Civl Engr Measurements Lab
Civl Engr Measurements Lab CIVL 1101
University of Memphis
Popular in Course
Popular in Civil Engineering
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Yundt on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIVL 1101 at University of Memphis taught by Charles Camp in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/228416/civl-1101-university-of-memphis in Civil Engineering at University of Memphis.
Reviews for Civl Engr Measurements Lab
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/23/15
CIVL 1101 Water Treatment Introduction to Filtration I Basis water treatment consists of f ur processes I Coaguiation I Sedimentation I Fiitr atian I Disinfection i 5 Water Treatment I Coagulation I This process heips removes dirt and other particies suspended in I chemicais are adde to titer to t rm tiny sticky particies caiied ue which attract the dirt particies I Coagulation I The combined iiiieig t of the dirt ndt e tioc particies became heavy enough to sink to the battam MN 9 sedimentati i I g Water Treatment I Sedimentatio I The heavy particies tioc settie to the bottom an the ciear water moves to fiitratian I Filtration I The water passesthraugh fiiters some made iayers otsanst gravei and charcoai tha ip remove smaiier particies I Disinfection I A smaii amount of chiarine is added or same other disinfection methad is used to i i any bacteria or microorganisms that may be in the wetter CIVL 1101 Introduction to Filtration 213 J Water Treatment Water Treatment amp 1 II aagaiaoia Aluminum er irsn salts plus enemicals 2 H called polymers are mixed Wirn rne water to make 3 JinnHquot riie particles in riie water sick tage z ssiII Tne csagulared articles are slawl 39 3quotquot mixed scrnar rney can callidepand farm larger y 5 particles known as flee l quotquotquotM39quot Sadimlh u Water flaws rnrcugn a large tank 7 Shiiizt iiinicn allciiis the flee to seirle tatne battam of I alien quota use m e tan and be remsve snplcs 4 sums Water is passedtl39iraugl39i rilrers made of sand and anrnracire csal ta rilrer out remaining particles Water Treatment Water Filtration s D39silfvdl ciilcrine is added to reduce risks frcm I Filtration is used to separate remaining bacteria and other diseasecausing quotonsemeabie solids from wafer and gfggmf 32ng WW WW WW9 t wastew t r b assini it throuih a 5 H aridho Flucride is added to provide dental P quot S mad39mquot benefirs Sh izHu Small amounts cf lime calcium I The most common system is filtration nydrcXide cr sadium nydrcXide are added to make Through a la ered bed of granular ne water less carrcsive to pipes and plumbing media usual y a coarse amhmcife cool I all and east wNII surplus underlain by a ner sand it i3 Q Water Filtration Water Filtration I Filters may be classified according to the types of media used as follows I In water treatment all riiree types are used newever rne dual and mul tlmedla rilrers are becaming increasin a u ar I 5251 midi fins tnese nave cne type of 9 W P me ia usually sand or crusned anrnracire ccal I Filtration was actually devela ed prior to rne discovery mne germ theory by Louis asteur in France I D39gl39quotd 5 T95HH V9W Wei d I Tne firsr sand rilrer beds were constructed in the me ia usua y crus e an raci e can an san my 1500 mermsmm I Particle remcval is accamblisned only wnen rne particles make bnysical Contact iiiirn rne surface er rne rilrer medium I Mlllinldil rims Tnese nave rnree types er media usually crusned anrnracire csal sand and garnet Introduction to Filtration 313 CIVL 1101 ii Water Filtration Water Filtration amp a G I Larger particles may be removed by straining FlocPartlcle Q lt9 G g lt7 a v a vinimcpnon a I Particles may also be removed by se imentation I Others may be intercepted by and adh the surface of the medium due to iner are to tia I Filtration efficiency is greatlyincreased by destabilization or coagulation of the particles prior to filtration Fllter Media J Water Filtration Water Filtration Gravity GranulaPMadia Filtration Gravity GranulaPMadia Filtration Because of the reduction in pore area the h the remaining voids I Gravity filtration through beds of granular velocity of water throug media is the most c mmon method removing increases shearing off pieces of capture floc and carrying impurities deeper into