ClassroomBehavior Management SPED 3803
University of Memphis
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Date Created: 10/23/15
SPED 3803 SP 07 CL 5b GuidedNotes 1 Managing Group Instruction Group Oriented Contingencies and Token Economy Class 5a Group Oriented Contingencies Group oriented contingencies GOC 39Reinforcement for the group is contingent on Behavior of one member of the group gt Behavior of part of the group gt Behavior of everyone in the group gt GOC 39Advantages of GOC 39Teacher can provide SR more economically 39Excellent strategy for minimizing disruptive behavior of a few students in a large group 39Capitalizes on positive peer pressure 39Excellent for building positive social interactions Independent GOC 39Contingency is presented to all members of the group but members that meet a speci ed performance level SR is delivered only to those Independent GOC Example A B C Performance criterion Performance criterion SR for each group member is stated for all group is met achieving performance members criterion Every one who has their homework done by 2 PM will get ve extra minutes of an Independent GOC 39Making Independent GOC work 39Have students 39Do not have students SPED 3803 SP 07 CL 5b GuidedNotes 2 39Have students You can stack the odds in their favor Example from Research oBrantley and Webster 1993 Data were collected on Inappropriate and appropriate behavior Inappropriate behavior Offtask behavior callouts outofseat behavior Appropriate behavior Eyes on the teacher getting permission to talk staying in seat Students earned check marks and rewards for appropriate behavior Criterion for earning a reward 4 check marks per day for 4 out of ve days Increased to 6 as students performed better Results showed Inappropriate behavior was reduced by 80 to 100 over 8 weeks Appropriate behavior was increased substantially over baseline Dependent GOC Contingency is presented to the group and or a small group of students Predetermined student Randomly selected student Sometimes known as the Hero Procedure gtWhen an individual s performance earns reinforcement for the entire group SR for the group is dependent on one student Example If Jamul finishes today s assignment and hands it in without being asked I will let the class make new teams Dependent GOC Example A Performance criterion Performance criterion for group stated based on the performance of one individual or a small group SR for the entire group When all the students at table 2 finish their math assignment the class will have 5 minutes of free time Dependent GOC 39Making Dependent GOC work 39Set up the hero SPED 3803 SP 07 CL 5b GuidedNotes 3 Make the question heshe answers one that you know he she knows 39Choose a powerful Example from Research 39Gresham 1983 8 yearold boy who was highly destructive at home setting res property damage IEarned good notes at home and rewards at school Each note was exchangeable for juice recess and tokens Five good notes party at school Results showed Prope1ty destruction reduced to near 0 levels Successful homeschool application Interdependent GOC 39Contingency is presented to the group and SR is dependent on all members of the group meeting criterion 39Good Behavior Game Barrish Sanders amp Wolf 1969 Students are rewarded if they all meet a speci ed performance criterion for social skills Interdependent GOC Example A B C Performance criterion Performance criterion SR is provided if all group members is stated for all group is met by all group met performance criterion members members Interdependent GOC 39Making interdependent GOC work 39Carefully 39 Set criteria that 39 Let students Example from Research 39Lewis et al 2002 39Data were collected on students behavior during recess SPED 3803 SP 07 CL 5b GuidedNotes 4 Cooperation playing together and being kind 39Students earned wrist bands that were turned in after recess and placed in a jar When the jar was full the class earned a reward 39Results showed Problem behavior was decreased dramatically General Procedures for GOC 39Choose a 39The most important aspect of GOC is to nd a powerful reinforcer 39Have students help determine rewards 39Individualize contingencies when necessary not everyone has to earn the same reward General Procedures for GOC Choose Set the students up for success Example A shy student may be paired with an outgoing student to complete an assignment General Procedures for GOC 39Determine Example Correct math problems primary cooperation secondary 39Set an Use the average performance in the group as a starting point Designate or randomly select students for hero procedure Troubleshooting GOC Monitor and minimize harmful peer pressure Provide powerful SR for encouragement Increase performance criteria for students who scapegoat tease or ridicule other students Make the hero anonymous Exclude the students who scapegoat from the contingency for a specified period of time time out Have students only monitor positive behavior SPED 3803 SP 07 CL 5b GuidedNotes 5 Troubleshooting GOC 39Students unable to meet performance standards 39Set the initial performance criteria at an easily obtainable level then gradually increase the performance criteria 39Have students help set the performance standards and rewards ASR l Mr Parker