The Social World
The Social World SOCG 105
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Yasmeen Paucek MD
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Forger Societies hunter gatherer societies Very often ignored or overlooked Chief focus is usually on modern societies within the eld of sociology Represent the Human EEA Evironment of evolutionary adaptation As organisms to a considerable extent we exhibit certain traits that have adapted to hunter gatherer skills which we still exhibit today This societal type that for the longest time our ancestors have lived in How do we study these old societies 1 Fossil records Provide info on camp site location Diet Dates of the emergence of modern human beings 2 Ethnographic Record Record of observations that survived around recent times Observations made by people who have studied these groups of people Somewhere around 200250 groups of hunter gatherer societies Human Relations Area Files HRAF by GP Murdock These socities that our ancestors lived in were relatively small in size Around 40 people At the low end around 25100 people Evidence that indicates that certain HG societies even exceeded 700800 individuals Probably relied heavily on shing a specialized form of hunting Larger socities tend to be shing societies Kwakiutl An Native American society that specialized in salmon shing and numbered in the thousands The population density tends to be very low in these societies Typically less than 1 person per square mile Communites that don t establish permanent settlements They are nomadic and establish camp sites lasting from anywhere between several days weeks or even months They don t move in random directions but rather a certain area of land in predictable patterns click Kung San A tribe in Africa One of the most welldocumented HG societies Access to water is crucial so in their loosely de ned area of land they move at certain times to nd water resources that spring up They even send out a band to retrace their steps to use the same resources Fertility patterns Relatively high Crude Birth RateCBR Measure of the of live births per year per 1000 population Tend to be around 25 per thousand In the US today its around 14 Check on Fertility l Lengthy period of nursing Up to 5 years of nursing Prolactan milk Fatty tissue has to be around 12 in order to have a normal productive cycle A fetus needs to survive by the mother having enough resources in her body to give it which drains caloriesEventually they would lose enough weight to become sterile 2 Intercourse prohibitions Some societies you cant have intercourse with your wife untill she was done nursing which took years 3 They don t know of abortion or contraceptive techniques Only abortion through hitting of the abdomen to kill the baby Contraception Included certain chemicals that acted as spermicide 4 Infanticideusually more aimed towards females than males Longterm check on fertility Mortality Crude Death Rate CDR Number of deaths in a given year per 1000 population Around 25 per 1000 accounts for why they didn39t grow as fast Relatively short life expectancey Roughly 30 years Accidents and infections took a very huge toll Excercised and ate relatively healthy diets They don39t suffer like us from what is known as quotdiseases of civilizationquot obesity tooth decay hypertension heart disease and cancers are virtually absent Discordance hypothesis Traits that emerged within an environmental Our ancestors only had two foods to satisfy them ripe fruit and honey We come into this world with traits that our ancestors used that were adaptive to their own environment The Paleolithic Prescription a book written by SB Eaton M Shartask M Konner Forager Societies are organized in terms of extended kinships There isnt a great deal of specialization its relatively modest and limited Tend to be organized around age and sex Age Children and Adults Adults are responsible for food and water protection from the elements and other rival tribes Make up the bulk of the productiveness in society Children Dont have formal work to do and don t really do much untill their right of passage around the time they made the transition to puberty Most of their time was spent playing They took part in socialization activities such as gathering fruit with mothers Males Tend to specialize in hunting activity weapons manufacturing spears arrows etc and warfare such as raiding other groups or defending themselves from the raiding of another group Also ritual activity is done by men and in many societies women are excluded Women Caring for the young and the offspring Tend to specialize in gathering of fruit and stuff like that Primarily responsible for food preparation The bulk of HG diet comes from hunting The bulk of work falls on women HG societies are the most nearly egalitarian societies Distribution of priviledge prestiege and authority These societies are big on sharing Food resources are very evenly shared especially meat resources Some individuals are more respected than others but its very modest Such as better hunters storytellers shamans people with healing skills and elders Elders have been around longer and know the history of the group There is collective decision making among the members In these groups the people who have the most prestige are listened to more often The fundamental difference between males and females in all sexual reproducing species anisogamy Females are those organisms that produce a relatively small number of relatively large resource rich gametes commonly called eggs Males produce vast quantities of tiny resource poor gametes commonly called sperm Raising children consisted of 4 or 5 years of nursing attention teaching and feeding until the child hits puberty Theory of Relative Parental Investment R Trivers Hinges on the fact that males and females theres a principal constraint on For the sex that invests more heavily quotusally but not always femalesquot the prinicipal constraint on reproductive success is access to materials By contrast for the sex that invests less heavily the principal constraint on reproductive success is sexual access to the sex that invests more heavily Polygamy 835 Monogamy 160 Polyandry 05 Neolithic Revolution The Stone age domestication of plants Horticultural Societies plant cultivation in small garden plots Herding of grazing animals Appeared first in dry temperate climates that allowed for cultivation This transition involved a technological improvement Individuals who lived in these socities were able to produce greater amounts of food and there were able to sustain larger populations Relative to forgers however HC societies face a decline in living standards HC work more hours of the day and week and earn a less adequate diet At 8000 BC the world population was roughly 10million CBR 40 1000 Children are typically weened by the time they