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Intro to Biology I

by: Jarvis O'Conner IV

Intro to Biology I BIOL 1010

Marketplace > University of Memphis > Biology > BIOL 1010 > Intro to Biology I
Jarvis O'Conner IV
University of Memphis
GPA 3.54

Anna Sorin

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Anna Sorin
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jarvis O'Conner IV on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at University of Memphis taught by Anna Sorin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/228436/biol-1010-university-of-memphis in Biology at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 10/23/15
Chapter 11 Single Celled Life Prokaryote cellsthat do not have anucleus 7 Single Celledlife in the Domains Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryote cellswith anucleus 7 Contains Four Kingdoms Sing elled Anlmals 39 Plan s Typically Multlrcellular Fungl The Wily ScourgeMalaria Video Terminology Gametesr ww cells a DcCenter for Disease elmegg Control and Prevention Zygote 7 early phase ofllfe a a WWW we gametes fuse Enzymes 7 proteins that General f sease facilitate cellular chemical informau on reachens 7 Prevention methods We 39 a type my 7 Travel advisories involved in breaklng down prom e Immunization Hemoglobin a blood protein program that carries q The Wily ScourgeMala1ia Understandwhat type of organism causesmalaria why is malan39a so hardto treat why are malan39a infections on the rise Prokaryotic life Ecological Importance 39 MamaHealth 7 Release oxygen bene ts Recycleca bmvnmgm e Escherichia coli 7 Breakdown dead matter e Breakdown pollutants 01 01er agamst hinriernediatjnn disease 7 Research Prokaryote Cell Structure The inside ofprokaryote cells are not ome DNA lsaloose clrcularslrand Plarnamanbrane e Pmtectrve covering ampstructure 7 Bactena wall made ofa sugarand e Archaea wallmadefmm proteins polysacchandesand glycoprotelns Bacteria Cell Walls made of different peptidoglycan complexes react differently to Glam Stain Grameposi ve cells Differences in staining single broadlayer of allow researchers to complex stains dark classify new Bacteria purple species Staining differences also Grammgmive us glv lues as to how to complex covered by outer quoteat an infection by sheet proteins and unknown bacteria lipopolysaccarides e GramPosltlverespondto penicillin 7 SWquot gm fed 7 GramNegatlve respondto omycin Prokaryote Shapes Similarly shaped prckaryctes are c en from related groups The shape of a prckarycte species is c en indicated by its name I Spheres Cocd e streptococcus pyogenes I Rods bacilli r Bacillus anthracis I Spimls spinlla e Rhodospirillum I Commas vibrios r Vibrio cholerae Prokaryote Food Sources trophic having to do with foodfeeding Autotrophs producetheir own food 7 Photoautotrophs 7 chemoautotrophs Heterotrophstake in f rom extemal sources Saprobesdecomposers 7 Live on deaddying things s 39 ymblonts organisms that live together 7 Prokaryote lives inside or on another organism I Can be bene cia 7 Your gut bacteria I Or harmful Parasites 7 Disease causing Prokaryote Reproduction I Binary Fission r The dividing in half into two identical cells 7 Can produce laments or clusters of cells 7 Rapidcell division and population growth Genetic Recombination I 39 39 direct connection and exchange I 39 genes move between organisms ough a virus I Tmnsformationquot direct uptake ofDNA om environment Prokaryote Reproduction I Endospores r Dormant form of cell that can withstand extreme conditions for extendedperi ods of 39me 7 Protected by a tough wall Anthrax long periods of p dormancy wakes u when 39 39 7 Biotenonsm concern Botulism concern in canned and janed food I High tempemture and pressure sterilization I Believe most similar to earliest cells 7 Anaerobes 7 Extremophiles I Korarchae ota never actually seen alivel Archaea I Crenarchaeota 7 Thermophiles r Sulfur metabolizers Oceanyents I Emyarchaeota 7 Halophiles 7 Methanogens produce rnethane natural gas Cows and globalwarmlngl and high temp eatures and high levels ofradiation Early conditions on earth7 Bacterla I P mj ve Bactelja I GramPositive Bacteiia Aquifex gmup 7 Source ofmany diseases Extrernophile 39 39 A withst streptococcuspyogens 7 strep