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# Civl Engr Measurements Lab CIVL 1101

University of Memphis

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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Yundt on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIVL 1101 at University of Memphis taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/228425/civl-1101-university-of-memphis in Civil Engineering at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 10/23/15

CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 5 17 Deciding The Course of AcTion Deciding The Course of AcTion I Problem solvers musT juggle prioriTies all The T39me Fiiiiluule ill I Once iiie real problem is defined and you have generuTed a number of possible soluiions ii Time To make some decisions I Declde wnicn problem io work on f I CHOOSE the besl allernallve SOlLliiOYl I Declde how io successfully lmplemeniihe soiulion Deciding The Course of AcTion KT SiTucITion Analysis Ari Organizaiional Approach for Decision Making KT Approach KepnerTregoe Approach I KT Sliuailon Analysls can be nelpml in deciding wnicn problem recelves ine nignesi priorliy I Each of Me criieria are evalualed for inere degree of concern 7 Medlum M 7 Law L 3 EvaluaTlon Cr39lTer39ch I Timm g is Me Prubl2m7 I Is a deadline inialiem I wnaiWill nappen iinaining is dune7 I Trend I willineprablein geiwarsiv I Prublem s paieniial fur gruvwW I Impacf I Huwseruus is Me prubl2m7 I wnai are ine effems an peaple praducis urgclrllzclilurl eic7 Tmrid inpoci Piaclss ooi iii popus in oinicos Will in Ensu CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 5 27 PareTo Analysis and Diagram I When There is more Than one problem To deal wiTh a Parefo Analysis can be help u for deciding which problem To aTTack firsT I The Parefa PrhCjae 80 of file froLbe comes from 20 of file pr 02 e17 s PareTo Analysis and Diagram A ToasTy 039s planT is having some problems wiTh Their producT Problem Number of boxes A Inferior priniing on boxes 10000 E Overfilling of boxes 30000 c Boxes damages during shipping 2000 D Inner wrapper not sealed 25000 E No prize in box 50000 PareTo Analysis and Diagram The original daTa sorTed by The frequency of The number of boxes affecTed Numum nxn thiuns On firsT look The ToasTy 039s planT would aTTack The problem in EBDAC order PareTo Analysis and Diagram LeT39s look aT The ToasTy 039s daTa when losT revenue is consi dered Problem Number of boxes A Inferior pr nTing on boxes 10000100 B OverfiIIing of boxes 300006000 c Boxes damages dur ng snipp ng 20007000 D Inner wrapper not sealed 25000s7000 E No prize in box 5000017500 PareTo Analysis and Diagram DaTa sorTed by losT revenue Lnsl Rwenue Prnhlems ToasTy 039s planT would aTTack The problem in DECBA or er Group Problem SiTuaTion Analysis Group Problem The Exxon Valdezquot page 110 CIVL 1101 Group Problem p it cauld capslze damaged Side cause no u t n H y at thismagnimde The marine biologist at the meellngabJecled to the use at dispersants stating that detrimental to the flsh lnduslry Because Hi the apill Size there isnotenoagh boom material even tobegin ta surmund the slick The suggesllansas to where toplaoe the boom material were alsu pulfanh aHhe meeting KT Problem Analysis Problem Solving Chapter 5 37 Group Problem Slluallun Analysis lav P aienhal Prublem Analysis I Experienced problem solvers I Ask The righ139quotques139ions I Inferview as many people as necessary I A Technique used in KT Problem Analysis is I Disfincfions KT Problem Analysis Slluallun Analysis lav P ulenllal Prublem Analysis What isthe problem and what i m the problem Where did the problem occur Where is everything V r OK when did the problem first occur when Wm everything OK what is the magnitude of the problem I A good problem sfafemenf includes I What is known I What is unknown I whatis sought I Whaf isfhe problem and whaf is nor I Think in ferms of dissimilarfies I Ask who why and how I Reexamine assumpfions KT Problem Analysis CIVL 1101 KT Problem Analysis Problem Solving Chapter 5 47 I A new model of airplane was delivered To EasTern Airlines in 1980 Soon The flighT aTTendanTs developed nds and faces IT occurred rash on Their arms only on flighTs ThaT were over waTer ForTunaTely iT usuall disappeared in 24 hours and caused no addiTional problems planes over The same rouTes no ill effecTs occurred KT Problem Analysis I A new model of airplane was delivered To EasTern Airlines in 1980 Soon The flighT aTTendanTs developed ha an ces IT occurred rash on Their arms nds d fa only on flighTs ThaT were over waTer The same number of aTTendanTs conTacTed The rash on eac flighT In addiTion a few of Those who I conTracTed The rash felT ill and The union ThreaTened acTion KT Problem Analysis Is Is NOT DISTINCTION WhaT 39lzash Other illness When New planes old planes Where 39 Flights over water Flight over land ExTenT39 Only some attendants All attendants Crew duties I Look aT all The disTincTions a something contacting the arms and face b the rash occurs only on flights over water c the lifevesTs on the new plane are made of new materials or of a different brand of materials Group Problem Problem Analysis Group Problem ChocolaTe Covered BacTeriaquot page 112 Group Problem KT Decision Analysis Whaleran Palenllal Problem Analysis I How To choose The besf39 soluTion from a number of alTernaTives I WriTe a concise decision sraremeln Collecl and analysls lnformallon and dala If possible vew lhe problem firsl hand I I Talk Wilh people familiar Wilh lhe problem I I Confirm allfmdngs CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 5 57 KT Decision Analysis KT Decision Analysis sine hues mm a noun ennui Mines i 7 Mummy I Specity the obJecllves ot the decision I oiyide these obJecllves into two categories i b g musrs 3 v and W 39s g I Musrs are mandatory to asuccesstul solution I It asolution satisties all Insis then the solution is a go I It asolution does not satisty any one of M2 Intsis then the solution is a tio go I Wanrsare desirable but nor mandatory KT Decision Analysis KT Decision Analysis I