are age 3 They tend to cultivate products that can be prepared properly so that young children can eat them CDR 40 1000 Death rates skyrocket because In any society that cultivate a very small number of crops sometimes just one or just the hearding of one type of animal and by relying so extensicley on just one type of foood it represents a monotinous diet with a lack of important nutrients and calories If something threatens that fundamental food supply it poses really big problems for them One bad harvest is a real problem and 2 or 3 is a complete disaster Increasing population density More ghts between individuals and between groups warfare and the risk of disease Social Structures Organized largely around the principal of kinship The status of age and sex is still a factor Differentiation and an increase in inequality Yanomama peoples of South America Napoleon Chagoon wrote about them They live in the Orinoco river basin At their peak 15000 Now they number 8000 The territory they occupy has been encroached upon Their prinicipal crop is plantains Prestife quotBig manquot leader of the Village owns the entire garden Relative to hunter gather societies we see a rise in the inequality of authority Yanamao Feirce men are known as unokais They value this and its obtained by killing a man and other acts of heroicness They have greater prestiege and a weild more authority when its decision making time Also the quotBig Manquot of the village has some amount of prestiege like leading or swaying opinion It is sacreligious to speak the name of dead ancestors if you belong to that family Unokais had an average of 163 wives and 491 children Non Unokais males had 063 wives and 159 children There begins to be more male to male competition for wives Multi community societies Men in some villages get in alliances with men from other villages They could be attacked at any time so its vital to have alliances or when they want to raid a village Alliance FOrmation Trading Mutual Feasting Very male dominated society Veiw women as objects that can be traded to men for other villages in exchange for their women Males in Horticultural Societies try to control Female Sexuality FGM Cliteradectomy delity issue if she doesn39t feel anything good from seX she is less likely to cheat Infubulation virginity insurance Relative parental confidence Pastoral Herding Societies Good book about PHS Red Tent Societal Type Agrarian SOcieitesstates Begin appearing about 5000 years ago in the near east Mesopotaimia Egypt Inca empire Aztec Empire in Mesoamerica Large elds genuine agriculture large citites permananent urban areas Greater degrees in inequality and differentiation Occupational specialization people concentrate on not only growing food but speci c crafts and guilds Metal smiths weavers etc The percentage of the town that was urban was around 10 very small 90 or more were agrarian peasents engaging in difficult work associated with rain crops All agrarian socitites were centered around grain crops like barely and shit EXtrordinary inequality political and economic Perhaps the greatest in history The ruling classes made about about 13 of the population and typically controlled 50 of the wealth produced sometimes much greater than that Average decline of living standards HOurs worked per day number of days and weeks worked strenuois work Declining average life expectancy The rise of Pristine States The emergence of a formal governmental apparatus Robert Camerio He published an article called the theory of the origin of the state What do we mean when we talk about the state quotAn autonomus political unit encompasing many communities within its territory and having a centralized government with the power to collect taxes draft men for work and war and decree and enforce laws V Gordan Childe quotStates were a natural outgrow of the agricultural revolutionquot SOcieties were able to produce a surplus of food more than what was need to survive making it possible for some individuals to remove themselves from that hard labor and being to specialize in other things like pottery black smiths manufacture of copper tools masons and whatnot People have many different interests and that is why states had come about so that people could do different things something like that Hydrolic Hypothesis Most commonly associated with Wittfogel In certain arid and semiarid regions of the world agriculture relied on the vast structures of irrigation which required a strong central authority a state for organizing and maintaing vast irrigation systems If you look at those regions of the world that required irrigation in all those cases the states appeared before the construction of them Warfare was used to explain the rise of states F Oppenheimer argues that states arose as a result of pastoral nomads conquering villagesWa1fare or violent competiton likely does play some role in the rise of states In all instances in early state formation its probably better to view warfare as a neccessary but not sufficient Theory of enviromental circumscription Ecological characteristics vary soil type altittude weather patterns temperature But they all share one similarity they all share agricultural circumscripted land Subsistence pressure on the land was relatively slight However warfare was frequent motivated by revenge stealing women prestiege etc Military conquest over territory was never a motivation COmmuities that were defeated were not driven from theyre land Nor do they try to subj egate or extract tribute from them Ifthey tried theyd have a difficult task of it Theycould easily pack up and move to another part of the forest the yanamamo The effect of warfare was to disperse villages but keep them relatively autonomus WHen land is a priority in war it escalates heavily Prod efficiency Cheifdoms amp Kingdoms Monopolizes weapons and violence policing and warefare to maintain order Redistributes wealth from peasentry to the elite class Build roads monuments palaces temples etc Political power grows and a small minority exerts its power over the masses Patterns of Population Growth in Agrarian Societies There is usually a steady growth untill a catasrophy happens like war or disease and the number plummets quickly Followed by a revovery and the pattern continues It seems as if they were affected by a cieliing which their numbers couldn39t pierce French Historian Femand Braudel wrote the structures amp everyday life Proposes an explaination for this pattern of growth argues that this pattern the biological old order ancieu regime which is common to all old societies 1 In all of these societies we observe a high level of fertility and mortality rates 40 per 1000 mortality rates uctuate a lot 2 In all of these socities we observe high rates of infant mortality 3We observe individuals having to content with famine widespread starvation One of the