Behavior Mgmt Spec Ed
Behavior Mgmt Spec Ed SPED 7221
University of Memphis
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Blake Fisher on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7221 at University of Memphis taught by David Bicard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/228439/sped-7221-university-of-memphis in Special Education at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
SPED 7221 Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 l Extinction and Differential Reinforcement Class 71 Reinforcement Based Behavior Reduction Guidelines for Behavior Reduction oWhenever you select a behavior for reduction you must also select a behavior for increase This is known as Selection of the target behavior and intervention should be based on the function of the behavior whenever possible Use functional assessment oUse the least intrusive procedure that is effective oCollect data to determine effectiveness oBefore using ANY punishment procedure get permission and approval from your supervisor and the parent or guardian Hierarchy of Behavior Reduction Methods rates DRL Differential Reinforcement of other behavior DRO Differential Reinforcement of incompatible behavior Most Response Cost lt12 o i O 51 O LH O 2 3 39U lt12 0 O s Q Unconditional Aversive Stimuli Least SPED 7221 Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 2 Reinforcement Based Behavior Reduction Methods Provides for SI of appropriate Purpose Schedule of SR behaviors Objectives DRL Reduce Interval based Focus on No Tom will Behavior to reducing talkout no acceptable frequency of more than 3 levels behavior times in 30 minutes DRO Reduce Interval based Focus on No Tom will behavior to omission increasing the have no zero time between talkouts occurrences occurrences during 30 minutes DRI SR an Ratio response Focus on Yes Tom will DRA appropriate based reinforcing raise his behavior appropriate hand during behavior class Level I Reinforcement Based Methods 0 Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Behavior DRL Presentation of a reinforcing stimulus ODRL is appropriate for behavior that is not a problem if it occurs at low levels Talk outs Pencil sharpening Talking to neighbor Asking questions DRL Procedures OReinforcement is delivered after the rate of the target behavior is Example Juan s question is answered provided he asked only two times during a ve minute period SPED 7221 Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 3 DRL Procedures 0 PreIntervention oYou can use the data from the functional assessment to determine the limit Example Marcus interrupted the teacher talk outs an average of 10 times during 15 minutes of lecture function attention from teacher oExample Marcus will interrupt two or less times during 15 minutes oExample Give Marcus attention provided he interrupts the teacher 10 or less times during 0 Intervention oExample Give Marcus attention at the end of the lecture provided he interrupts the teacher 10 or less times Once the behavior has stabilized over a period of days at the prescribed level move to a new objective SPED 722l Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 4 Example Marcus will interrupt the teacher 6 or less times during 15 minutes of lecture Keep decreasing the rate until it meets the terminal objective oYou must continue to provide reinforcement even after the behavior has reached the terminal rate DRL Considerations oDRL is not a rapid procedure and not appropriate for violentdangerous behaviors oIf you believe the behavior should not occur ever do not use this method oYou must reliably Reinforce the behavior Collect data oYou must reliably Reward the student if the behavior does not occur during the interval Collect data DRL Example During independent seatwork Samuel is out of his seat an average of 10 minutes during the 30 minute interval His teacher has determined the behavior is a function of escape from the activity She wants him to be out of his seat no more than 2 minutes and wants him to complete at least half of the problems she gives him His teacher sets up a contingency contract that states he can earn teacher helper level if he is out of his seat less than 10 minutes and he gets at least ve problems completed Teacher s helper allows Samuel the opportunity to take materials to the office clean the chalkboard staple papers pass out materials or run the VCR After a week in which he met criteria 3 out of 5 days the teacher writes a new contract where he can only be out of his seat for 6 minutes and has to complete at least ten problems in order to earn the privilege After he met that criteria 3 out of the 5 days the teacher writes a new contract where he can only be out of his seat for 2 minutes and he must complete half his problems in order to earn the reward Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors 0 DRO Reinforcement is oExample Luke is given a hug provide he does not hand ap during a ve minute period function sensory stimulation DRO is sometimes