Assign a neith 1 10 to each want on how important it is to you I Assign a rsmgw 10 as to how well it satisfies the wants A score for the solution can be determined by multiplying the rating by the twigII I Signing my is a I Compare wa istwo a time suszcinz iiniyig to help arrive at consistent 1 mm assignment of Mtg is I I Assessment of wet ghimusl be consistent is the decision lS to be valid KT Decision Analysis Example Choosing a Point Gun A auto manufacturing plant needs to choose an electrostatic paint Decision Statement choose a paint spray gun The ayailable guns are Paint Right New Spray sun Ho Musts 1 Control oyer paint tion rate 2 Acceptable paint appearance Wants 1 Easy seryice 2 Low cost a Lon rterm durability 4 Personnel With experience CIVL 1101 ea 39 KT Decision Analysis Example T5 Paint Right New Spray Gun Ho AdequaTe flow conTr39ol Go Go No Go Acceptable appearance go go go WANTS Weight kaTing Score kaTing Score Easy serv ce 7 2 14 9 63 w cos 1 7 28 M 9 Durability 6 s 48 6 36 Experience 4 9 36 2 8 Total 1 10 Problem Solving Chapter 5 67 KT Decision Analysis Example Risk Assessment I Explore The risk associaTed wiTh each alTernaTive I EvaluaTe The probability 0 10 of a verse consequences 0 eac alTernaTive soluTion I EvaluaTe The serious1550 10 of The consequence if iT occurs KT Decision Analysis Example Problems with Subjective Measurements I Giving higher weighTsscores To predeTermined favored projecTs I Loaded Warns I Ummporlam delalls I Faulty percepiion of obJeclives I Missing InformaTion What if I Is The decision ethical Group Problem Decision Analysis Group Problem Choosing an ElecTivequot page 114 KT Decision Analysis Example U Music 101 AN 101 HISH 101 Art 203 F l lnl H l 0393 3 Credits No 6 o 60 a 60 No Go Iquot9gtltP9quot3W9 o 60 60 No Go Go 60 AN w l Ruling Ruling Ruling ad 9 9 9 2 6 Interesting 6 2 10 6 lime 7 5 2 4 cummllmenl Total 92 118 KT PoTenTial Problem Analysis Siluallun Analysis Why an m I This analysis can help decrease The possibiliTy of a disasTrous ouTcome I A PPA Table delineaTes The poTenTial problems and suggesTs possible causes prevenfive acf ons and conf Iyenf acf ons CIVL 1101 Surveying Distance 14 DisTance MeasuremenT Introduction I DisTance is one of The mosT basic engineering measuremenTs I Early measuremenTs were made in Terms of The dimensions of The body Cubifs The disTance beTween The Tip of your middle finger To The elbow Typically To measure cords and TexTiles anoTher measure was 24 digiTs or 6 palms DisTance MeasuremenT InTroducTion Far10m disTance beTween The Tips of your middle finger when yourarms are ouTsTreTched The name comes from The Danish faedn quotouTsTreTched arms quot DisTance MeasuremenT InTroducTion Faaf disTance from The Tip of a man39s big Toe To The heel Rad The sum of The lengThs of The lefT feeT of 16 men 16 5 24 f1 DisTance MeasuremenT Pacing I The abiliTy To pace disTance is very useful I A person can deTermine Their pace by counTing The number of paces necessary To walk a disTance ThaT has been previously measured I A pace is defined as one sTep I A stride is consider Two sTeps or DisTance MeasuremenT DisTance MeasuremenT Measuring Wheels st CIVL 1101 DisTance MeasuremenT Taping or Chaining I For cenTuries engineers have measured disTances wiTh ropes lines or cords I The Term chaining is a carryover from The Time when The GunTer chain was used 160039s I The 66 fooT chain is made of 100 links 7 92 inches in lengTh V I In 1785 U S a federal law sTaTed ThaT all 14 governmenT surveys musT be done quh a GunTer39s chain Surveying Distance 24 DisTance MeasuremenT Taping or Chaining I IT lies aT The origin of The definiTion of an acre I The original acre was an area of land suiTable for ploughing wiTh a defined amounT of work e 9 Ten furrows long each furrow being Ten chains permiTTing resTs of an oxen Team I IT measured one chain by one furlong ToTaIing 10 square chains l Early Twolane roads were laid ouT wiTh a chain resulTing in a 66fT righTofway DisTance MeasuremenT Taping or Chaining DisTance MeasuremenT Taping or Chaining I Tapes are available in lengThs up To 1 OOO feeT precision of 11 000 To 15 000 are commonly obTained DisTance MeasuremenT ElecTronic DisTance MeasuremenT EDM I EDMs are very useful in measuring disTances ThaT are difficulT To access or long disTances DisTance MeasuremenT ElecTronic DisTance MeasuremenT EDM I EDMs measure The Time required for a lighT wave To senT To a TargeT and reflecTed back Modulated Electromagnetic Energy CIVL 1101 Surveying Distance 34 DisTance MeasuremenT Pacing 150 To 1200 Reconnaissance OdomeTer 1200 Reconnaissance Taping 11 000 To 1 5 000 Land surveys EDM 0 04 To 1300 000 All Types of surveying DisTance MeasuremenT Taping over Level Ground I If The Taping is done over level ground where There is no underbrush The Tape can resT on The ground I A Taping crew consisTs of Two people The head Tapeperson and The rear Tapeperson I The head Tapeperson Takes one end of The Tape walks down The line Towards The poinT I If The disTance is more Than 100fT Then The head Tapeperson places a Taping pin aT The 100fT inTerval and The process is repeaTed DisTance MeasuremenT Taping over Sloping Ground I If The Taping is done over sloping ground where There is no underbrush The 7 Taping musT be done in secTions referred To 39 l as breaking The fape DisTance MeasuremenT Taping over Sloping Ground I Holding The Tape more Than five feeT above The ground is difficulT Therefore slopes greaTer Than 5 fT per 100 fT will require runs of less Than 100 fT Tape Zr Strmg Ground Plumb Bob DisTance MeasuremenT Taping over Sloping Ground Hold The Tape level Use a plumb bob To locaTe The poinT l HeighT less Than DisTance MeasuremenT Review of Basic TrigonomeTry I For a righT Triangle leT39s consider The basic TrigonomeTric funcTions CIVL 1101 Introduction to Topographic Surveying 16 Topographic Survey Introduction I Topography defined as the shape or configuration or relief or threedimensional quality of a surface Topography maps are very useful for engineers when planning and locating a structure