the filter bed colloidal impurities in water processing I Initially surface straining and interstitial removal results in accumulation of deposits in t 2 upper P quot quot of the filter media The effective zone of removal passes deeper and deeper into the filter IR Water Filtration Water Filtration r Turbidity Gravity GranulaPMadia Filtration Turbidity is a measurement of the clarity of water Eventually clean bed depth is no longer available and breakthrou h occurs carry in solids out in the underflovi and causing termination of the C on ad water is caused by suspended Particles filter run scattering or absorbing the lig t Turbidity is an indirect measurement of the amount of suspended matter in the water CIVL 1101 Introduction to Filtration 413 Water Filtration it 5 Water Filtration Turbidity Slow Sand Filtration owever since solids of different sizes shape I The early filtration units developed in Great Britain and surfaces reflect light differently turbidity 5rd PINIC39ZSS 39quot Wh39Cl39 quotquot2 hydraul39c balding quot2 395 and suspended solids do not correlate well quot2 quotquot2 Y Typical slow sand filtration velocities are only about 0 4mllr Turbidity is normally gauged with an instrument t at measures the amount of light scattered at uquot unge of 90 from u source beam At these low rates the filtered contami penetrate to an appreciable depth within the filtration dl ants do not t39 t Water Filtration Q Water Filtration Slow Sand Filtration Slow Sand Filtration The filter builds up a layer of filtered contaminants on the surface which becomes the active filtering medium cleaned by taking them off line 39 i b lsaningllller Slow sand filters are and draining them The organic or contammant layer s then scraped off The filtercan then be restarted Afterwaterquality s an acceptable level the filtercan then be put reache back on l ne L Water Filtration Water Filtration a a Rapid Sand Filtration Rapid Sand Filtration In rapid sand filtration much higher application In the Lhited States filter application rates are often used expressed as volumetric flowrate per area or galmin ft2 which is actually a velocity with atypical units velocities are ltration occurs th rough the depth of the i ter A comparison of rapid and slow sand filtration is shown ow Applleallun Rate galfllday in the table Flttratlun Type Applleallun Rate mhr gavfllday mhr CIVL 1101 Introduction to Filtration 513 1 WaTer FilTraTion Rapid Sand FilTraTion The waTer above The filTer provides The hydraulic pressure head for The process The filTer medium is above a larger gravel rock or oTher media for supporT Below The rock is usually an underdrain supporT of some Type The waTer flows Through The filTer and supporT media exiTing from a pipe below WaTer FilTraTion WaTer FilTraTion Rapid Sand FilTraTion WATER LEVEL AIR SC39UU Fl F FILUEM MCQKWASH WaTer F i lTraTion Rapid Sand FilTraTion MosT modern filTers employ Two separaTe filTer media in layers The lower layer is compOSed of a denSe fine media ofTen sand The upper layer is compOSed of a less denSe coarSe media ofTen anThraciTe coal The coarse upper layer removes larger parTicles before They reach The fine layer allowing The filTer To operaTe for a longer period before clogging WaTer FilTraTion Rapid Sand FilTraTion As The filTer begins To clog from accumulaTed solids less waTer will pass Through iT AT some poinT cleaning is required Usual filTer operaTion before cleaning is from a few hours To 2 days Cleaning is accomplished by reversing The flow of waTer To The filTer or backwashing WaTer F i lTraTion Rapid Sand FilTraTion ater supply Backflush water r 39Backflush suppw Backflush supply Filtered water Underdrain support l Underdrain support Operation during filtration Operation during cleaning CIVL 1101 Introduction to Filtration WaTer39 FilTraTion 613 Rapid Sand FilTraTion The backwash velociTy is sufficienT To fuH zeThe bed ThaT is To suspend The be wiTh The reverse flow AfTer backwashing The filTer is again placed in operaTion WaTer39 FilTraTion Rapid Sand FilTraTion rmnwa WaTer39 FilTraTion bx Egg WaTer39 FI lTr39aTIon Tradifional FilTraTion A Typical scheme for waTer filTraTion consisTs o flocculaTion wiTh achemical coagulanT and sedimenTaTion prior To filTra ion Pulymer cuagulanl Alum up ulher Tradifional FilTraTion Under