has all his students write their name and put it in a hat He then pulls out a name and if that student gets the question correct the class gets to line up first for lunch This is an example of which type of GOC A Interdependent GOC B Independent GOC C Dependent GOC ASR 2 39Mrs Washington requires everyone in the class to wash their hands before they can go to lunch 39This is an example of which type of GOC A Interdependent GOC B Independent GOC C Dependent GOC ASR 3 39Fred completed his work and scored 100 so he got to represent Ms Folsom s class 39This is an example of which type of GOC A Interdependent GOC B Independent GOC C Dependent GOC ASR 4 39In this GOC a hero can be chosen A Interdependent GOC B Independent GOC C Dependent GOC ASR 5 39Ms Malple places the students in teams of 5 students each Each team who beat their last score on the time trial earns 025 toward the pizza party 39This is an example of which type of GOC A Interdependent GOC B Independent GOC C Dependent GOC Token Economy Reinforcement Program A specialized system of behavior management where students receive tokens for specific appropriate behaviors SPED 3803 SP 07 CL 5b GuidedNotes 6 may be exchanged for objects or activities that have been identi ed as reinforcing generalized conditioned reinforcer is used as a medium of exchange for backup reinforcers A token is a tangible symbol that can be given immediately after a behavior and exchanged later for a known reinforcer As students learn to associate the tokens with the purchase of reinforcers the tokens themselves become reinforcing Sample Token System 39Behavior Required Raise your hand and provide answer or contribution to class discussion only when called upon 39Back up reinforcers candy 39Cost one ticket per piece of candy 39When can tokens be exchanged at the end of class Token economy 39Three components de ne a token economy 39Behaviors to be 39 r J are I is selected tokens 39Backup reinforcers are provided that can be purchased with the token Procedures for implementing a token economy 39Advanced preparation 39 Select a token Tokens must be safe not easily swallowed Tokens should be durable last over time Tokens should not be desirable objects eg trading cards Tokens should be cheap Advanced preparation Some examples of tokens Rubber stamps postitnotes Check marks stamps Starts soda can tabs Whole punches in cards ribbons Buttons tickets Popsicle sticks Poker chips SPED 3803 SP 07 CL 5b GuidedNotes 7 Advanced preparation De ne the 39Select only measurable observable behavior 39 Specify criterion for task completion 39Start with a small number of behaviors including ones that are easy to accomplish 39Make sure that the student has the prerequisite skills 39Individualize contingencies when needed Select Use naturally occurring activities whenever possible 39Some examples of naturally occurring activities Extra computer time Extra free time Paper passer of ce messenger Teacher assistant VCR operator Library passes PE with another class Safety patrol lunchroom helper tutor 0 Select Necessity examples Luxury examples Calculator access classroom monitor Pencils computer time Bathroom passes candy 0 Establish 39Initially the token to backup reinforcer ratio should be low 1 token l reward 39As token earning increases increase the ratio of exchange 5 tokens l reward 39Add luxury items 39Increase price as earnings go up General procedures If you are going to use tangible objects as tokens you will need to make containers for storing the tokens Create a menu with the prices of backup reinforcers and place it in the classroom Have a plan for when students do not meet the requirements to earn tokens Consider response cost measures loss of tokens for inappropriate behavior Initial steps in token training Teach the students about the token system SPED 3803 SP 07 CL 5b GuidedNotes 8 39What students need to know about a token system What behaviors are required What are the backup reinforcers The cost of each backup reinforcer IWhen tokens can be exchanged for the backup reinforcers Allocate 15 minutes to teach the students about your system be clear with your instructions Demonstrate token delivery Direct a student to emit a target behavior e g sitting in the chair with both feet on the oor deliver the token Demonstrate token exchange Show the students the menu and let them exchange a token for an item Establishing your token economy Remember students will need time to lea1n how about your system Whenever you deliver the token Deliver tokens Exchanges should occur often at first Use your timer set it to go off every few minutes Focus token economy on building behavior Keep contingencies positive Using the token economy effectively After a few weeks gradually increase the times for exchange as you increase prices for items 39Week levery 10 minutes 39Week 2 every 20 minutes 39Week 3 at lunch and end of the day 39Week 4 end of the day Modify exchange periods as needed Some days and or students will required more exchange periods than others Procedures for thinning the reinforcement of your token economy 39Always pair token delivery with praise 39Gradually increase the number of responses required to earn a token 39Gradually increase the time of delivery of backup reinforcers SPED 