Topographic Survey Introduction I U 5 Geological Survey USGS has developed maps for a large part of the US Topographic Survey Typical USES Topographic Map l 97mg 1191 39 Owl Q r15 12quot USES Topographic Map of Mt Shasta CA 1883 Topographic Survey Contours There are several rules to note when v ewing topographic maps I The rule of Vs sharpp0 nted V usually are n stream valleys with the dra nage channel passing through the point of the V with the V pointing upstream The rule of Os closed loops are normally uphill on the inside and downhill on the outside and the innermost loop is the highest area Spacing of contours close contours ndicate a steep slope distant contours a shallow slope Two or more contour lines merging indicates a cliff I Napoleon Bonaparte received his first promotion because of ability to make and use maps To pograph I c Survey Contours I The most common method of representing the topography of an area is to use cam our 39I7e I A contour line is an imaginary level line that connects points of equal elevation To pograph I c Survey Contours SW I Contours that point up hill can indicate a valley or stream CIVL 1101 Introduction to Topographic Surveying 26 Topographic Survey ConTours I Imagine a hill ThaT has iTs Top sliced off wiTh a really big knife Topographic Survey ConTours I When is The sTeepesT parT of This Terrain I The shallowesT parT Topographic Survey ConTours I The selecTion of The conTour is imporTanT I The conTour inTerval should be small enough To give The desired Topographic deTail while remaining economic I Usually every fifTh conTour line is shown in a heavy wider line This is called 0 index 39I7e Topographic Survey ConTours cumin minm ii r CIVL 1101 Introduction to Topographic Surveying 36 Topographic Survey Contours Topographic Survey 3 Contours Topographic Survey Contours Topographic Survey Contours Topographic Survey Contours Contours CIVL 1101 Introduction to Topographic Surveying 46 Topographic Survey Contours Topographic Survey Characteristics of Contours I Ciosziy spaced conioui s indicaiz sizzp siopes I Widziy spaced cohiours ihdicaiz moderaiz Siopes I Cohiours shouid b2 iabzizd io ihz 2i2yaiioh vaiuz I Comoui s orb hoi shoWh goihg ihi ough buiidihgs I Cohiour iiYiZ do hoi cross Topographic Survey Characteristics of Contours I Depression ohd hiii iooh ihz some noie ihz cohiour vaiuz io disiihguish ihz izrraih I Imporiam poihis ooh b2 furihzr dziihzd by ihciudihg a spoi 2i2yaiioh I Cohi s our imzs izhd io paraiizi each oihzi oh uhiiorih iopzs Topographic Survey Construction of Contours I Th2 iirsi sizp ih deveioping a cohiour map is measuring ihz eievaiions oi agroup oi poihis arecianguiai grid I Ii Wiii b2 2asi2r for us io 2siabiis 2 ihe Bizvaiioi i oi poihis morhzd Wiih iiogs arid measui I Th2 iocaiion oi ihz iiog poihis coh b2 zsiabiishzd by iopihg arid chzchzd by pacing or ihz odo Topographic Survey Constr uctio n of Co moan Topographic Survey I Once your cohiour grid is 2siabiish2d NEGSUV Z ihz Bizvaiioi i oi each grid poihi CIVL 1101 Introduction to Topographic Surveying 56 Topographic Survey 93 102 106 112 D C 101 I 103 109 111 106 103 w X B 106 I We wanT a conTour map on 5 inTervals I The grid is recTangular The dimensions of The sides are 80 norTh and 100 fT easT Topographic Survey Consfmcfion of Confours I The basic meThod for esTirnaTing conTour is applied To each grid cell individually I Use linear interpolation To find The locaTion of The desired conTour inTerva I LeT consider The cell in The upper lefT hand corner emember The conTour inTerval 1s 5 Topographic Survey Consfmcfion of Confours 100 9B 102 I FirsT see If a conTour 100 inTerval would be locaTed I Apply simple linear 105 inTerpolaTion To each side To ocaTe The conTour inTerval Topographic Survey I LeT39s look aT The Top edge of The grid cell 100 102 93 93 102 103 b Fgtlt ax b r x 1 a slope 102798 100 b inTercepT 98 21100 4 x7 4 I 100mx98 Topographic Survey I LeT39s look aT The boTTorn edge of The grid cell 105 103 93 100 102 101 1 0X b l x l 108 7 101 a sope 10 101 105 103 b inTercepT 101 m 7 x 7 I 105mx101 Topographic Survey l LeT39s look aT The lefT edge of The grid cell 100 101 103 9gb Fgtltagtlt b l X l We m 80 b inTercepT 98 7280 3 xeT 100Ex98 CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapters 910 15 5amp2 EvaluaTion I AfTer implemenTaTion a final evaluaTion of The soluTion is needed EvaluaTe The SoluTion I Decide The Course l i of Ac on GeneraTe SoluTions Rib EvaluaTion Guidelines for evaluaTing your soluTions I Does iT compleTely solve The problem I Is The soluTion eThical I Does The soluTion endanger people or The environmenT Ki EvaluaTion General Guidelines EvaluaTion should be a ongoing process Examine your soluTions aT each phase of The projecT Have an independenT review of your work Do a KT PoTenTial Problem Analysis Ask quesTionsll Rib EvaluaTion The McMasTer FivePoinT TraTegy I Check ThaT The soluTion is blunderfree Check The reasonableness of resulTs Check ThaT criTeria and consTrains are saTisfied Check The procedure and logic of your argumenTs Confirm ALL findings G EvaluaTion The Snow Cruiser I The original concepTion of The Snow Cruiser is mosT ofTen crediTed To Dr Thomas C PoulTer who served as second in command 0 Admiral Byrd39s AnTarcTic ExpediTion II I During This expediTion Adm ral Byrd nearly losT his life when he was isolaTed by The weaTher aT The Advanced Base I IT Took Three aTTemst for Dr PoulTer To rescue The Admiral due To The difficulTy of Traveling a mere 123 miles n The inhospiTable condiTions This ncidenT is bel eved To have been The spark ThaT inspired Dr PoulTer To f rsT visualize The Snow Cruiser EvaluaTion The Snow Cruiser I Some Design FeaTures 1 A range of 5000 miles 2 Room for a crew of five 3 Suppl es for a year 4 An airplane on The roof 5 OuTsTanding Terrain capabiliTies CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapters 910 25 55 ii uaTion gua rion The Snow Cruiser I Work on The Snow Cruiser was begun on AugusT 8 1939 aT The Pullman shops in Chicago Illinois The FoundaTion had jusT eleven weeks To build TesT and