Settings Case Study Crisis Communication Test 4 November 1214 Week 13 November 14 18 November lSConspiracy Paper consultations November l7Conspiracy Paper dueProposition Conspiracy Theories are Dangerous Final Weeks November 21 December 5 Reading Chapter 13 Argumentation in Science amp Chapter l4Argumentation in Religion Case Study in Scienti c ArgumentationDealing with Scienti c Uncertainty Case Study in Argument Sphere Clash December 35Test 5 Scheduled Final Friday December 9 230500 PM Academic Calendar Fall Semester 2011 Monday August 22First day of class It also is the last day to register Friday August 26Last day to add drop Monday September 5Labor day holiday Wednesday September l4Last day to apply for degree Monday amp Tuesday October 10 amp llFall break Thursday October l3Last day to withdraw WednesdaySunday November 2327Thanksgiving break Monday December 5 Last day of classes Tuesday December 6 Reading day WednesdayTuesday December 713 Final examinations Friday December l6CommencementDegree date Chapter 5Case BuildingLecture 9Stock Issues Analysis What role should storytelling play in preparing a case What is a brief What are the motivations for briefing an argument What are the core elements of a brief What are stock Issues How do stock issue formats help one prepare for building a case What kinds of questions should the advocate consider when considering how to present the case to specific decisions makers pp 8184 What are the stock issues associated with factual propositions definition and distinction criteria and application Why role can the play in preparing a caseRelative to factual propositions what strategies can the negative use to contest factual propositions Be able to define and identify examples of the stock issues associated with value propositions definition and distinction values criteria application Relative to stock issues what kinds of strategies can the negative use to contest value propositions Be able to define and to identify examples of the stock issues of policy stated as questions harm significance inherency plan solvency advantage an disadvantage Relative to stock issues what kinds of strategies can a negative use to contest propositions of policy Which kind of proposition typically involves the most complex argument structure ie factual value or policy Chapter 10 and lecture lORefutation Presentation Even though refutation involves competition how can refutation also be constructive and cooperative How do the standards of civility apply in refutation eg preference for agreement Explain the following quote on page 174 quotRefutation to be successful must not exceed the cultural boundaries of the decisionmaking situation What minimal conditions need to be in place before refutation can be a genuinely constructive process p 170 What are the questions you should take into consideration in assessing an argumentative situation p 172176 Discuss the role of decision makers presumptions in planning refutation What questions should one consider when analyzing the decisionmakers for pquoses of refutation See pages 176179 Why is it important to be selective in the refutation process When should one quit in the refutation process See presentation 1dentify and discuss the general theory of refutation What does it mean to refute from a constructive basis See pages 179180 Define the difference between direct and indirect refutation Be able to identify instances of the following direct refutation tacticsturn tables deny harm minimize harm maximize harm minimize solvency reduce to absurdity establish a dilemmaSee Presentation Be able to identify examples of the following types of indirect refutationNot prima facie question underlying assumptions minor repair counter proposition andor counterplan See presentation When is indirect refutation most appropriate See Presentation Discuss and illustrate the principles in effective communication of refutation Compare and contrast low level refutation with higher level refutation What are the essential differences between them What advantages does refutation at the higher levels of refutation provide Illustrate the highest level of refutation that can be made in policy debates What is framebreaking When is it useful to use in refutation How can it be used p 181 Why is it important to understand momentum in argumentative situations Discuss and illustrate the principles of how to effectively communicate refutation What role can probing or questioning play in the refutation process p 185186 Describe blocking What aid does it provide in the refutation process What is a flow chart How is it used in a formal debate setting Chapter 11 amp Lecture 11 Fallacies Presentation Define what a logical fallacy is What kinds of things do not count as a logical fallacy See pages 191192 If one asserts that an argument fallacy has occurred what is the next step See pages 191192 What benefits may be obtained by studying sophistic fallacies according to leading writers cited in our text Compare and contrast the following views of logical fallacy a incorrect logic b sophistry and c fallacies as violations of discussion rules ie the pragma dialectical approach to argumentation and d social Guides to Fallacy Claims Be able to define and recognize examples of the following fallacies as incorrect logicdenying the antecedent and affirming the consequent Presentation Be able to define and recognize examples of the following kinds of quotsophistic fallacies Tu Quoque Begging the Question Appeal to Popularity Posthoc Ad Hominem Appeal to Pity Fallacious Appeal to Authority Special Pleading Equivocation Reification Eitheror Dilemma Appeal to Ignorance ldentify and explain some of the social guides to fallacy claims Discuss the idea of breach of conversational cooperation as a guide to fallacy claims Study Materials ActivityWhy does arguing have a bad reputation Chapter 1 Defining Argumentation Chapter 2 Appraising Communication Chapter 6 The Nature of Arguments Lecture lCommunication and Misunderstanding Lecture ZLntroduction to Argumentation Lecture 3Toulmin s model of Argument Lecture 4Forms of Reasoning Practice Sets 1 2 amp 3 Lecture lCommunication