called omission training oReinforcement is provided only if the student does not emit the target behavior no matter what else heshe is doing SPED 7221 Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 5 DRO Procedures 0 PreIntervention Baseline data must be recorded to determine the rateduration of occurrences of the target behavior during the speci ed period of time From the baseline data an average interresponse time IRT the time between responses should be determined A smaller interval than the average IRT should be the initial criteria for success Criteria must be established for increasing the interval Start out with a small interval of time then gradually increase the interval as the data dictate Example The time between Charles talk outs is about ve minutes on average If Charles does not talk out for three minutes he gets a token You must decide what to do if other undesirable behaviors occur oYou can reset the interval oYou have to make a decision on consequating the other behavior You must decide if you are going to ignore the other behavior or not oReinforcement must NOT be delivered immediately following a grossly inappropriate behavior 0 Intervention Set the interval for the omission of the behavior at the average IRT during baseline After the student demonstrates success over a number of days increase the interval of time to earn the reinforcer DRO Considerations 0 DRO is not a treatment of rst resort if a student engages in many response topographies that are inappropriate With this procedure reinforcement must be provided even if the student engages in other inappropriate behaviors 0 Setting the initial IRT is crucial to success SPED 7221 Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 6 DRO Example Leslie hand aps when she gets excited or upset The teacher has determined that function of the behavior is teacher attention Her hand apping occurs an average of 20 times per hour with an IRT of about two minutes The teacher gives Leslie attention if she does not hand ap for one minute After a week Leslie s hand apping almost never occurs The teacher then sets the criteria to two minutes Again after a week the hand apping rarely occurs Then the teacher sets the criteria for three minutes DRO Example Robert makes rude comments in class swearing The teacher has determined the behavior is maintained by attention from peers The swearing IRT was an average of about 15 minutes The teacher allowed Robert to quietly talk a peer for 15 seconds provided he did not swear during a ten minute period She gradually increased the interval to an hour over a three week period Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior DRI Reinforcement oExample Reinforcing work completion vs Out of seat behavior DRA Reinforcement oExample Reinforcing asking for help vs breaking a pencil DRI and DRA Procedures 0 PreIntervention For DRI 0A behavior that is incompatible to the target behavior must be chosen for reinforcement oBaseline data must be taken to determine How often the target behavior occurs How often the incompatible behavior occurs 0A schedule of reinforcement must be determined for the incompatible behavior The schedule must be more dense that that of the target behavior SPED 7221 Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 7 DRI and DRA Procedures PreInterventi on For DRA oBaseline data must be taken to determine How often the alternative behavior occur oThe alternative behavior selected for reinforcement must serve the same function do a functional assessment oThe alternative behavior should require equal or less effort than the target behavior this is not always the case oThe alternative behavior should result in the same type quality or amount of reinforcement oThe alternative behavior must be reinforced on a dense schedule of reinforcement oThe alternative behavior must result in immediate reinforcement DRI and DRA Procedures 0 Intervention Behaviors selected for reinforcement are reinforced and data are collected to determine effectiveness DRI Example Clarence has been tardy everyday for the past two weeks His teacher believes that his tardiness is a function of avoidanceescape from student attention She decides to provide Clarence with a library pass he can use during independent seat work The pass is contingent on his coming to class on time First he has to come to class on time once to earn the pass for the day After he demonstrates he can do this he has to come to class two straight days then a week DRA Example Harold cries to get teacher attention The teacher implements a procedure where Harold learns to raise a ag on his desk to get attention At rst she gives him attention right away Gradually she increases the amount of time it takes for Harold to get attention SPED 7221 Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 8 Response Independent Reinforcement 0 Response independent Reinforcement is also called 0 Reinforcement is based on a fixed time or variable time schedule 0 Reinforcement occurs no matter