risks of living in any cultivation economy is that when you depend on one crop and theres a bad harvest there39s gonna be real serious problems Periodic Famine 4 The populations suffered from Chronic malnutrition A decline in average living standards Bulk of diet was bread and watered down ale beer mainly a peasent diet 5 Periodic outbreak of vicious disease communal disease Largely a function of the larger population sizes and density Smallpox measles etc Black death is a good example All of this is related to the vast decline of living standards The peasents majority of this society had to perform backbreaking labor and go with the demands of the ruling class There s a close correlation between economic growth amp political inequality and polygamy HG societies was relatively mild and as wealth and inequality grew so did polygamy In agrarian societies economic resources were very unequal as well the amount of polygamy A small percentage of men though had vast amounts of wives King soloman had 700 wives and 300 concubines he controlled sexual access to this amount of women Men like this monopolized sexual access to women Matt Ridley The Red Queen Pages 2531 Coevo lutionary theory Theories of this nature have been set forth by I 0 Charles Lumsden amp EO Wilson 0 Robert Boyd and Peter Richerson 0 William Durham Attempt to show that social evolution is a product of both genetic transmission and social or cultural transmission and that the two are closely intertwined Has not been especially effective in either describing or explaining social evolution over the long term Evolutionary Materialism Set forth by Stephen Sanderson Set forth in a highly detailed propositional manner Builds directly on Harris39s cultural materialism and is seen as a formalization and extenstion of it It accepts Harris s division of societies into infrastructure structure and superstructure but slightly reformulates the notion of infastructure Harris had divided economy into two subsistence placed in infrastructure and political economy placed in structure Sanderson kept them both together and placed them in infastructure 1 Infrastructure The raw materials and social forms relevant to human survival and adaptation 0 Technology The info tools and techniques that underlie economic action Economy The organized system whereby goods and services are produced distributed and exchanged among individuals and groups Ecology The totality of the physical or natural environment to which humans 0 0 must adapt o Demography The nature and dynamics of human populations and the technology of birth control 2 Structure The organized patterns of social behavior carried out among the members of a society excluding those social patterns that belong to the infrastructure I o Stratification Systems Class and caste divisions and the relationships between such groups O Racial and ethnic stratification Social Divisions based on putative physical andor cultural differences between and among groups Political Organization Structures of leadership and rule characteristic of a society Gender Roles and relations Social arrangements between the sexes with respect to power authority and rights and perquisites Family and Kinship Patterns of marriage and the organization of people into households and groups based on descent and genealogical affiliation O O O 3 Superstructure The shared ways in which members of a society think conceptualize evaluate and feel I o Beliefs values and norms Shared cognitive assumptions about truth and falsehood socially defined conceptions of worth and shared standards or rules regarding proper or improper social conduct 0 Religion Shared beliefs values and norms pertaining to postulated supernatural beings powers or forces 0 Science Techniques for the acquisition and accumulation of knowledge relying on systematic observation and experience 0 Art Symbolic images or representations having aesthetic emotional or intellectual value for the artistic producers and other members of society Evolutionary materialsm also contains a Principal of Infrastructural Determinism Sanderson s version of the prinicipal postulates that ecology and demography are the most frequent infrastructural determinents in smallscale societies resting on hunting and gathering simple agriculture or animal herding Pa1rallel Evolution Occurs when two or more societies evolve in basically similar ways and at similar rates Convergent Evolution Results when societies that have originally been dissimilar evolve in ways that make them increasingly alike Divergent Evolution occurs when originally similar societies evolve along lines of increasing dissimilarity Social continuity The relative lack of change from one generation or a whole series of generations to the next The smaller the society and the simpler its economy and technology are the less likely it is to undergo fundamental changes Social Devolution A reversal of evolutionary change it involves the movement of a society back to an earlier evolutionary stage or at least the adoption of some characteristics of societies at earlier stages of development Ex The Ik of Uganda lost their only way of subsistence when their land was turned into a game preserve Their population dwindled and they lost any social cohesion Also when a society grows too big to sustain itself and collapses ie the Roman Empire Social Extinction involves the complete obliteration of a society What is meant by calling social evolution an adaptive process Social patterns are created by humans as rational responses to the problems of existence that they confront and when the nature of these problems changes as invariably happens the responses must change as well Pages 3243 Hunter Gatherer societies live in small groups calledlocal bands These are groups of roughly 2550 men women and children who cooperate with each other in the quest for subsistence Each band is a more or less politically autonomus and economically selfsuf cient unit Local bands connected by intermarriage into a much larger cultural unit A network of bands all of whose members share the same cultural patterns and speak the same language Weapons technology used for hunting and gathering Spears bows and arrows nets and traps and digging sticks used for gathering plants Crude and simple usually made of bone wood stone and other natural materials There is typically no methods of food preservation so food is eaten immediately or within a short span of time HG societies lack any type of occupational specialization beyond subsistence tasks Failure to produce an economic surplus an excess of goods over and above what is needed for subsistence Simple huntergatherers those who don t store food Complex huntergatherers those who do store food What is the most important food to the Kung San With a diet consisting of primarily vegetables the mongongo or mangetti nut is the most