The force of graviTy waTer passes downwa Through The media ThaT collecT The floc and parTicles Alum Influenl gtogt Pulymer cuagulanl menun 1 1710 gpm z up ulher cuagulanl Effluenl cuagulanl Imm39 memn r 1710 gpm z Rapid mix ng Rapid Wing l 30 minules l 30 minules r WaTer39 FIlTr39aTIon WaTer39 FilTraTion Tradifional FilTraTion When The media become filled or solids break Through a filTer bed is cleaned by backwashing Alum up mm Pulymer cuagulanl Tradifional FilTraTion FilTraTion raTes following flocculaTion and sedimenTaTion are in The range of 210 glamFT2 wiTh 5 glamFT2 normally The maximum design r Pulymer cuagulanl menun v 1710 gpm z Alum up ulher Effluenl cuagulanl Influenl gtogt cuagulanl Imm39 memn v 1710 gpm z Rapid mixing Rapid Wing l nules l nules CIVL 1101 Introduction to Filtration 713 J Water Filtration Direct Filtration The pracess af direct filtratiari dues hat iriclude sedimentation prior w fiiraian Alum or other coagulant Polymer coagulant Effluent Intiuem apimimm m an minutls Rapid Wing t 3n Mme Water Filtration Direct Filtration The impurities remaved fram the water are callected arid stared iri the filter Alum or other coagulant Polymer coagulant Effluent Influent ow mi mm m an minutls Rapid Wing t 3n Mme Water Filtration Direct Filtration cmm flacculatiari cf the chemically caogulated particles in the water takes place in the granular media Alum or other coagulant Polymer coagulant Influent WW Rapid Wing t 3n Mme 7 Water Filtration Direct Filtration Successful advances in airee filtration are attributed to Develupment uf cuarserturfine mult media fitters Impruved backwashing systems and Availability at better pulymer cuagulants Filtration rates in direct filtration are usually 16 gpmft2 Water Filtration Hytbaulic Loading Rate Let s compute the hydraulic loading rate an ear filters iri lab Flawrate 1000 mein Area af filter 3 5 inchdiometer filter Hame 1 ad I f 7 a I a 2 Area 71000 V quotX 19am X1441 39 3785m 2 Water Filtration Hytbaulic Loading Rate A hydraulic loading rate of 3 954 gpm zeaaia be classified as 1 A highend direct filtration 16 gpmft 2 A midrange rapid him range of 210 gpmt39t mm 5 gpmft normally the maximum design rate CIVL 1101 Introduction to Filtration 1 g Water Filtration Hytbnulic Landing Rate Ta canverttl39ie Hydraulic landing rate tattie 0 5 standard af gpdft canvert minutes ta days LimaIn Ruiz a 5M 39 h a 3954 2 x60m39rx24 ZM Flawa 2 Arm Water Filtration Hytbnulic Landing Rate A Hydraulic landing rate af 5 694dr 73eauld be qualifies as arapid sand mm Fillrcltiuri Type Applicaliun Rate mw galftzrday SluwSand 0041104 340iu3400 Rapid Sand 04 in 31 3400 in 26000 Water Filtration Hytbnulic Landing Rate Let s campute m Hydraulic landing rate in flawrates in class Flawrate 750 arid 1250 mein Area af filter 3 5 inehdinmeter filter Faurafe L ad I r a I N Area 7 as 1 3735m 2 i Water Filtration Hytbnulic Landing Rate Let s campute m Hydraulic landing rate in flawrates in class Flawrate 750 arid 1250 mein Arenaf filter 3 5 inehdinmeter filter Flawrnte 750 mem 2 966 gpmft Flawrnte af 1 250 meH 4 943 gpmr39r Q Water Filtration Hytbnulic Landing Rate Let s campute m Hydraulic landing rate in flawrates in class Flawrate 750 arid 1250 mein Area af filter 3 5 inehdinmeter filter Flawrnte 750 mein 4 270 gpdr39r Flawrnte af1250 men 7117 gpdft J1 Water Filtration Description of n Typicnl Grnvi39y Filter System During filtratiari the water eriters nbave the filter Maia tl39iraugl39i an inlet flame assirig dawnward tl39iraugl39i m granular media arid the mm m supparting gravel bed ii is ealleeted in underdrairi system 813 CIVL 1101 Water Filtration Operating Table V Flter39B39ed Concrete Wall Hydraulic Lines for Values lnfluent Line Ef uent Line to CleanNell Wash Trough Concrete Wall Fi ter Sand Graded Gravel Perforated Laterals Introduction to Filtration 913 Manifold i Water Filtration Water Filtration Description of a Typical Gravity Filter System During backwashing wash water passing upward through the filter carries out the impurities that accumulated in the media The flow is directed upward hydraulically expanding the filter media The water is collected in the washwater troughs that discharge to the outlet flume Water Filtration Water Filtration Filter Media Ideal Filter k Increasing 1 Grain Size Bed Depth L Pore Size