what the student is doing at the time RIR Procedures oBaseline data are taken to determine the frequency of the target behavior and to determine the function of the behavior Example if the behavior is maintained by escape from instruction the student is given a break a 5 second break every 30 seconds during 10 minutes of instructional time oGradually the time of the scheduled reinforcement is increased RIR Considerations 0 RIR may be impractical to use in the classroom as it requires a very dense schedule of reinforcement Extinction 0 Extinction When Extinction is NOT ignoring 0 Appropriateness Behaviors maintained by attention Escape extinction negative reinforcement Sensory extinction automatic reinforcement Problems with the Use of Extinction Extinction Effects on Behavior oAlmost Has to be used in conjunction with a reinforcement procedure for alternativeincompatible appropriate behavior oPositive changes SPED 7221 Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 9 Problems with the Use of Extinction Extinction Effects on Behavior oBehavior This is known as the Sometimes the behavior gets much worse in both frequency and duration and new response r r39 39 appear t quot indu d 39 oBehavior may reappear at a latter date even after it has not happened for a number of weeks This 0 Other students may begin to Imitate the behavior or inadvertently reinforce the behavior 0 Limited generalizability The behavior may appear in other environments and or with other people Variables Affecting Resistance to Extinction oThe Schedule of reinforcement Behavior maintained by intermittent reinforcement is harder to extinguish than behavior on a continuous reinforcement schedule oThe strength of the MO that create the reinforcing conditions Behavior under strong MO will be harder to extinguish that weaker MO oThe response effort High effort responses are easier to extinguish that low effort responses 0 The history of the behavior related to Number of times the behavior has been reinforced The magnitude of the reinforcer for the behavior The quality of the reinforcer 0 Behaviors that have a longer history of reinforcement are harder to extinguish than behaviors with a short history SPED 7221 Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 10 Using Extinction oQuestions to ask yourself before attempting to use extinction Is the behavior dangerous to the person or others If no you may want to try extinction If yes don t use extinction Can a shortterm increase in the behavior be tolerated If no don t use extinction If yes you may want to try extinction Is the behavior likely to be imitated If no you may want to try extinction If yes do not use extinction Are the reinforcers known If no do not use extinction If yes the behavior must not obtain reinforcement EVER Can reinforcement be withheld If no do not use extinction If yes you may want to try extinction Have alternative behaviors been identi ed for reinforcement If no do not use extinction If yes you may want to try extinction Extinction General Procedures oProcedures for effectively using extinction Have a plan in place when the student emits the behavior targeted for extinction oDetermine a behavior that you are going to target for reinforcement Either an incompatible or alternative behavior Make sure others are aware of what you are doing and know the plan for extinction This is critical for success When the student emits the behavior targeted for extinction oDo not let the behavior obtain reinforcement oReinforce the alternative behaviors that other students are emitting oWhen the student emits the alternative behaviors provide reinforcement immediately oCollect data to determine its effectiveness Planning for Extinction Induced Aggression oIf you are planning to use extinction you must plan for the behavior increasing in frequency magnitude and duration Make sure the environment is as safe as possible by removing potentially dangerous objects Prepare staff by letting them know that if the procedure is working the behavior will get worse before it gets better Make sure other students are safe and shielded from danger at all times SPED 7221 Guided Notes Class 71 Fall 2007 ll Extinction Procedures oBehaviors maintained by attention teachertherapist First determine that the behavior is maintained by attention Define the target behavior and any alternative appropriate behaviors Make sure others are aware of what you are doing and know the plan for extinction This is critical for success Reinforce the alternative behaviors on a CRF or high density schedule When the target behavior occurs do not provide attention Tum away from the student Move toward other students Reward other students with verbal praise If no other students are in setting move away from the student and do not give any instructions When the student emits alternative behaviors provide reinforcement immediately Extinction Procedures oBehaviors maintained by access to tangibles Extremely difficult to do Remember extinction occurs when