deliver The compleTed Snow Cruiser To BosTon MassachuseTTs where iT would be loaded aboard ship for TransporT To AnTarcTica 3 39 a 1 HuaTion The Snow Cruiser I On OcTober 24 1939 The nearly compleTed Snow Cruise began a 1021 mile Trek To BosTon I This Trip would be The shakedown cruise as well as a race The reach BosTon before The NorTh STar sailed for The AnTarcTic On November 12 The Snow Cruiser pulled alongside The NorTh STar aT BosTon Army Wharf To fiT on The deck of The NorTh STar The Cruiser39s Tail secTion had To be Temporarily removed aua rion The Snow Cruiser I On January 12 The NorTh STar anchored aT The Bay of Whales I To unload The Snow Cruiser from The deck of The NorTh STar a large ramp was consTrucTed of heavy T mber Unload ng of The Snow Cruiser Took place on January 15 wiTh Dr F PoulTer aT The helm Half way down The ramp The Timbers began To break Dr PoulTer quickly gave The Cruiser full ThroTTle and she lurched from The ramp To The safeTy of The ice a 1 HuaTion The Snow Cruiser I The Snow Cruiser failed To perform up To expecTaTions I The Tires sank deeply inTo The snow 3 feeT and spun Too easily I In an aTTempT To improve The cruiser39s performance The crew aTTached The Two spare wheels and Tires To The fronT wheels increasing The surface area of The Tires by 50 percenT I To mprove TracTion They rquot l p insTalled chains on The smooTh 39 rear Tires a EvaluaTion The Snow Cruiser Failed I WhaT when wrong I Were The 055umpTions valid WhaT informaTion is available abouT The AnTarcT c env ronmenT How difficulT is The Terra n If The vehicle will move on dry roads in good weaTher whaT makes us Th nk iT will funcTion on snow and ice MosT polar vehicles up To This T me used caTerpillar Treads raTher Than Tires Why would our new T re design work Why do oTher veh cles use Treads The answers To some of These obvious quesTions may help avoid a failed design CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapters 910 35 a EvaluaTion The Snow Cruiser Failed I Does The soluTion solve The Real Problem lfl39 Clearly The problem is aT leasT Twofold polar environmen The oTher and jusT as imporTanT an aspecT is ThaT The vehicle should have good mobiliTy on The expecTed Terrain so ThaT exploraTion The main goal of The expediTion is possible The design was quiTe successful from The proTecTionliving accommodaTions sTandpo nT The Snow Cruiser was nicer nside Than many preWorld War II bungalows One problem is To proTecT The workers and explorers from The harsh l Kip EvaluaTion The Snow Cruiser Failed I Does The soluTion solve The Real Problem lfl39 The design only parTially addressed The mobiliTy problem EIaboraTe design feaTures were ncluded To enable The Snow Cruiser To cross crevasses n The snow ThaT iT would cerTainly encounTer buT iT appears ThaT nsuffic enT consideraTion was given To ensuring quotnormalquot mobiliTy in polar ce and snow Surely some incorrecT assumpTions were made regard ng The TracTion of The T res and The power necessary To move such a mammoTh vehicle n These severe condiTIons Challenging all The assumpTions of The design and making sure ThaT The real problem and all faceTs of iT are solved are keys To deTermining a funcTional soluTion Rib EvaluaTion The Snow Cruiser Failed I Is The problem permanenle solve ill 39 I If indeed The Snow Cruiser funcTions as designed iT would be a permanenT soluTion To polar expediTion problems I Does The soluTion have impacT I In This case yes The Snow Cruiser could have revoluTionized The way polar exploraTions were conducTed I EvaluaTion The Snow Cruiser Failed I Have all consequences of The soluTion been examined I This quesTion is diff culT To answer noT know ng whaT wenT on aT The T me buT provid ng The vehicle operaTes as designed iT appears ThaT many adverse consequences were anTicipaTed and designed for Provisions and fuel were available for long periods of Time IT had a Travel range of 5000 miles Seemingly every conTingency had been prepared forexcepT The faTal mobiliTy flaw Rib EvaluaTion The LasT Penny I Two friends a business major and an engineering major I The business major has an accounTing projecT I The accounTing sheeTs for The projecT of several hundred Thousand dollars will noT balance by Two or Three dollars Kip EvaluaTion The LasT Penny I The business sTudenT says quotDon T worry T ony a smapercen Tage of The To Ta I The engineering sTudenT says IT coud be The resuTof Two major errors ThaT may compensaTed one ano T1er CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapters 910 45 Ki EvaluaTion ii EvaluaTion thical Considerafions The Five P39s I 39Sou ons are not always back and white with regard to ethics but shades ofgray Purpose I EThics ChecklisT I Is iT legal Pr39de I Is iT balanced I How will iT make me feel ubouT myself PaTlence I Willitmuke me proud PersisTence PerspecTive M EvaluaTion EvaluaTion Purpose Pride I WhaT is The objecTive for which you sTriving I Can you Take pride in The soluTion you have developed I Are you comforTable wiTh ThaT as your purpose I Is There any false pride or self I Does your purpose hold up when you look aT doubT involved 39 9 yourself in The mirror M EvaluaTion EvaluaTion PaTience PersisTence I Have you Taken The Time To Think Through all The I Are YO Slifiki g 0 YOU guns and ramificaTions of your soluTion quot0 bzlng dISSUadBd by Ol ller demands I Have you given up Too soon on finding a soluTion ThaT is fair and balanced tw CIVL 1101 Proportioning and Mixing Concrete 13 ProporTioning ConcreTe ProporTioning ConcreTe I Concretemix designs are ofTen given by The following I ParT of your design for This projecT is To develop mix raTio raTios ThaT lead To high compression sTresses aT Ta 1 2 I 2 ilure Coarse AggregaTe crushed rock I The Two criTeria for a successful mix raTio are Fine Aggregal z 50quot 1 high compressive sTress came 2 adequaTe workabiliTy I In This case The raTio implies 1 parT by weighT of cemenT To 2 parTs coarse aggregaTe To 2 parTs fine aggregaTe ProporT ioning ConcreTe ProporTioning ConcreTe I Once a mix raTio is selecTed you need To compuTe The I The