3803 CL 3 GN 1 Developing and using effective positive classroom rules A blueprint for student success Class 3 What are rules 0 One of the most cost effective forms of classroom management available to teachers gt gt gt gt However What does the research tell us Madsen Becker Thomas 1968 Rules alone vs no rules gt Appropriate behavior and inappropriate behavior equal 0 Rules with reinforcement vs no rules gt Appropriate behavior inappropriate More good news from the research Thomas Becker and Armstrong 1968 I Teachers can produce and compared to no rules behavior 0 Providing positive comments Sr produced appropriate behavior 0 Withdrawing positives and using disapproval statements produced inappropriate behavior What does this mean Good classrooms were students are highly involved do not just happen They exist because effective teachers have the types of classroom conditions and student interaction necessary for a Big Idea As teachers we should never take good student behavior for granted SPED 3803 CL 3 GN 2 Some common misconceptions by teachers about rules I can t afford to take precious time away from instruction Students should know what I expect Teaching rules is the parents job Explaining my rules to the students should be enough Reality I I can t afford to take precious time away from instruction You can pay time up front or pay as you go I Students should know what I expect Students need time to learn the expectations of the teacher I Teaching rules is the parents job Teaching classroom rules IS a part of teaching I Explaining my rules to the students should be enough Rules need to be taught with actions as well as words Types of rules Rules come in three basic varieties gt gt Vague rules gt gt Respect others gt Come to class prepared gt Be on time for class gt Be responsible gt Give your best effort at all times Negative rules 9 gt No ghting arguing or swearing SPED 3803 CL 3 GN 3 gt Do not come to class without a pencil gt Do not be out of your seat when the bell rings gt No late homework will be accepted gt Incomplete assignments will not be accepted Top 5 problems with these types of rules 5 Teacher attention will likely be on for inappropriate behavior 4 The student is how to behave 3 Teachers are likely to notice students only when they do 2 The classroom becomes 0 Coercive 0 Authoritarian 0 Punitive Number 1 problem Characteristics of Positive Rules gt gt gt gt Positive rules Specify appropriate student behavior in observable terms I means something the teacher can count 0 Hand raise 0 Work completion When a teacher can count a behavior students become Specify observable consequences I Finish work extra recess Providing clear and compliance exhibited by many students Developing positive rules 1 will help to break the cycle on non Develop a framework before the school year begins I Decide what kinds of situations need to be covered by the rules Start developing rules on day one 0 Include students in the decisionmaking process 0 Student participation in rule setting has been demonstrated to be effective for SPED 3803 CL 3 GN 4 gt gt gt Howto include students in the process Discuss the the classroom in society and discuss their application to JAsk students to describe appropriate student and teacher behavior JAsk students to provide a list of consequences for following and not following the rules A few rules for developing rules 1 2 3 Create a contract 0 Have students draw up a contract to be signed by the teacher and student and taken home for the parents 0 Advantages of a contract SPED 3803 CL 3 GN 5 Example Contract Contract On this day of September 4 2007 the undersigned have agreed to the following terms and conditions Student responsibilities Teacher responsibilities Be in assigned seat and actively working on Reward appropriate student behavior regularly classroom assignments when the bell rings Be available to answer student questions Raise hand or use I need help card to answer or ask a question Make learning FUN Keep hand and feet away from other students at all times Turn in all homework on time Rewards Penalties Extra free time Loss of privileges for a speci ed No homework passes period of time Special lunches Notes home Mc Donald s coupons Teacherparent conference Notes home Classroom helper Student Teacher Parent Using rules effectively I Teach the rules Catch students following the rules SPED 3803 CL 3 GN 6 Monitor your behavior Include students as monitors I Teach the rules Step 1 I Step 2 0 First 5 minutes of class the first 2 weeks of school Monday s for a month 0 Role play 0 Go back whenever you need to II Catch students following the rules Follow the ICC rule I right when rule following occurs I like the way Jorge is working I reliably recognizes student behavior as it occurs l praise must be related to the behavior 0 follow the ifthen rule if you see rule following then you praise rule following Jennifer turned her walkman off when the bell rang she is ready to learn One extra credit point for Jennifer III Monitor your behavior Monitoring your behavior helps to promote a positive classroom environment I Count your approval and disapproval statement 0 I Timer game I Reminders IV Include students as monitors Students play an active role in controlling peer behavior I