a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced Response blocking is NOT extinction oResponse blocking is when the response is stopped before accessing reinforcement oRemoving items from the environment is not extinction oOne of the few ways to successfully use extinction with access to tangibles is to somehow make the access an extremely high response effort probably still not extinction but a MO Extinction Procedures oBehaviors maintained by negative reinforcement 01 do not recommend using escape extinction oIf you choose to use escape extinction First determine that the behavior is maintained by escape avoidance In this procedures the behavior must not result in removal of the aversive stimulus olf a child runs from the instructional setting bring him or her back oNever force the child to set block him from running or use physical force to make him engage in the behavior Why I don t Recommend Escape Extinction oIt increases the aversiveness of the instructional setting oIt produces unwanted side effects Escape extinction is a CMORe exive oConditioned motivating operation that increases the aversiveness of the environment Loss of reinforcing capacity of stimuli Conditions therapistteacher as aversive stimulus Extinction induced aggression Increases the length of instructional time SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 GuidedNotes 1 Special Procedures Self Management Class 5b Selfmanagement I Objectives 39Defme selfmanagement 39Describe the three components of selfmanagement 39List 2 reasons why selfmanagement is important 39Describe the components of the selfmanagement process 39Describe the process for using contingency contracts What is selfmanagement 39Selfmanagement refers to strategies that a person uses to alter hisher behavior 39To make a behavior less aversive to himher or others 39To replace a behavior with one that is more likely to result in positive reinforcement Selfmanagement 39Selfmanagement consists of two responses 39 a response that affects the probability of another response 39 a response that occurs as a result of engaging in the controlling response Everyday examples of selfmanagement 39Writing a shopping list 39Getting clothes out the night before 39Stepping on a scale if it results in the person doing something 39Saving money 39Counting to 10 when up set 39Putting keys in the same spot so you don t lose them Importance of selfmanagement 39A teacher may miss opportunities to reinforce appropriate behavior 39If a student learns to manage their own behavior it enables the teacher to shift time and effort from classroom management to teaching 39Selfmanagement is valued in our society 39Research has demonstrated that selfmanagement helps to promote maintenance and generality of behavior SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 GuidedNotes 2 Components of selfmanagement 39Selfmanagement consists of 3 components I I Goal setting 39In order to set a goal the student must 39Be able to 39Be aware that a discrepancy eXists between current performance and a performance standard 39Determine an ideal performance standard and a starting performance standard Selfmonitoring 39In order for a student to selfmonitor the system must 39Be easy to usesimple 39Unobtrusivenot get in the way 39Validan accurate measure of performance 39Veriflablea teacher can use the same system to check on the student Selfevaluation 39In order for a student to selfevaluate effectively the system must 39Show performance across time 39 Provide reinforcement A few words about selfmanagement 39Teaching a student to selfmanage is cost effective but there is a high level of time investment at the beginning 39Selfmanagement should be focused increasing appropriate behavior not on behavior reduction because 1Reducing or eliminating an unwanted behavior is no guarantee that a more desirable behavior will take its place 2Reinforcement contingencies may be more easily implemented that punishment contingencies in a selfmanagement program A few more words 39You will want to make selfmanagement training as unaversive as possible 39REMAIN POSITIVEtogether you and the student will help each other 39STAY ENTHUSIASTICthis will work The selfmanagement process 39Assessment SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 GuidedNotes 3 Establishing Def1ning Determining if a discrepancy exists between current performance and a performance standard 39Prescription Establishing Developing a selfmanagement plan Selfmanagement process 39Implementation 39 Selfmonitoring 39 Self evaluation 39 Reinforcement 39Evaluation 39 Student and teacher conferences 39Making changes to program if necessary 39Fading out teacher conferences Assessment 39Discrimination training Before a student can accurately set realistic goals shehe needs to be able to accurately distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable performance The teacher should present student specific examples of situations in which the student demonstrated acceptable and