volume of a cylindrical mold is amounTs of cemenT waTer and aggregaTes required 702 laumemw To sTarT we need To esTimaTe The volume of concreTe where D is The diameTer of The cylinder and II is The required for The J39o heighf 3 riches I In your work we used cylinder molds To form our I The cylinders f0 PNJ39BCf 2 are v concreTe specimens always 6 inches in heighT and 3 Inches In dIameTer 6 mews V ProporT ioning ConcreTe ProporTioning ConcreTe I How much concrzfz do we need fa make 5 cylinders I NEXT we need To converT This volume To cubic feeT and uccounT for any errors 1267 3 212 3 7 3 Momsquot2 3 WWW 21 laumeMmd 5 f 212m I Make sure you have enough factor We need 5 cylinders laumema ffa gtlt laumema 0122 ff3 x 2 CIVL 1101 Propor rioning Concre re I Next we need to convert this volume to an equivalent weight of concrete 150 b5 Welghfmmm 025 ff3 375bs I To compute the amount of each component requ red for this mix use the ratio of the each component to the sum of all components I For a122 mix the weight of cement required is 15 of the total weight Way772mm jx 375bs Proportioning and Mixing Concrete 23 Propor rioning Concre re Next we need to convert this volume to an equivalent weight of t Way ame 025 fr3 152 375bs To compute the amount of each component required for this mix use the ratio of the each component to the sum of all components I For a 122 mix the weight of fine aggregate required is 25 of the total weight Weighrp gtlt 375bs Propor rioning Concre re I Next we need to convert this volume to an equivalent weight of concrete 150 b5 Welghfmmm 025 ff3 375bs To compute the amount of each component requ red for this mix use the ratio of the each component to the sum of all components I For a122 mix the weight of coarse aggregate requ red is 25 of the total weight gimpe Propor rioning Concre re I Next we need determine the amount of water requ red I The weight of water is specified bythe We ratio I In this example the quot9 045 I For this mix the weight of cement is 75 lbs Therefore the weight of water required is wagmm 7517 045 Propor rioning Concre re I In summary The weighi39 of each componenf in 122 mix wifli wc 0 45 is I Ce e f 75 lbs Fine aggregai39e 15 lbs Coarse aggregafe 15 lbs Wafer 3bs I In The lab we will round each weighi39 To The nearesi391 pound incremeni39 Propor rioning Concre re I Typical mixing procedure Clean mixer Add aggregafes and mix for 2 minufes Add cemenf and mix for 2 minufes Add of The mixing wafer and mix for 2 minufes ulth Add remaining mixing wafer and mix for 5 minufes pay cluse attentiun tu the cuncrete in the back at the mlxer and make sure that all the materials are well mlxed and as humugeneuus as pusslble CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 5 17 Deciding The Course of AcTion Deciding The Course of AcTion I Problem solvers musT juggle prioriTies all The T39me Fiiiiluule ill I Once iiie real problem is defined and you have generuTed a number of possible soluiions ii Time To make some decisions I Declde wnicn problem io work on f I CHOOSE the besl allernallve SOlLliiOYl I Declde how io successfully lmplemeniihe soiulion Deciding The Course of AcTion KT SiTucITion Analysis Ari Organizaiional Approach for Decision Making KT Approach KepnerTregoe Approach I KT Sliuailon Analysls can be nelpml in deciding wnicn problem recelves ine nignesi priorliy I Each of Me criieria are evalualed for inere degree of concern 7 Medlum M 7 Law L 3 EvaluaTlon Cr39lTer39ch I Timm g is Me Prubl2m7 I Is a deadline inialiem I wnaiWill nappen iinaining is dune7 I Trend I willineprablein geiwarsiv I Prublem s paieniial fur gruvwW I Impacf I Huwseruus is Me prubl2m7 I wnai are ine effems an peaple praducis urgclrllzclilurl eic7 Tmrid inpoci Piaclss ooi iii popus in oinicos Will in Ensu CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 5 27 PareTo Analysis and Diagram I When There is more Than one problem To deal wiTh a Parefo Analysis can be help u for deciding which problem To aTTack firsT I The Parefa PrhCjae 80 of file froLbe comes from 20 of file pr 02 e17 s PareTo Analysis and Diagram A ToasTy 039s planT is having some problems wiTh Their producT Problem Number of boxes A Inferior priniing on boxes 10000 E Overfilling of boxes 30000 c Boxes damages during shipping 2000 D Inner wrapper not sealed 25000 E No prize in box 50000 PareTo Analysis and Diagram The original daTa sorTed by The frequency of The number of boxes affecTed Numum nxn thiuns On firsT look The ToasTy 039s planT would aTTack The problem in EBDAC order PareTo Analysis and Diagram LeT39s look aT The ToasTy 039s daTa when losT revenue is consi dered Problem Number of boxes A Inferior pr nTing on boxes 10000100 B OverfiIIing of boxes 300006000 c Boxes damages dur ng snipp ng 20007000 D Inner wrapper not sealed 25000s7000 E No prize in box 5000017500 PareTo Analysis and Diagram DaTa sorTed by losT revenue Lnsl Rwenue Prnhlems ToasTy 039s planT would aTTack The problem in DECBA or er Group Problem SiTuaTion Analysis Group Problem The Exxon Valdezquot page 110 CIVL 1101 Group Problem p it cauld capslze damaged Side cause no u t n H y at thismagnimde The marine biologist at the meellngabJecled to the use at dispersants stating that detrimental to the flsh lnduslry Because Hi the apill Size there isnotenoagh boom material even tobegin ta surmund the slick The suggesllansas to where toplaoe the boom material were alsu pulfanh aHhe meeting KT Problem Analysis Problem Solving Chapter 5 37 Group Problem Slluallun Analysis lav P aienhal Prublem Analysis I Experienced problem solvers I Ask The righ139quotques139ions I Inferview as many people as necessary I A Technique used in KT Problem Analysis is I Disfincfions KT Problem Analysis Slluallun Analysis lav P ulenllal Prublem Analysis What isthe problem and what i m the problem Where did the problem occur Where is everything V r OK when did the problem first occur when Wm everything OK what is the magnitude of the problem I A good problem sfafemenf includes I What is known I What is unknown I whatis sought I Whaf isfhe problem and whaf is nor I