important While hunter gatherer societies seem to be shitty to live in they actually provide adequate amounts of food with not too much work to be done and not much in the way of starvation In reality agricultural societies face these problems and more in much greater severity and frequency Primitive Communism Developed by Marx A type of society in which people subsisted by hunting and gathering or by simple forms of agriculture or animal herding and in which all of the vital resources of nature were held in common Marx believed that private ownership of resources by individuals or small groups was not found in these types of societies Contemporary social science proves Marx correct Everyone has equal acess to game and plants no one quotownsquot resources they use them Reciprocity HG s generally distribute economic goods through this process It39s the obligation to repay others for what they have given to or done for us the actual act of repaying others There are two types of reciprocity I o Balanced occurs when individuals are obligated to provide equivilent and often immediate repayment to others Lack of exploitation Generalized occurs when individuals are obligated to give to others without expecting any immediate or equivilent repayment Does not involve any direct or open agreement just a general understanding that you will be repayed with no time limit It is extremely important to their overall economy and hoarding and boastfullness are serious threats to this They look out for one another because in return they will be looked after 0 HG socities lack social stratification but still face some inequality to a certain degree Men typically have more power than women Older people are more trusted than younger people Certain characteristics are looked highly upon such as courage or hunting skills and are given a certain prestige to them Typically people in these categories take leadership postions because they are trusted This doesn t mean they get special privileges or anything like that rather they are first among equals Everyone has the same oppurtunites No one gets to be in a prestigious postion based on any social heirarchy or heredity Sometimes described as egalitarian societies because of their emphasis on communal wellbeing and general social equality Food storing societies have a higher degree of strati cation than do non food storing societies Leadership typically isn t seen as an important authority most of he time a headman can t force someone to do something Pages 4356 Simple horticultural societies Live in small villages roughly 100200 people in size Intervillage ties exist ceremonies number in the 1000 s Live in heavily forested areas and practice a form of cultivation known as slash and bumshifting cultivation I o This technique involves cutting down a section of forest growth and then setting re to the accumlated debris The remaining is used as fetilizer and crops are grown on this plot of land Men are responsible for the slash and burn and women are the ones who plot the land Since it takes the soil 2030 years to regenerate fallow periods they must have a lot more land at their disposal Plants constitute the bulk of their diet but a number of them also posses domesticated animals such as pigs For the ones that dont have domesticated animals they have to hunt or sh for animal protein They produce more food per unit of land than HG and some produce small economic surpluses but that doesnt mean they have a higher standard of living Its a more intensive system of technology than hunting and gathering but it does not lead to greater material bene ts Primitive Communism in the strict sense doesn39t prevail here 0 O 0 Napoleon Chagnon Principal Ethnographer of the yanomama tribe of south america Lineage ownership occurs when largescale kinship groups known as lineages hold property in common The most important property is land Property is still used communally What39s the difference between lineage ownership and primitive communism Lineage ownership is more exclusive or more restrictive inasmuch as it makes ownership and use of valueable resources dependent on kinship group membership Not all members of that society have equal to the forces of production even though all the members of the same lineage do Redistribution When this occurs products are funneled from individual households to a central source and then returned to those households in some sort of systematic manner It differes from reciprocity in that redistribution is a more formalized process involving the movement of goods into the hands of some person or group that serves as the focal point for their reallocation There are two types I 0 Pure The redistributive process is complete in the sense that the redistributive agent reallocates all goods and keeps no extra portion for himself 0 Partial The redistributive process is incomplete inasmuch as the redistributive agent retains a portion of the goods for his own use Big men Extremely ambitious men who seek prestige and renown through their roles as organizers of economic production Ifthey fail in their duties keeping too much for themselves not sufficiently generous they39re typically killed Rank Societies Defined by Morton Fried A society in which positions of valued status are somehow limited so that not all those of sufficient talent to occupy such statuses actually achieve them Douglas Oliver The Siuai of Bougainville s principal ethnographer Intensive horticultural societies Dependent on cultivated garden products for the bulk of their food supply Cultivate by slash and burn method Some have domesticated animals and other hunt or fish for animal protein EX Hawaii Polynesia Tonga Tahiti etc How do simple and intensive horticultural societies differ The length of time that land is allowed to fallow Intensive usually cuts it down to less time 510 years thus cropping a given plot of land almost continuously EX Ancient Hawaii To compensate for the over cropping of the land more fertililzer is added to the soil such as animal manure People work harder and longer The use of hoes to cultivate the land More productive per unit of land Bigger economic surpluses Higher standard of living Paramount Ownership An evolutionary variation on the theme of lineage ownership This type of ownership is ordinarily found among more intensive horticultural societies Prevails when a powerful individual a cheif who is the head of a lineage of an entire village or a vast network of integrated villages claims personal ownership of the land within his realm and attempts to deprive those persons living on this of full rights to its use Social Strati cation Three Main social classes I o Cheifs o subcheifs o Commoners These classes are distinguished by their differences in Social Rank Power Dress amp Omamentation Patterns of consumption of luxury goods Direct involvment in economic