unacceptable performance The student should describe situations in which heshe has performed well and situations when he she has not performed well Have the student list favorite activities privileges and items to determine potential reinforcers Prescription Establishing a goal Negotiate a Daily goals Weekly goals The goal should be around the average performance from the past week or days You can increase the likelihood that as student will choose a more difficult goal by making the reinforcement for the goal higher quality more immediate or by increasing the rate of S than choosing a less difficult goal Types of selfmanagement systems 39Contingency contracts 39Correspondence training 39Academic selfmanagement for older students SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 GuidedNotes 4 Setting up a selfmanagement system 39Contingency contracts 39What is a contingency contract A written document that specifies a contingent relationship between performance and a reward 39Contingency contracts consist of two components Performance Reward Contingency contract 39The performance component consists of four parts 39 will perform the task Dr Bicard 39 is the performance Completing assignments 39 the task must be completed everyday 39 the task must be completed Complete a minimum of 2 tasks he assigns for himself unless he only has one task to complete 39The reward component consists of four parts 39 is the person judging task completion and controlling the delivery of rewards Dr Bicard s wife 39 is the reward Not giving the wife a dollar everyday 39 the reward can be received At the end of each day 39 of the reward can be earned One dollar per day Example contract SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 GuidedNotes 5 CONTRACT TASK REWARD Who Janral Who Mrs Smith What W What W mithmttbeingasked When tomorrow When Today How long Until Ihave How well aanmt emsmnstlLemmpJetedjnd WW 3 the top of the page I l I39ll III I39ll Steps in contracting lDefme a specific behavior 2Negotiate with the student on behavior and rewards 3Defme contract criteria 39Who what when and how much 4Put the contract in writing Strategies for making contracting work 39The student must be able to negotiate for hisher reward 39The contract must specify observable behavior 39Stick to the contract 39Teach the student accountability by holding them to hisher word 39Modify the contract when needed 39Specify a penalty clause when necessary if the student fails to live up to the contract 39Make exchanges immediate then gradually fade time to delivery of reward 39Extend contracts from one day to two days then to weekly contracts Trouble shooting contracting Problem the student starts out well but looses interest Solution The reward pay off may be too delayed Decrease the delay time Problem The student never gets started Solution the behavior may need to be rede ned Discuss the expectations with the student Trouble shooting cont Problem Even after you have de ned the behavior the student still appears unmotivated Solution You may want to include a penalty clause Problem The student begins to work but appears frustrated SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 GuidedNotes 6 Solution Check to make sure the performance criteria is within the student s ability level Assignment You will write a contract for a hypothetical or real person Your contract must include 1 A description of an observable task observable measurable and positive terms 2 When the task will be accomplished 3 How well the task has to be performed for example complete 10 math problems 4 A description of the reward for task completion who will provide what how much 5The time the reward will be delivered Each component is worth 2 points Selfmanagement 11 Setting up a selfmanagement system Correspondence training Correspondence training is a set of procedures that teaches students describe their own behavior accurately dosay correspondence and to do what they say they will do saydo correspondence Two type of correspondence training Depending on the age and level of your student you can skip do say correspondences Dosay correspondence Step 1 39Determine the speci c behavior that the student is to selfmonitor Step 2 39Develop an easy to use recording form for the student to use SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 GuidedNotes 7 Example recording form Teacher Perform ance Stud ent Self mon itoring form Date Reward Day 6 O 4 H o manc Ra ting Mond ay T ue s day W edn esd ay Thu rsd ay Frida W eekly summ My 1234 1 uns atis fac to ry If the teacher agrees With the stud ent ratingput If the teacher do esno tagree Withth e student rat ingpu tanxin Rating Scale circle the numb er 2 ne ed imp roV em ents 3 aV era ge 4 outstanding a plus in th ecircl e the circle 8 Example recording form for more severely disabled or younger students S tuden t M onday Tu esd ay W ednesd ay Thu rs day Fr iday Re ward SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 GuidedNotes 8 Dosay correspondence