Peers can serve to increase and maintain appropriate classroom behavior provided they are given proper instruction and feedback from a teacher 9 I Peer tutoring SPED 3803 CL 3 GN 7 I Positive peer reporting What to do when students break rules Use least intrusive procedures first 0 Proactive procedures some examples Time managementshort transitions lots of ASR Environmental managementseating arrangements High density differential reinforcementpraise other students Proximity controlwalk around the classroom Signal interferencenonverbal communication Planned ignoringdon t sweat the small stuff Verbal redirection give students something else to do VVVVVVV Proximity control and signal interference Proactive procedures Proximity control is simply using your presence as a signal to students to keep on task lBecome a wandering social reinforcer lResearch demonstrates that teacher proximity is inversely related to student misbehavior Redirection J39 quot involves requiring students to emit abehavior that is 39 quot39 39 with the 39 39 39 Passing out graded homework vs passing a note lTargeting incompatible behaviors for reinforcement will make the misbehavior disappear naturally What to do when student break the rules 0 Reactive procedures gt Remain unemotional yet rm when intervening gt Start early in a student s behavior chain of misbehavior gt Get closereprimands are best made in private gt Do not use a question format gt Describe appropriate behavior gt Make more start requests than stop requests gt Do not give multiple requests gt Reinforce compliance Choice Making Choice 0 What we thznh or what we know or what we believe Is In the end ofh39ttle consequence The only consequence is what we do John RuskJn What is Choice Making 39From a maznstrearnperspective 39Choice is Good choices v bad choices SPED 3803 CL 3 GN 8 Coke V Pepsi gtFree will 39From a beba Viora perspective 39Choice is 39It s easier to talk to a neighbor than to do math 39there is higher quality rewards for talking to a neighbor than doing math 39If the reinforcement for talking to a neighbor is more frequent than doing math problems 39If the reinforcement for talking to a neighbor is more immediate then doing math 39A student will talk to her neighbor instead of do math Reinfor cer Dimensions Many times the wrong behaVior gets selected because the right behaVior Is too hard Results in poor quality rewards Is not reinforced often enough Is not reinforced soon enough Do you procrastinate Why You choose to Not necessarily Reinforcement Dimensions Rate of reinforcement R How Quality of reinforcement Q The value Response Effort E The difficulty Delay in Reinforcement D How Example Shelia is told to complete her math assignment She might ignore the instruction and continue to do what she was doing low E high Q short D low R She might begin to work on the math assignment high E low Q long D low R She might get up walk around the room low E high Q short D high R What behaVior will she choose SPED 3803 CL 3 GN 9 Choice as an intervention 39Giving students limited choices of what activities to work on has had some success in the research literature 39Usually the studies were set up in a choice V no choice arrangement Choice ofwork to do Provide students All options should be something the student should be doing Let students choose the item When they nish let them choose the second task Choice of what to work for reinforcers Provide students with 2 or 3 preferred item All options must be preferred items Combination of Choice of work and what to work for Manipulating reinforcer dimensions 39Sometimes providing students with choices is not desirable 39In this case you will want to manipulate The rate of reinforcement R The quality of reinforcement Q The delay to delivery D The effort involved E 39To help in uence their choices For high effort work 39If the students are doing something that requires a lot of effort make sure the 39Rate of reinforcement is high 39The quality of reinforcement is high 39Reinforcement is immediate Increasing the rate of reinforcement 39At rst students are to complete 40 problems for one reinforcer 39Now students get four reinforcer for 40 problems Increasing the Quality 39Provide reinforcer selection just before instruction or throughout instruction 39After each question correct the student gets to choose the reward Decrease the delay to reinforcement 39Use tokens to bridge the time gap 39Start out with short delays and go to longer delays Manipulating Motivation 39You can increase the likelihood that students will make good choices do their work by making fun time contingent on work completion 39This is called the Premak Principle Inducing Behavior SPED 3803 GN class 1 1 SPED 3803 Behavior Management for Learners with Disabilities7221 Methods of Behavior Management in Special Education The University of Memphis College of Education Some Basic Assumptions ALL children have a right to an effective education Every child is a unique individual All people no matter what their functioning level can learn No single set of interventions or remedial procedures is effective under all conditions with all children No matter how well designed and executed classroom intervention process may be their effectiveness will be limited