production availability of leisure time general styles of life The dominant class was a small minority consisting of powerful people who lived off the economic surpluses of those below them in rank An intermediate class of officials and specialists served the fancies of the dominant class and carried out some of the lesser functions of political rule The lowest class consisted of the large marjority of ordinary people who were in charge of producing enough goods to the support the top two classes OOOOOOO Politically they have been organized into chiefdoms Marked by the integration of many seperate villages into a centrally coordinated compleX whole governed from the top down Pages 5781 Agrarian Societies First arose approximately 5000 years ago in Egypt and mesopotamia and slightly later in China and India There are no true agrarian societies left in the world Rested upon true agriculture land is cleared of all vegitation and cultivated with the use of animal powered plow Fields are extensively fertilized and fallow periods are either really short or nonexistent Relied on either rain farming or irrigation Work much harder than earlier societies Produce more per unit of land and than do horticulturalists and large economic surpluses yet also have a much lower standard of living Most of its members are peasants who are the primary producers Some societies have had slaves work the land as well Ex Midievel Europe Seigneurial Ownership Prevails when a small class of persons generally known as landlords claims private ownership of vast tracts of land on which there live and work peasents or slaves who pay rent and taxes and provide labor services to these lords Was the prevailing mode of ownership in mideval europe Eric Wolf called this type of ownership Patrimonial o Patrimonial Land is privately owned by a class of landlords who inherit it through family lines and who personally oversee its cultivation o Prebendal Exists when land is owned by a powerful government that designates officials to supervise its cultivation and draw an income from it 0 Ex Large beurecratic states like China Persia India Surplus Expropriation The distributive mode characteristic of agrarian societies Occurs when a class of landlords compels another class of dependent economic producers to produce a surplus from their fields and relinquish it to them The surplus is handed over in the form of rent taxation of various sorts and various types of labor services Differences between expropriation and partial redistribution Landlords have more power than chiefs and they use this power to place more economic burdems on pasents than chiefs are even capable of doing with their followers The ow of goods and services between lords and peasants is way more unequal than chiefs and commoners Lords have no obligation to redistribute wealth back to peasants Peasants had to produce for both themselves and their lords providing for increased toil They were required to pay taxes on everything from fishing to grain grinding making them completely dependent on their lords Stratification increases dramatically A majority of people are subjected to into conditions of extreme poverty and degradation An immense gap in power and priviledge and prestige that existed between the dominant and subordinate classes Most highly strati ed of all preindustrial societies Social Classes in Agrarian societies 0 A politicaleconomic elite consisting of the ruler and his royal family and a land owning governing class 0 King or monarch and the and the people who owned the land and who recieved bene ts from it A great portion of wealth typically goes to this class 0 The retainer class 0 People directly employed to serve the ruling class professional soldiers of cals household servants etc o The Merchant class 0 Engaged in commercial activity and were a vital part of the agrarian urban economy The Priestly class 0 O Close allies with rulers The peasentry O O Treated like shit and taxed alot but it varied among regions and time periods Looked down upon compared to livestock and were considered less than human 0 Artisans O Trained Craftsmen made a shitty salary even worse than peasents and lived in shitty conditions EXpendables O O Bottom of the barrel people Prostitutes beggars thieves outlaws etc Had a very high death rate People were born into classes heredity and there was little to no possibility of upward mobility mostly downward Corvee forced labor system Peasants were obligated to provide so many days of labor either for their lord or for the state When the chiefdom is backed by the administrative machinery necessary to overpower resistance the political society known as quotthe statequot has evolved This type of political structure prevails in nearly all agrarian societies Holding a monopoly of force is crucial to the state Characteristics of the state The state emerges under conditions in which the signi cance of kinship ties is reduced Rulers can be assholes because they39re not ruling over their families but a mass of unrelated individuals Promote elaborate legitimizing ideologies Rulers commonly attempt to convince people of their moral right to rule Religion is often used to assure authority Unlike cheifdoms states have generally not been redistributive centers The ow of surplus has always been one way to the ruling class Pastoralism Pastorial Nomadism a highly specialized subsistence adaptation found in arid regions of the world poorly suited to agriculture Its based on the tending of animal herds rather than the growing of crops It is an alternative to agriculture in environments where aridity makes cultivation of the land difficult or impossible Animals kept include sheep goats camels etc They get their vegetables by trading with agricultural neighbors They travel in small groups that usually dont exceed 100200 people Population densities are low usually around fewer than 5 persons per square mile Most famous historical group are the mongols Many pastoral societies are organized into uncentralized tribes that are highly egalitarian and in which political leadership is informal and leaders lack any real power or authority EX The Nuer of Sudan and by contrast Basseri of Iran who have built a society considerably more developed than pastoral groups like the Nuer Evolution of Subsistence Technology Ester Boserup proposed that people have no desire to advance their level of technology and people wish to make a living as easily as possible New Technologies have people working much harder They only swith when conditions compel them to do so 0 Population Pressure Exists when population grth causes people to press against food resources As the number of mouths to feed increases people eventually deplete their resources and have to intensify production As populations grew people entered a food crisis and therefore had to increase production They became