Think in ferms of dissimilarfies I Ask who why and how I Reexamine assumpfions KT Problem Analysis CIVL 1101 KT Problem Analysis Problem Solving Chapter 5 47 I A new model of airplane was delivered To EasTern Airlines in 1980 Soon The flighT aTTendanTs developed nds and faces IT occurred rash on Their arms only on flighTs ThaT were over waTer ForTunaTely iT usuall disappeared in 24 hours and caused no addiTional problems planes over The same rouTes no ill effecTs occurred KT Problem Analysis I A new model of airplane was delivered To EasTern Airlines in 1980 Soon The flighT aTTendanTs developed ha an ces IT occurred rash on Their arms nds d fa only on flighTs ThaT were over waTer The same number of aTTendanTs conTacTed The rash on eac flighT In addiTion a few of Those who I conTracTed The rash felT ill and The union ThreaTened acTion KT Problem Analysis Is Is NOT DISTINCTION WhaT 39lzash Other illness When New planes old planes Where 39 Flights over water Flight over land ExTenT39 Only some attendants All attendants Crew duties I Look aT all The disTincTions a something contacting the arms and face b the rash occurs only on flights over water c the lifevesTs on the new plane are made of new materials or of a different brand of materials Group Problem Problem Analysis Group Problem ChocolaTe Covered BacTeriaquot page 112 Group Problem KT Decision Analysis Whaleran Palenllal Problem Analysis I How To choose The besf39 soluTion from a number of alTernaTives I WriTe a concise decision sraremeln Collecl and analysls lnformallon and dala If possible vew lhe problem firsl hand I I Talk Wilh people familiar Wilh lhe problem I I Confirm allfmdngs CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 5 57 KT Decision Analysis KT Decision Analysis sine hues mm a noun ennui Mines i 7 Mummy I Specity the obJecllves ot the decision I oiyide these obJecllves into two categories i b g musrs 3 v and W 39s g I Musrs are mandatory to asuccesstul solution I It asolution satisties all Insis then the solution is a go I It asolution does not satisty any one of M2 Intsis then the solution is a tio go I Wanrsare desirable but nor mandatory KT Decision Analysis KT Decision Analysis I Assign a neith 1 10 to each want on how important it is to you I Assign a rsmgw 10 as to how well it satisfies the wants A score for the solution can be determined by multiplying the rating by the twigII I Signing my is a I Compare wa istwo a time suszcinz iiniyig to help arrive at consistent 1 mm assignment of Mtg is I I Assessment of wet ghimusl be consistent is the decision lS to be valid KT Decision Analysis Example Choosing a Point Gun A auto manufacturing plant needs to choose an electrostatic paint Decision Statement choose a paint spray gun The ayailable guns are Paint Right New Spray sun Ho Musts 1 Control oyer paint tion rate 2 Acceptable paint appearance Wants 1 Easy seryice 2 Low cost a Lon rterm durability 4 Personnel With experience CIVL 1101 ea 39 KT Decision Analysis Example T5 Paint Right New Spray Gun Ho AdequaTe flow conTr39ol Go Go No Go Acceptable appearance go go go WANTS Weight kaTing Score kaTing Score Easy serv ce 7 2 14 9 63 w cos 1 7 28 M 9 Durability 6 s 48 6 36 Experience 4 9 36 2 8 Total 1 10 Problem Solving Chapter 5 67 KT Decision Analysis Example Risk Assessment I Explore The risk associaTed wiTh each alTernaTive I EvaluaTe The probability 0 10 of a verse consequences 0 eac alTernaTive soluTion I EvaluaTe The serious1550 10 of The consequence if iT occurs KT Decision Analysis Example Problems with Subjective Measurements I Giving higher weighTsscores To predeTermined favored projecTs I Loaded Warns I Ummporlam delalls I Faulty percepiion of obJeclives I Missing InformaTion What if I Is The decision ethical Group Problem Decision Analysis Group Problem Choosing an ElecTivequot page 114 KT Decision Analysis Example U Music 101 AN 101 HISH 101 Art 203 F l lnl H l 0393 3 Credits No 6 o 60 a 60 No Go Iquot9gtltP9quot3W9 o 60 60 No Go Go 60 AN w l Ruling Ruling Ruling ad 9 9 9 2 6 Interesting 6 2 10 6 lime 7 5 2 4 cummllmenl Total 92 118 KT PoTenTial Problem Analysis Siluallun Analysis Why an m I This analysis can help decrease The possibiliTy of a disasTrous ouTcome I A PPA Table delineaTes The poTenTial problems and suggesTs possible causes prevenfive acf ons and conf Iyenf acf ons CIVL 1101 West Tennessee Groundwater 17 Ground Water Systems of West Tennessee Fame and We gmum mm Denme um umrean mnre m EHHWHHDE HNE ME 92mr 2r renamed m Mann mum vnnm e Wannabe n anumm ndnarr Er CIVL 1101 West Tennessee Groundwater 27 In Emmwem umm 9 yemm quot9quan n nanHbE E y 9 mm mm mm awmm U9 mwumuamtmnqtrm whamlm mmaA Mmmuuns am a HDHUW M W mms smdmuw uulnmd Jelempunms eesseuuei 159M LOLL IAIQ CIVL 1101 West Tennessee Groundwater 47 New MHnHH J mm quot11quot aw AVAK1 CIVL 1101 West Tennessee Groundwater 57 19 w mm W mm WWW my MEYHN quot 2mm m smmmmm mmmuswtmamuuu Aa t munmgaxu alum pauutmmt Mann mm mm msws m mem amn ta amume W Ekamwaumww mm mm Eampt w mu amuswmum uwammmmsx am mg mg m mutjnpa mm Wm 1 m M ux qm auxuwun mm I am w m m waam ua m a allun mm am am gamma ammsm aw mm wamal mania mwaau t m pawnu amuEHHa t warm on x55 Jelempunmg eesseuuei 188M LOLL IAIO CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 4 18 39 GeneraTing SoluT ions I Norring is more dangerous than an idea when if is any one you ave Evaluate the Solution Decide the Curse Anti Generate Solutions J GeneraTing SoluTions g I Once you have defined The problem you wanT To make sure you generaTe The besT soluTion I Perseverance is perhaps The mosT noTable characTerisTic of successful problem solvers so you s oul n39T ecome discouraged when soluTions aren39T immediaTely evidenT I Many Times menTal blocks hinder your progress Toward a soluTion I WhaT is The naTure of These menTal blocks and whaT causes Them Common Causes of MenTal Blocks I Defining The problem Too narrowly I ATTacking The sympToms and noT The real problem I Assuming There is only one righT answer I GeTZing quothooked39 on The firsT soluTion ThaT comes To min I GeTTing quothookedquot