Water Filtration Filter Media Single Medium Filter A Increasing 1 Grain Size Bed Depth y Pore Size CIVL 1101 Introduction to Filtration 1013 F Bed Depth Water Filtration ilter Media DualMedium Filter Increasing Grain Size Increasing Grain Size W Pore Size 5 if Water Filtration Description of a Typical Gravity Filter System The filters are placed on both sides of a pipe gallery that contains inlet and outlet piping wash water inlet lines and wash water drains A clear well for storage of filtered water is located under a portion of the filter bed area ll 3 Water Filtration it Egg Water Filtration Filter Media Broadly speaking filter media should possess the following qualities Coarse enough to retain large quantities of floc Sufficiently fine part cles to prevent passage of N suspended solids Deep enough to allow relatively long filter runs and A Graded to permit backwash cleaning Water Filtration Filter Media These attributes are notcompatible For example 1 F ne sand retains floc and tends to shorten the filter run 2 For a course sand the opposite would be true f g Water Filtration Filter Media A filter medium is defined by effective size and uniformity coef cient D 10 size to the 10 percentile size DagDID Effective size is the 10 percentile diameter that is 10 by weight of the filter material is less than this diameter Uniformity coefficient is the ratio of the JO percentile 1113 Introduction to Filtration CIVL 1101 g Water Filtration Filter Media Canventlanal sand nedlun nas o 55 mm aunlrsnnlw eserrle an effectlve slxe will 45 lerlt less tl39larl165 llter be wltl39l arelatlvely unlrsnn gralrl slze ean n A sand r d pravlde erreellve rlllnallsn tl39lraugl39laut ls dept Water Filtration Multimedia Filters Dulnldi nrbeds usually emplay annnaele and sand als nave been used suen as and Hawever aner materl actlvated carbarl and s Mlde finrbeds generally use annraele sand and garnet Hawever slnen materlals nave been used suen as actlvatedcarbarl sand and garnet Water Filtration Multimedia Filters 39rne malrl advantages er rnullrnedlarllens camparedta s a slnglenedlunrlllen re 1 Lengenrlllnallsnnuns 2 ldlgnen rlllnallsn rates and 3 Tne ablllty ta lter awater wltl39l l39llgl39ler turbldlty l Water Filtration Multimedia Filters 39rne advantages arne multlmedla rllens are due ta 1 Tne medlapartlcle slze 2 Tne dlrrenenl speelrle analllles mne nedla and 3 Tne nedla gradatlarl Q Water Filtration Backwash Velocity 39rne baeklllasn velaclty may be estlma ted uslrlg the rellellllng equatlarl v via 5 lllnene yls the baeklllasn velaclty frs y ls the selrllng velaclty the lter medla frs a ls lne paraslty mne expanded lter 3 Water Filtration Backwash Velocity Onee ne backwasn velaclty nas been estlm arne expanded rllen bed may be camp L1r a a22 1 l ated lne depln uted V wnene L ls depln er lne rlllen nedlam L ls depln mne expanded lter nedla fr a ls lne paraslty mne rlllen nedla CIVL 1101 Introduction to Filtration 1213 x Water Filtration Backwash Velocity Example Dcmhhc the hcawwca backwash velacityta expand the saha rihchs ih iab to a porosity cr 070 Aisa dmrmhc the depth cf the expanded film bed Assume the fallawing data abaut cur lab filters Depth of sawa M n a n 2 sawa wwh apart cic aiawcich at n 5mm ch n ma wchcs wwh a scn ling velocity at n 27 w 3 sawa porosity is n 35 x Water Filtration Backwash Velocity Example The backwash velocity may bc estimated wsihg the rciicwhg cawahch VV5Z5 027 fo70 Water Filtration Backwash Velocity Example Determine the hydraulic icaahg rate at the backwash 3 VeDciry oo54l x wowquot W 7 7 4Egami 70054 fzsx fr The backwash icaahg hac is abcw7 times iahgch hah the him icaahg harc 7 g Water Filtration Backwash Velocity Example ohcc the backwash velocity has bcch estimated the depth at the expanded him bed may bc computed Lg 4171 7 U22 1 osfaisoas M m Water Filtration Backwash Velocity Group Problem Dcmhhc the hcawwca backwash velacityta expand the saha rihchs ih iab to a porosity at 015 Alsa determine the depth at the expanded filter bed Assume the faiiawihg data about cur lab films Depth of sawa M n a n 2 sawa wwh apart cic aiawcich at n 5mm ch n ma wchcs wwh a scn ling velocity at n 27 w 3 Sandparasityi u u Water Filtration It Backwash Velocity Example The backwash velocity may bc estimated wsihg the rciicwhg cawahch VV5Z5 027 fo75