willing to work harder because they had more to gain from it Intensification of agricultural production 0 Surplus theory Presented by Gerhard Lenski Assumes that humans are essentially selfinterested creatures who strive to maximize their own wellbeing Cooperation works when it helps with their self interests and competition works when it doesn39t Competition usually arises when there is a surplus and people want to control it Technological advance is key to the evolution of political economy Law of Least effort Boserup People prefer to carryout subsistence activities by expending a minimal amount of time and energy Scarcity Theory the ultimate cause of the evolution of economic life and increasingly unequal social structures is population pressure Pages 1821 History of Sociology Can be traced back to the writings of Plato and Aristotle Philosophers of that time were already speculating about societies comparing them to others and what shaped them The term sociology first appeared in the writtings of frenchman Auguste Comte THough sociology was developed in Europe it was more popular in the US Herbert Spencer was an in uencial 19th century sociologist from England After WWI sociology changed a lot It became increasingly concerned with contemporary american society and not so much other societies or the interest in the historical dimension of human experience Structural Functional Analysis Came as a result of trying to find a new theory for sociology to relate to american society Concerned with the identi cation and labeling of the many different parts of the things they study and with the structural relations among them Interested in functions of institutions like family and moral rules However it ignores important things like con ict and change Several Research Traditions of sociology Symbolic Interactionalismconstructionalism I o Primarily concerned with microsociological issues and focuses on the means by which individuals make sense of their social situations Structural Functionalism I o Primarily concerned with the mutual interdependence of the parts of societies MarxistCon ict I o Emphasizes societal con ict and the role it plays in transforming society Ecological Evolutionism I o Focuses on the relationship between parts of society and the relationships of societies to their enviroments are affected by and affect their development Revival of Macrosociology Many of the worlds problems could have macrosociological solutions Microsociologicval trends such as the changing roles of family women etc are hard to explain without first understanding Macrosociology Pages 78103 How did we evolve Our Earliest ancestors began to walk on two legs and hunt small animals for subsistence Their behavior was linked to changes in anatomy including skull and hips but the most important was the upright stance This allowed them free acess of thier hands and they used the to examine sticks and stones and shit which eventually led their brains to evolve Their brains became bigger esp the cerebral cortex their physical frame became bigger improved handeye coordination and a better capacity to cooperate and communicate How did hominids switch to a omnivorous diet change them Increasing dependence on meat lead to a division of labor in the sexes The formation of durable bonds between males and females In other primate societies the family centers on the mother and her young and adult males are not involved This changed with humans When chimps divide up meat is when they communicate most intensely humans started doing this as well with grunts and hip movements Hunting big game required planning communicating remembering and manuvering Those who were best at this survived and reproduced Thereby increasing human brain capacity Also the social ties of primitive men Fire allowed hominids to cook use against predators warmth light and set them apart from all other species It also got them involved in religious experiences and shit and connected them with other societies It took a long time for hominids to develop The spear thrower was a great weapons innovation at the time they even added bone and barbs to it but the greatest was the bow and arrow Many other tools were developed as well including spoons and the like People also built earthen homes when caves were not available Art was a tremendous innovation of the time Why didnt all this change take place at an earlier or later time Why specifically this certain time period This cultural revolution resulted from critical advances in language Once a biological point was reached in symbolism then the threshold was reached to allow language to rapidly proceed Innovation led to a higher population but it didnt grow much because of high death rate s Hunter Gatherer Societies of the Recent Past Though more advanced societies sprang up HG societies still ourished in many parts of the world As recent as 1788 austrailia alone had over 5000 HG socieites Nomadism HG societies move around quite often as frequently as weekly and those that stay in permamanent residences either rely on fishing or have an abundance of natural resources Moves are easy since they have little possesions Moves occur because the food supply has been exhausted but also because someone has died someone had a bad dream etc because these are all viewed as bad omens Allan Homberg Lived among the Siriono of eastern Bolivia Their headman isnt really that important The Bergdama of southwest Africa39s headman is treated with universal respect and has some considerable pull with his followers Dealing with disputes is taken into the hands of the group members Either by banishment or exclusion from religious practices The Andaman Islanders give honor and respect to 3 kinds of people 1 Older People 2 People endowed with supernatural powers 3 People with certain personal qualities skills in hunting warfare etc Religion Animism o The belief that spirits inhabit virtually everything in the world of nature rocks trees humans animals etc These spirits are constantly involved in human affairs either helping or harming Shamans attempt to control these spirits like helping when a child is sick but are like headmen in that they intervene only when needed Shamans are highly regarded however and usually receive gifts for helping 0 Education Boys and girls learn from play and observation of their elders When they reach proper age usually around puberty they have a rite of passage for boys its a sometimes painful experience to show strength and courage which then allows them into tribal lore and secrets Also helps them to be independent Differences Between Prehistoric and Modern HG societies In modern HG societies there are some elements that have originated in more advanced societies metal tools some religious ideas etc Modern HG have had no opportunity to expand into new territory and therefore population growth