staphylococcus aureus 7 staph infectionscrssgt 7 Also ofmany antibiotics 39 311 Om Cetes 7 tornycin tetracycline neornycin Qanobacteriaailuegeen algae Huge ecologlcalrole 7 Photosyn esize Depositrnillions oftons of oxygen into the atrnospha e 7 Nitrogenfixers Genetically sirnilarto chloroplasts found in plantsl Bacteria I Proteobacteria E coli Rhizoblum 7nitrogenfixers The odo illurn are genetically sirnilarto mitochondria found in all eukayote cellsl Noncellular Biological Entities Viruses Made of Some viral infections DNA 0 RNA are tempomry In uenza e Capsid protein covering 7 Pick up infection Capsid attaches to a host cell 7 Viruses epmduce in di Inserts viral genetic matenal m be es into host cell Takes over host s protein EVenmally Ounmmune making systems to produce ystergi ghts the new viruses Infection and destroys the virus Hostcellreleasesnewviruses sometimes bursting open Vlruses otherviralinfectjonsare Becausevimsesaren t permanent Hemes really alive we can t kill 7 Pc u infection themu e VlmlDNA is msated in Ml b omsmwo k euro DNA 7 Permanentvanetie espe lally hard to getrld C b m Lbut fslnce irDNA symptomsreappearw he becomes mixed Wth our triggered stress sunlight own DNA fever No re 1 cures 7 only waysto try and control outbreaks or to interruptvuusmaking copies in host cell Viruses I Many viruses affecting humans appear to have originated in non human animal hosts Smallpox Rabies Asian In uenza A killed 2030 million people in 1918 I New viruses appear to be continuing this trend Hanta virus SARS AIDS Monkeyp ox Avian u I As humans both move nther into Wild areas and travel globally the potential for new viruses to arise and spread may be increasing Noncellular Biological Entities Prlons Prions are proteins New outbreaks ora CJD cu m no genetic material variety associated with Mad Cow disease Caused by changes in protein folding patterns C vme Spenglform Encephalopathy ESE Human disease CJD A cksnervous system 7 Creutzfeldtiacobs ESE prions foundin Scra ieshee and oats pp p g r brainsprnalccrdretrna bonemarrow a cow disease Prlons Animal outbreaks How can a protein prion Infected animals inrect other organisms and cause disease 7 Contaminatedfeed How can an entity reproduce 39 Hm comramor thathas no genetic material appears due to eating I llIPAI AA in livestock Potemauy long How can humans protect dormancy Pen d themselves from contracting CID Eukaryote cells I DNA is concentmied in a 39 DomainEucalya nucleus 7 4 Kingdoms 39 Have specialized membrane bound 05515 organelles mitochondria Fungi 39 Make up both unicellular and Plants multicellular organisms Ammals Protists 39 Diverse branches on the 39 HOW define PrOtiStS Eucarya tree 7 Do not develop from an emb o Some protists are more ry 7 o ot have extensive cell differentiation with plantsan1mals or fungi inaspemes than to other protists 7 Are not Plants Fungi or animals Ancient Protists Basal lineages Diplomonads Amoeboflagellates Giardia lamblia 7 Canbefoundinbothwater and soil Contaminated Water 7 Have pseudopodia Coat intestinal tract false feet 39 ause Severe Cellular extensions used diarrhea for both locomotion and feedin g 7 Some alsohave agella Ancient Protists Basal lineages Euglenoids Euglena good eye Have an eye spot stigma over a light receptor that assists cells orienting towards light Have chloroplasts 7 Genetically different than plant chloroplast A Multicellular Protist Rhodophyta Red Algae 7 seaweed not closely related to plants however 7 Unicellular and multic ellular forms 7 Commercial uses Nori Carageenan Alveolates complex protists Apicomplexa Dino agellates complex rings at apex 7 Marine species 7 Have spore stage 7 Flagella aid locomotion 7 Many toxicdiseases Red Tide PlasmOdium 7 Dense toxic bloom falcipanlm 7 Toxins can be stored in mama and kill fish and Toxoplasma gondii Shellfish 7 cat boxmfecuon 7 Huge negative economic impact Alveolates complex protists Foraminiferans Ciliates 7 Secrete calcium based 7 Covered with hair casing tests like structures cilia Limestone Chart that aid in locomotion deposits and feeding White cliffs of 7 Complex structure Dover 7 Important data base for Paramecium climate reconstruction based on Oxygen isotopes Figure 11 18


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