Step 3 Teach the student to selfmonitor hisher performance How to teach the student to selfmonitor Be specific about the behavior do not use on task Tell the student that you will also be evaluating hisher performance Give the student examples and demonstrate the behavior Only have the student monitor one behavior at a time Have the student practice the behavior Show the student the recording form and teach himher how to use it Step 4 Def1ne the time period in which you want the student to selfmonitor It is best to use speci c time periods eg during reading Step 5 Give the student the recording form for a practice session Helpful strategy De ne a behavior for yourself e g praise statements and let the student monitor your behavior Step 6 matching phase 39Begin selfmonitoring You and the student will independently evaluate hisher performance After the selfmonitoring time period meet with the student and match your two recording forms Provide the reward if your evaluation matches the student s even if the hisher performance was poor Step 7 39Once the student begins to accurately record their performance begin saydo correspondence Say do correspondence Stepl 39Goal setting After determining a target behavior with the student have himher set a goal for improvement Example Yesterday the student was out of seat for 10 minutes during 15 minutes of individual work time Today the goal will be to stay in seat for 15 minutes Saydo correspondence Suggestions for goal setting Allowing students to set their own performance standards works better than teacher determined standards SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 GuidedNotes 9 However students often set standards that are more lenient than Set reward bene ts that favor more stringent standards Always set a goal that is equal to or greater than yesterdays goal Example You can determine what you want to do but if you do more you will earn more rewards Saydo correspondence Step 2 39Collect data using selfmonitoring sheet Step 3 39Meet with the student after the observation period If heshe meets goal provide reward and set new goal for next observation period If the student does not meet the goal discuss what happened and set new goals If the student continues to fail determine what the problem is Heshe may need extra instruction You may have to set penalty clauses Step 4 39Gradually fade out meetings as the student s behavior meets the goals they set for hisher self How to Implement Matching 39Set up a reinforcer menu based on the student s preferences 39Establish a list of items or activities that can be earned daily bidaily and weekly Sample reinforcer menu SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 Guided Notes 10 Reinforcers that can be earned daily 1 5 minutes free time 2 2 Free answers 3 Candy bar Reinforcer that take 2 days to earn 1 Sit by a friend for the day 2 Half an assignment 3 10 minutes of computer time Reinforcer that take a week to earn 1 Sit by a friend for 3 days 2 Free lunch with the teacher 3 1 No homework pass for the next week 4 Extra PE period next week 3 points 4 points 4 points 6 points 8 points 8 points 18 points 18 points 20 points 20 points Matching Matching phase Level 1 The student will be required to rate hisher performance and match it with you at the end of each observation session Explain that performance rating correspond to points that can be exchanged for items listed in the reinforcer menu If the student has attained hisher goal and have either matched perfectly or had a next door match he she earns the reward Next door match is either one below or one above the teacher s rating Perfect matching should earn a bonus points Once the student meets criteria for 5 consecutive days move to Level 2 matching 39Matching phase Level 2 The procedures are the same you will still collect performance data every session but only require the student to match with you every other session IPoint totals double If the student does not meet the goal for two consecutive session return to Level 1 If the student meets the goal and has perfect matching or next door matching for 3 consecutive matching sessions move to Level 3 matching Matching phase Level 3 Procedures are the same but you will match with the student twice per week Point totals triple If the student does not meet the goal on 2 consecutive sessions return to Level 1 SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 Guided Notes 11 Matching phase Level 4 Procedures are the same but you will match once per week Point totals quadruple If the student does not meet the goal on 2 consecutive sessions return to Level 1 Matching phase Level 5 The student will rate herhis behavior for the week and you will matching each Friday If the student does not meet his weekly goal return to phase level 4 Trouble shooting correspondence training 39If a student starts out well but begins to not meet hisher goals 39Reevaluate your reinforcer menu 39Check to make sure the student is not being distracted by others 