has been impossible deaths have to equal births Modern industrial societies have often forced HG s out of their land to use it for farming or herding Pages 104136 3 things that contributed to the switch from hunting and gathering to horticulture 1 Environmental Change 2 Population Grth 3 Growth in cultural information and technology Women tend to do the bulk of work in horticultural societies leaving men with a lot of free time Neolithic Era New Stone Age The period in which horticulture appears to have been the primary means of subsistence The permanence of settlements was a very important consequence of the shift to horticulture Archaeologists discovered more possessions in this type of society than previous ones Jericho and Catal Huyuk were 2 major horticultural cities that numbered in the thousands and relied heavily on trade Results of Trade An increase in record keeping such as business transactions An increase in occupational specialization still largely limited though The domestic arts pottery and weaving increased Increase in warfare Not 100 sure why it increased so drastically Could have been because of the scarcity of land to cultivate Could have been a substitute for hunting Consequence of Horticulture As these societies grew it became increasingly harder for HG societies to continue their way of life Nowhere is ancestral worship greater than in horticultural societies This could be because they live in such close proximity to their buried ancestors Metallurgy is used to differentiate between simple and advanced horticultural societies They were advanced only if the use of metal tools was widespread Europe and the Middle East used copper China used Bronze Africa used Iron Metal played a large role in military religious and artistic aspects but not in subsistence activities The most important thing to come about from the switch to horticulture was the production of an economic surplus This allowed people to do other things besides merely trying to survive and specialize in things MDCs More developed countries Western countries like America Europe Japan LCDs Least Developed Countries Shitty countries China is placed here regardless of wealth because of 18th century first evidence of production ex great britain 1750 The global situation An enourmous and rapid growth in human numbers In 1650 the world population was around 640million In 201069 billion in that time frame we ve seen a 10fold increase in human numbers To calculate this you take the number 70 and divide it by the Natural Increase Its currently 12 In recent decades the rate of natural increase has been declining somewhat It used to be 2 making the doubling time 35years Its gone down because of child laws in China and India Global population pressures hurt environmental integrity when it comes to getting natural resources violence in competing for scarce resources These concerns lead to the eld of Demography Thomas Robert Malthus 1798 Published An Essay on the Principal of Population growth Outlined 2 axioms that has been come to known as the Malthusian Trap An axiom is a statement that assumes to be true 1 Food is Necessary for Human Existence 2 Heterosexual passion is a biological constant between the sexes Assuming that it is we can expect humans to engage in sexual behavior producing offspring Populations tend to grow in a particular way exponentially or geometrically like ameobas If number 2 is true that means that people will have to produce more food to sustain these populations Malthusian Trap Matlhuses observation that populations grow at rates that will ultimately outstrip the availability of resources needed to sustain them His 6th edition came out later with crucial modifications 1 Population Size is limited by the means of subsistence 2 As the means of subsistence increase population size increases unless prevented by powerful checks Positive Checks Anything that can be construed as a Disease Poverty Warfare Preventative Checks Any thing that will lower the number of births Sexual Activity was for procreation only not for pleasure Malthus was very conservative Knew about contraception but thought it was morally wrong Only 3 appropriate forms Urged men and women to wait to get married in later ages Urged men and women to avoid unncessary sexual activity Warfare Ifmen go off to war and wives remain faithful that will lower the fertility rate As the means of subsistence increases so does the population As conditions improve for individuals it will only encourage them to have more babies Eventually they will be brought back down to subsistence levels Any assistence offered to the poor would serve to increase their ability to procreate more Darwin used this to create his theory of natural selection 1 Matlthus39s vision of the human future was very bleak and pessimistic In the long run he believed it was highly unlikely that humanity would be able to experience long term 2 The evidence seemed to be working against Malthus s theory Many countries are an example of this He underestimated the capacity for industrial longevity i think Demographic Transition Long term shift from conditions of relatively high fertility and mortality rates to relatively low fertility and mortality rates France and Great Britain are the first we observe with Demographic Transistion Around 1840 1850 death rates start to come down untill they level off and remain constant Birthrates remained relatively high but lowered around the 1930s and was almost in equilibrium with crude death rate ZPG Zero population growth Less than 01 of growth MDC More developed Countries 18 of the world s population lives in these LDC Less developed countries 82 of the worlds population The crude death rate for ldc39s is less than the CDR of MDCs 810 This is because the populations of MDCs are older the pop of LDCs is much lower Death rates in recent years have declined in LDCs which is attributable to the spread of western agricultural techniques the green revolution and the spread of western medical technology greater availability of antibiotics Birth rates have declined but not by much Growth rate is 14 of LDCs Excluding china its 19 NeoMalthusian Revival Paul Erlich in the 1960s published a book entitled the Population Bomb He asserted that by the middle part of this century we d use up all natural resources Argues on the behalf of 2 positions 1 We needed to check rates of population growth Such as china and their one child policy 2 Denella Meadows Rates of extraction of resources rate of urbanization rates of polution what might happen in a few years Industrial society would collapse Julian Simon Book The Ultimate Resource The actual known reserves for those resources has grown However it s still a nite amount Subsistituion Material we ll find new resources to use once we run out He puts great faith in the human mind Relied on an economic analysis