and Misunderstanding Compare and contrast source receiver and code definitions of communication How does change occur in human code systems39 dentify some of the common sources of misunderstanding in human communication Why is some misunderstanding probable in human communication Why do people sometimes mistake disagreement for misunderstanding How do sources and receivers cooperate when it comes to achieving shared understanding via the communication process What steps can communicators take to mitigate misunderstanding Chapter 1 De ning Argumentalian What is argumentation What is an argument What is the domain of argumentation Define the following and be able to give an example of each claim issue proposition support argument and criticism What role does criticism of claims play in argumentation When is argumentation not useful with regard to decisionmaking What is an argument sphere How do the personal technical and public spheres differ from each other What role does internal dialogue play in critical thinking What is the dialectic and how does it work in the argumentation process How does argumentation differ from rhetoric Le cture2Intr0ducn39an to Argumentan39an How does argumentation relate to the concepts of certaintymicertainty What are some sources of uncertainty in hum an affairs What are the two main dimensions of argumentation What kinds of things does the sphere of argumentation govern What must the advocate know with respect to the sphere in which she is operating How and why do propositions tend to be modified as they proceed through the argumentation process Define and give an example of the following kinds of issuesan issue of fact an issue of value and an issue or policyExplain the central features of assertiveness and argumentativeness How are these two traits related to each ot er Explain the central features of hostility and verbal aggression How are these two traits related to each other What is the central differences between argumentativeness and verbal aggression What are some of the common forms of verbal aggression Describe the different theories as to how and why people engage in verbal aggression psychopathology disdain social learning argumentative skill deficiency and genetic predispositions Be able to take a position on w 39 theory seems to best explain the incidence of verbal aggression in your experience What are some recommended ways to best deal with verbal aggressive behaviors in others How does a communication climate influence communication and argumentation What perceptions are characteristics of a supportive communication climate What perceptions are characteristic of a defensive communication climate How can knowledge about communication climate be utilized to improve the quality of argumentation Chapter 2 Appraising Argumentatian Be able to identify five different types of starting points in argumentation Be able to give an example of each What role do starting points play in argumentation How do advocates attempt to in uence people39s levels of uncertainty in argumentation What distinguishes reasonable arguments from unreasonable ones How does audience analysis help one find starting points for argumentation ldentify some of the impediments to rational argumentation eg why do people advance unreasonable arguments What are the characteristics of reasonable arguments How does argumentation differ from persuasion p 31 How do systematic argumentation practices relate to the quality of decisionm aking pages 32 amp 36 Chapter 6 The Nature afArguments amp Lecture 3 What is an enthymeme Why do we often not make all of the parts of an argument explicit What is the function of the warrant in argument How can the same grounds be used to support two or more very different claims Why is argument form a poor guide for identifying the components of an argument How does applying Toulmin s model to actual arguments aid us in the assessing arguments and their quality Be able to define the parts of the Toulmin model claim grounds warrant verifier backing for warrant qualifier and reservation Be able to correctly label the different parts of an actual argument What must a communicator do if a listener challenges or contests an element of the communicator39s argument ie grounds or warrant Give an example Define and be able to identify examples of the following kinds of reasoning generalization analogy sign reasoning causal reasoning reasoning by criteria what our book calls reasoning by definitions causal generalization amp reasoning by authority What steps does the text recommend for describing and analyzing argument What is the difference between a backing for a warrant and a verifier Why do wise advocates often include reservations in their claims How might such a person discover what reservations she needs to include in his or her reasoning Lecture 4Forms of Reasoning Define motivational authoritative and substantive warrants and give an example of each What criteria should one apply to test an authoritative warrant in an argument What criteria should one apply to test a generalization warrant in an argument What criteria should one apply to test an analogy warrants in an argument What criteria should one apply to test a causal reasoning warrant in an argument What criteria should one apply to test a sign reasoning warrant in an argument What criteria should one apply to test a reasoning by criteria warrant in an argument What criteria should one apply to test causal generalization warrant in an argument Explain the relationship between the reasoning warrants of causal reasoning and causal generalization a Chapter 3Making Sense of Argumentation Describe the five different critical approaches to critiquing arguments as making sense ie good reasons scientific reasoning coherent story telling postmodernism feminism Which of five approaches have traditionally regarded as quottraditionalquot Which of these five critical evaluation approaches do you consider to be most useful Explain Which of these five critical evaluation approaches do you consider to be least useful Explain What types of con ictsdisputes seem to be particularly resistant to