39Let the student help trouble shoot Correspondence training 39Correspondence training works well with younger students 39For older students the matching and fading may be aversive Academic selfmanagement for older students 39We will discuss 2 strategies for helping students monitor academic performance 39Shortterm assignments CPR 39Longterm assignments WATCHi Class Performance Record CPR 39The CPR is designed to teach students to 39 Identify and record class assignments due dates and points 39Analyze their classroom performance regarding deportment and preparedness Name Subject Week QuartSPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 Guided Notes 12 Points Student Earned Rating Day Absent Due Turned Points and0r Citizenship Date Tardy Prepared Test and A 39 Dates Completed In Possible Grade Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Weekly Estimated academic grade for this term Total Estimated citizenship grade for this term I could improve my grade by SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 Guided Notes 13 Teaching students to use the CPR 39The rst line of under the title if for identi cation 39The absenttardy column is to help students keep track of absences and tardies Require the student write the assignment for days they miss 39In the prepared column have the students write yes or no based on your requirements IPencil book paper etc The student should be taught that if other teachers do not specify the information they should ask the teacher 39Have students write each assignment for a given class in the assignmentstests columns 39Require the student to complete each section 39write the due dates for the assignment 39make a check mark when the assignment is completed 39write the date when it is turned in 39write the possible points 39write the grade or points they received 39write the citizenship grade if given 39Require the student to calculate hisher weekly grade 39Require the student to estimate hisher grade for the term and how he she can improve the grade 39At the end of each week require the student to tern in the CPR and deliver a reward contingent upon acceptable performance 39Develop speci c strategies if the student is having dif culty with course work WATCH Assignment planning 39WATCH assignment planning is designed to help students plan how they will complete long term assignments 39 Book reports 39 Term papers 39It is not designed for short assignments WATCH planning 39The goal of WATCH planning is to help students to be responsible for completing long term assignments by breaking the assignment down into manageable steps 39What does WATCH stand for Write down the assignment the due date and any special requirements Ask yourself if you understand the assignment and as for help if necessary IIask analyze the assignment and schedule the tasks over the days available to complete the assignment Check each task as you do it for completeness accuracy and neatness SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 Guided Notes 14 Teaching students to use the WATCH form 39Instruct the students that they will be learning a strategy to help them plan and organize their academic assignments 39Give a rationale for why you are using the WATCH form 39Students say oDidn t know what they were supposed to do oForgot critical information necessary to competently complete the assignment oForget due dates Teaching students to use the WATCH form 39Provide the students with 3 or 4 blank WATCH forms 39Provide practice assignment 39Demonstrate how to use the form 39Write the week and your name at the top 39Write the assignment 39Write the due date and requirements 39Determine if you understand the assignment ask for assistance if you don t 39Determine what steps need to be taken in order to complete the assignment 39Demonstrate how to use the form 39EXplain that once the student is nished with the rst step to check their work for completeness accuracy and neatness CAN 39After they have completed each step they are to bring the form to you and you will award points based on how well they completed the step 39Points will be exchanged at the end of the assignment for known reinforcers contingent on the number of points earned SPED 7221 Su 07 CL 4 Guided Notes 15 Sample completed form 777 M77 7777 math7777 77 77 7 S rin 777 Name Subject Week Quarter Points Student Earned Rating Day Absent Due Turned Points and0r Citizenship Date Tardy Prepared Test and A 39 Dates nmnlptpd In Possible Grade Grade Mon A Page 63 problems 1025 314 315 15 S n 27 CD 3 ho Tue Yes Page 65 problems 125 315 V 315 25 20 S 3 9 Wed T No Page 70 problems 2545 316 20 0 U s 8 70 D Thu Yes Page 72 problems 120 317 317 20 20 S 8 39 Q A 393 Fri Yes Test Angles Toda 30 25 s g y V quot11 2 Weekly 110 77 s 3 Estimated academic grade for this term C Total Estimated citizenship grade for this term S I could improve my grade by Asking more questions when I don t under stand Miss less classes check my work
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