Looked at long term changes in the prices of certain commodities It indicated that we re not running out of these resources they re actually becoming more plentiful Its been criticized by many scientists and economists Him and Erlich had a very public debate Simon bet Erlich that in 10 years from that day prices of Copper Chrome Nickel Tin and Tungsten will go down Some dude Figure out his name soon Life expectancy in MDCs is much greater than any other society This is evident because of a lack of polution Fails to neglect nuclear and toxic waste Pages 82105 Associated with the rise of capitalism The emergence of increasingly largescale and powerful nationstates The rise of an international system of states Marketplace A physical site where goods and services are brought for sale and where buyers assemble to purchase these goods and services In precapitalist societies these are physical sites found at a small number of designated locations within the society In modern capitialism the marketplace is quotdiffusequot meaning that it is spread pervasively throughout society Market Not a physical place but a social institution or a set of social relationships organized around the process of buying and selling valuables Paul Bohannan amp George Dalton 1962 Distinguished 3 kinds of societies with respect to their relationship to the market marketless societies peripheral market societies and market dominated societies Marketless Societies have neither markets nor marketplaces There might be some buying and selling but these are casual and few and far between Subsistence is thereby provided by mechanisms of reciprocity or redistribution EX The Yanomamo KungSan Pretty much all HG and Horticultural groups Peripheral Market Societies Have market places but market principals don39t organize economic life People do not receive their subsistence through the market place Found quite frequently among intensive horticulturalists and almost universally in agrarian societies EX The Aztecs in Mexico Had a system of traveling merchants known as pochtecah Also signi cant in Medieval Europe known as fairs Fairs combined social holiday religious festival and intense economic activity Market Dominated Societies Have both markets and marketplaces and the market principle the principle of buying and selling goods according to the forces of supply and demand governs all important decisions concerning production distribution and exchange Various types of reciprocity and redistribution may be found but they are of very minor significance Only societies characterized by this are those characterized as modern capitalist societies Sanderson and Alderson Pay close attention to stratification like inequalities in pay jobs etc Average increase in living standards in industrialized societies Doesn t mean there isnt a great deal of inequality Why have we observed these declines Gerhard Lenski 1966 Power and Privledge Set out to nd a general theory of stratificication in human socieity The core of his theory is 5 axioms Of which he derives the 2 laws of distribution Acess it on blackboard THe greater the level of surplus produced the greater the level of inequality from HG Societies Industrial A good way to measure the surplus is a socieities technological development Turns out when it comes to Industrial socieites the surplus is huge but inequality starts to decline so lenski39s theory doesnt hold up The reason is because the elites are soooo wealthy that they can redistribute their wealth not greatly affecting their vast amounts of wealth so that the lower classes won39t rebel In the early stages there was a great degree of labor unrest however As industrialism progresses there is a greater investment in human capital so that they can perform better in their jobs Two types of human capital General Human Capital Basic Skills Speci c Human Capital Trained skills shows that workers are not so easily interchangeable This allows workers to have a bargining chip In the old days factories could find and replace anyone but as the nature of work beecame more specialized they became harder to replace They are now able to ask for better work conditions and shit This has contributed to the rise of the middle class Gross National Income Per Purchasing Power GNI PPP To what extent is the gap between MDCs and LDCs 159 currently WHile the soviets help to dramatically decrease economic inequality they did so at the price of increased political inequality Emile durkheimovertime we have moved from living in relatively small small societies organized by mechanical solidarity to bigger societies organized by organic solidarity The vast majorioty of us live in societies that are much more territoritly vast Our process of reciprocity got way more complex We live in what is known as Megasocieties Most of our social lives depend on the people who we are most intimate with family and close friends Robert Dunbarwe are cognitively able to sustain close relationships with no more than 150 people dunbars number Despite the fact that we do interact with a wide array of diverse others we are most attached to those who mostly resemble ourselves Homophilywe tend to affiliate with those who are the same as us One aspect of it that has been extensively studided which is whom we choose to marrymate with Assottitive Mating people tend to choose mates who are similar to them Opposites do not attract Levels of educational attainment geographical proximity proprinquity patterns of residence religious preference leisure activites musical preferences etc WG Summer Folkways 1906 As organisms we are ethnocentric creatures We chill with others who share our ethnic heritage Who39s apart of the ingroup and the outgroup This is an innate impulse in humans Its not that we simply distinguish between us and them but we assert that our beliefs and traditions are different than the outgroup but that they are better as well These ethnic models are along the most potent ways we distinguish between one another COmpetition among ethinic groups is the largest form of competition between peoples Ethnic con ict Represents the most serious division among people EX The US has struggles with ethnic issues all over Between 34 million people died due to ethnic con ict in the last half of the 20th century Doesnt account for the millions displaced There is a close linkage to religion Ethnoreligious identity EX Iraq India Nepotistic Kinfavorism Our ancestors we always willing to sacrifice their lives for their ancestors Ethnicity is not the only dimension with which people make these distinctions about outsiders Class divisions at a very fundamental level Karl Marx was right Since the rise of class divided societies people have aligned themselves with people ofthe same class and have come into con ict with people of another class
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