resolution by argumentation Why has alternative dispute resolution grown in popularity as a method of managing disputes that have traditionally been handled via argument and adversarial systems Chapter 7 amp Lecture SUsing Evidence What is evidence What is reluctant evidence What is negative evidence Why do some argument spheres have a strong preference for documented evidence Describe how examples are commonly used as evidence What role do narrative conventions play in the effective use of examples as evidence Explain what role audience analysis should play in the selection of evidence Why is it important to refute evidence that the decisionm aker may be aware of that is contrary to your general persuasive case What types of reasoning most often use examples as evidence What problems can arise in selecting examples to use as evidence What can hypothetical examples be legitimately used for When should hypothetical examples be avoidedWhat practices can make examples more effective as evidence eg concreteness extended examples narrative What advantages do statistics have as a communication tool Compare and contrast the different types of statistics that are commonly used as evidence ie raw statistics measures of central tendency measures of variation probabilities probability trends inferential statistics estimating inferential statisticshypothesis testing What are some common ways that statistics are misused as evidence What practices can make statistics more effective as evidenceHow does the sphere of argument affect the value of specific types of evidence eg negative evidence documented evidence and the like Define the following kinds of testimonyeyewitness testimony hearsay testimony lay testimony expert testimony How can testimony be used to enhance the effectiveness of examples andor statistics What problems sometimes arise in the use of testimony What factors serve to enhance the effectiveness of testimony What factors tend to diminish the effectiveness of testimony Under what conditions is it particularly important for an advocate to use a twosided message which presents one39s case and refutes the arguments on the other side of the coin Describe Perella s hierarchy of evidence Give a concrete example for each of the six evidence levels in the hierarchy What kinds of evidence have an equivalent rank in this hierarchy Describe how Perella s hierarchy be used to assess the strength of evidence provided in support of a proposition What kinds of evidence are equivalent in value according to this hierarchy How can this hierarchy be used in comparing the quality of evidence between competing cases Give an example of how each of the following tests of evidence might be applied eg internal consistency corroboration source credibility source bias recency and completeness How can the use of two or more evidence tests serve to strengthen the confidence that we have in our evidence Why is source attribution essential when evidence is presented Describe how the different types of evidence can be employed to reinforce or complement each other Describe the principles for the effective use of evidence What special problems arise in evaluating the value of evidence collected from Internet sources eg Wikipedia Chapter 8 Support Values amp Lecture 6Usin2 Value Appeals What is a value Define and give examples of the following contrasting kinds of values ie instrumental vs terminal values concrete vs abstract values positive vs negative values perceptual premises vs value premises primary premises vs secondary premises What advantage is there in using value appeals based on values that the decisionmaker already believes in How are values organized as systems or value orientations How are values related to ethics How do values relate to argument spheres What roles do selfanalysis and audience analysis play in the selection and development of value appeals as support How does one go about discovering values of o qer people Where do you explore What do you pay attention to Regarding the values of self and the decisionmaker which set of values would one first exploit in developing one39s arguments ie overla What strategic options does the advocate have when she discovers a con ict between hisher values and those of the decisionmaker What are the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to contesting values disputing the value disputing the hierarchy disputing the criteria What realistic limitations are there with respect to obtaining value change in audience members Compare and contrast core values of religion and science respectively Why is it hard to resolve some of value conflicts between these two domains What three ways do advocates attempt to deal with argument clash between these two spheres Explain how the following tests of premises would be appliedinternal consistency external corroboration expert support clear definition results in good wide acceptance and sacrifice of more important principle Cha ter 9 S Credibilit amp Utilizin Credibili Presentation What advantages does the credible communicator have when it comes to advocacy Credibility is a judgment What does this imply What dimensions comprise credibility Credibility is a composite judgment What does this imply Credibility is dynamic What does this mean to the advocate What roles do one39s values have when it comes to an advocate s likely credibility with an audience How might this influence an advocate s strategy Distinguish between direct credibility secondary credibility and indirect credibility What strategies can a communicator employ to increase hisher credibility What factors or events may lead to a decrease in one39s credibility What are some common mistakes that people tend to make in judging credibility How can we avoid some of these mistakes What is the sleeper effect P 163 What does this suggest about using appeals to authority as one39s main source of support t O 5 Discuss some of the ways that advocate credibility is sphere dependent How does argument sphere in which one is operating affect how one would go about trying to enhance one39s credibility


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