on a soluTion ThaT almosT works buT really doesn39T Common Causes of MenTal Blocks I DisTracTed by irrelevanT informaTion called menTal dazzle quot I GeTTing frusTraTed by lack of success I Being Too anxious To finish I Defining The problem ambiguously Break up MenTal Blocks I There is a direcT correlaTion beTween The Time people spend quotplayingquot wiTh a problem and The diversiTy of The soluTions generaTe I Draw four or fewer sTraighT lines wiThouT lifting your pencil from The paper ThaT will cross Through all nine doTs quotV 0 II Break up MenTal Blocks I Several creaTive soluTions To The nine doT problem exisT I koll up the piece of paper such that it is cylindrical in shape and the raw one line around the cyl nder that passes thorough all nine dots I photoreduce the nine dots and then using a th ck felt pen to connect them with a single line I Crumple up the piece of paper and stab it with a pencil this is a statistical approach that may requ re more than one attemp to hit all the dots CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 4 28 I WhaT did we learn I WhaT did we learn 239 1 L9 o o 3 o z lt n o z m 1 The pro em sTaTemenT narrows range of possible soluTions I A novice problem solvers will noT cross a perceived imaginary limiTa consTrainT ThaT is formed unconsciously in The mind of The pro lem solvereven Though iT is noT parT of The problem sTaTemenT I WhaT did we learn Group Problem I Whenever you are faced wiTh a problem recall The nine doTs To remind yourself To challenge The consTrainTs I SuggesT or devise 25 ways To cross a lake of molasses Recognizing MenTal Blocks PercepTual Blocks I The firsT sTep To becoming a beTTer problem solver is To undersTand whaT concepTual blocks are and how They inTerfere wiTh problem solving I A concepTual block is a menTal wall ThaT prevenTs The problem solver from correchy perceiving a problem or conceiving iTs so uTion I The mosT frequenle occurring concepTual blocks are percepTual blocks emoTional blocks culTural blocks environmenTal blocks inTellecTual blocks and expressive blocks I ObsTacles ThaT prevenT The problem solver from clearly perceiving eiTher The problem iTself or The informaTion needed To solve iT 7 x 344 I sumuyping 2 I L hug The problem unnecessarily recall The nine dot problem I th u on or informaTion overloud Too much informaTion can be nearly as big a problem as noT enough nfor39maTion Air Traff c conTr39oller39s have learned To overcome This block CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 4 38 EmoTional Blocks EmoTional Blocks I They decrease The amounT of freedom wiTh which you I Thely decrzase we IOTOE39Sl of fazedom Th Wg39Ch You explore and manipulaTe ideas and prevenT you from exp ore 0quot mampu tilde 39 65 Th prev You mm communicaTing your ideas To oThers commun39ca quot 9 Your 39 505 395 T a i I Judging railer lo generaf ng ideas This block can sTem from approach ng The problem A 39 r wiTh a negaTive aTTiTude Wild ideas can 39 I someT mes Trigger feas ble ideas wh ch lead To innovaTive soluTions l Fear of N39sr faking ImplemenTing a creaTive idea is like Tak ng a risk You Take The risk of mak ng a misTake looking foolish losing your job or in a sTuden l s case geTTing an unaccepTable rude Ladr of didenge You feel ThaT The problem is noT worThy of your efforTs Ladr of appef fe for chaas Problem solvers musT learn To live wi h confusion WhaT may be besT for The individual may noT be besT for The organizaTion or group Inabiify fa incubafe Rushing To solve The problem jusT To geT iT off your m nd can creaTe EnvironmenTal Blocks I DisTracTions can creaTe inhibiT deep prolonged concenTraTion 539 3 InTellecTual Blocks 9 Expressive Blocks I Inflexible and inadequaTe problemsolving sTraTegies I InabiliTy To communicaTe your ideas To oThers in lacking The necessary inTellecTual skills eiTher verbal or wriTTen form CIVL 1101 BlockbusTing Problem Solving Chapter 4 48 Block BlockbusTer NegaTive ATTiTude ATTiTude AdjusTmenT Fear of Failure Risk Taking Following The Rules Breaking The Rules Over Reliance on Logic InTernal CreaTive ClimaTe You Aren T CreaTive CreaTive Beliefs Improving Your CreaTive AbiliTies Keep Track of your ideas Pose new quesTion To yourself everyday Keep up in your field of sTudy Avoid rigid seT paTTerns of do ng Things Be open and recepTive To new ideas Be alerT in your observaTions Improving Your CreaTive AbiliTies AdopT a risk Taking aTTiTude Keep your sense of humor Engage n creaTive hobbies Have courage and selfconfidence Learn To know and undersTand yourself Brainstorming I BrainsTorming one of The oldesT Techniques To sTimulaTe creaTiviTy is a familiar and effecTive Technique for generaTing soluTions I EffecTive Tool noT only for one or Two individuals discussing a problem in an informal seTTing buT also in more formal largegroup problemsolving sessions 9 Brainstorming I Mam a The iniTial sTages of idea generaTion beg n wiTh an unsTrucTured free associaTion of ideas To solve The problem brainsTorming During This acTiviTy lisTs of all poss ble soluTions are generaTed eiTher in group discussions or ndividually The lisTs should include wild soluTions or unusual soluTions wiThouT regard To The r feasibiliTy A criT cal componenT of group brainsTorming is To mainTain a posiTive group aTTiTude No negaTive commenTs or judgmenTs are allowed during This sTage of The soluTion process Reserve evaluaTion and judgmenT unTil laTer CommenTs ThaT Reduce BrainsTorming To Braindrizzling ThaT won T work IT s againsT our policy ThaT s Too radical We don T have enough Time IT s noT our job ThaT s Too expensive We can T solve This problem ThaT s noT pracTical CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 4 58 9 The Fishbone Diagram I Fishbone diagrams are a graphical way to organize and record brainstorming ideas The diagrams look like a fish skeleton I To construct a fishbone diagram the following procedure is used 1 Write the real problem in a box orcircle to the right ofthe i raw ahorizontal line the backbone extend ng from the problem to the left side Real Problem 0 W The Fishbone Diagram 2 Bra nstorm potential solutions to the problem 3 Categorize the potential solutions nto several major categories and list then along the bottom or to of the diagram Extend diagonal lnes from the major categories to the backboneThese lines form the basic skeleton of the fishbone diagram The Fishbone Diagram 4 Place the potential solutions related to each of the major categories along the appropriate line or bone in the diagram 5a lui inn Suluiiun Sulullurl Real Solution suluriun Problem 5 lui inn I Sorting and organizing your ideas is a valuable effort n the solution process I Problem Statement How could the rules of basketball be changed so fhaf players unda 5399quot fall mighf e more cowefifive I Take five minufes to gena ate some ideas Lower the height of the basket Taller players are not allowed outside the key Platform tennis shoes Tall players can guard only tall players Tall players can39t rebound Tall players must use a heavier ball Tall players can39t jump Osborn s Checklist I A Technique used to generate additional ideas related to those already defined Osborn39s Checklist for Adding New Ideas w can this idea be used as is what are Adapt other uses it could be adapted to change the mean ng material color shape M1 d39fY39 odor etc Add new ngredient Make longer stronger Magrith th cker higher etc CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 4 Osborn39s Checklist 68 Osborn39s Checklist for Adding New Ideas Minify Substitute Rearrange Combine Split up Take something out Make lighter lower shorter etc Who else where else or what else Other ingredient material or approach Interchange parts Other patterns layouts Transpose cause and effect Change positives to negatives Comb ne parts units ideas Blend Compromise Consider the basketball example Adapt Modify Magnify Minify Rearrange Smaller players can foul as many times as they want rule adaptation Assists by smaller players count as po nts Raise baskets for taller players modify court Tall players stay nside 3point l ne Short player39s baskets worth 4points magnify score Tall player39s shots worth 1point m nify score Separate leagues for taller and shorter players rearrange grouping Random Stimulation Random Stimulation is a technique which is especially useful if we are stuck or in a rut It is a way of generating totally different ideas than previously considered and can jump startquot the idea generation process and get it out of whatever current rut it may be in Introduce wer0 ideas during brainstorming Choose randomly a word from the dictionary Use that word to generate other words that can simulate the flow of ideas Other People39s Views OPV I When approaching a problem that involves the thoughts and feelings of others I Imagining yourself in the role of the other person allows you to see complications of the problem not considered previously Example of Other People39s Views Problem Space capsule burns upon entering the atmosphere Project Manager NASA Accountant Eng neer Materials Scientist Astronaut Final solution Complete the project on time Solve Problem but cost low New material should not interfere with capsule Find a material that can handle the high temperature on reentry Doesn39t care aboutthe capsule to return Allow the surface of the capsule to be destroyed protecting the astronauts Group Problem I Problem Statement You are a passenger in a car without a speedometer Describe 25 ways to determine the speed of the COP I Take five minutes to generate some ideas CIVL 1101 Problem Solving Chapter 4 78 Examine The problem carefully To make sure The real problem has been defined I Now imagine yourself aT some poinT n The fuTure afTer The problem has been solved WhaT are The benefiTs of hav ng a soluTion Look aroundquot n The fuTure Try To imagine an ideal soluTion To The problem aT hand wiThouT regard To Technical feasibiliTy Remember in The fuTure anyThing is possible I Make sTaTemenTs such as If only This would happen I could solvequot Dare To change The rules The besT soluTions To some problems are conTrary To convenTional wisdom Group Problem I Problem STaTemenTWhaT feaTures would I Take five minuTes To I CreaTe a fishbone diagram you like To have on a Television 10 years from now generaTe some ideas for your ideas BrainwriTing Two or more individuals are required in order To carry ouT an inTeracTive bra nsTorming session However when There is no one To inTeracT wiTh a Technique being used by many companies is ThaT of brainwriTing In bra nwriTing you follow The same procedure as brainsTorm ng eg free associaTion Osborn39s checklisT random sTimulaTion fuTur ng WriTe down your ideas as fasT as you generaTe Them never pausing or sTopping To evaluaTe The idea Keep a noTebook handy To wriTe down ideas because They ofTen come aT unusual T mes H lF Analogy and CrossferTilizaTion IT is well documenTed ThaT a number of The mosT mporTanT advances in science eng neering arT and business come from crossferTilizaTion and analogies wiTh oTher discipl nes Here ideas rules laws facTs and convenTions from one discipl ne are Transferred To anoTher discipline There are four sTeps you can use To solve problems by analogy 1 STaTe The problem 2 GeneraTe analogies This problem is like Try ng To 3 Solve The analogy and 4 Transfer The soluTion To The problem Gall Analogy and CrossferTilizaTion Consider The following pairs A beauT cian and a college professor A pol ceman and a sofTware programmer An mechanic and an nsurance salesman A banker and a gardener A choreographer and an air Traffic conTroller A maiTre d39 and a pasTor The ncubaTion period is very imporTanT in problem solving Work ng on a soluTion To a problem To meeT a deadline ofTen causes you To pick The firsT soluTion ThaT comes To mind and Then run wiTh iTquot insTead of sTopping To Think of alTernaTive soluTions Commun caTe wiTh oTher people Ask quesTions abouT all The circumsTances Go home and Think LeT iT siT overnighT and Think abouT iT from Time To Time PuT The problem down and do someThing else for awhile

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