unless they target the function of the child s behavior Bicard s Unof cial Laws of Teaching Law 1 The student is always right That does not mean they are always correct but that their behavior will tell you if what you are doing is working See law 2 Law 2 If you always do what you ve always done you will always get what you always got If what you are doing is not working try something else Law 3 Never let them see you sweat quot Its nothing personal its only business Tony Soprano Behavior Management This class will NOT be a cookbook with recipes for behavior management This class will teach you about the principles of behavior which will allow you to create a personalized solution to behavior problems ln order to learn about behavior management understanding predicting and changing behavior one must investigate why a person behaves in a particular way What is Behavior Management All actions and inactions a teacher engages in that enhances the probability that children individually and in groups will develop effective skills that are productive and socially acceptable Behavior management is a complex set of skills that must be planned implemented and evaluated often in an ongoing effort to provide an effective education for all students When Effectively Implemented Behavior Management Is Comprehensive rather than piecemeal part of the overall tactics of teaching SPED 3803 GN class 1 2 Proactive rather than reactive sets the occasion for student success Positive rather than negative is designed to teach students new skills Inclusive rather than exclusive includes ALL relevant people students parents and other school personnel Purpose of behavior management To maintain a well run and cohesive classroom in which all students will learn The ultimate goal of behavior management is to transfer control of teacher maintained contingencies to student selfdiscipline Useful Explanations for Behavior Meet 4 Requirements Inclusive Accounts for a large portion of human behaviors 39Does the explanation account for a substantial quantity of behavior 39If an explanation is not inclusive predictability and systematic change is impossible Verif1able Prove through experimentally testing a causal relationship 39Is the explanation testable Predictive utility Reliably explains a variety of behavior across contexts 39Does the explanation provide reliable answers about what people are likely to do under certain circumstances Parsimonious The simplest explanation for the observed behavior that can account for the behavior 39Is it the simplest explanation Biophysical Explanations Genetic and hereditary effects behavior is due to genetic or heredity factors eg mental retardation schizophrenia Heredity amp genetics cause a person to behave as they do quot You are just like your father Biophysical Explanations Biochemical explanations for behavior problems obehavior is a result of unbalanced chemical substances in the body SPED 3803 GN class 1 3 No causal relationship has been established with autism hyperactivity learning disabilities or mental retardation oBrain damage inappropriate behavior is caused by brain damage eg fetal alcohol syndrome Lacks empirical support Even if brain damage exists there is currently no proof that it causes any particular behavior Usefulness of Biophysical Theory Inclusiveness Poor Verifiability Fair Predictive Utility Poor Parsimonious Poor Research in biophysical characteristics has resulted in preventing or lessening serious non behavioral problems e g PKU food alergies Just because a child has a physiological disorder does not mean that they will automatically behave in a certain way oAll children with Down s Syndrome are happygolucky For teachers searchingknowing the physiological characteristics may be important but knowing them is of little use for designing instruction They may become an excuse not to teach lower expectations oMelanie won t learn to subtract she s mentally retarded Developmental Explanations Stage Theories of Development chronological or mental age dictate behavior Stage Theory of Cognitive Development Biologically determined forces facilitate progress through stages which affect behavior Freud s Components of Personality oId the part of the human personality that seeks gratification of desires without reference to any external controls I wanna oEgo includes such processes as motility memory judgment reasoning language and thought I oughta Superego develops as a function of parental training and includes conscience morals ethics and aspirations umpire Freud s Theory Normal and abnormal behavior can be explained by the progression of stages oFreud39s theory of development has 2 primary ideas SPED 3803 GN class 1 4 One everything you become is determined by your first few years indeed the adult is exclusively determined by the child39s experiences because whatever actions occur in adulthood are based on a blueprint laid down in the earliest years of life Two the story of development is the story of how to handle antisocial impulses in socially acceptable ways Ora1 Birth to 12 months The personality progresses through con icts of dependence and independence Ana1 Ages 1 to 3 years The personality progresses through con icts of having societal rules imposed on behavior Pha11ic 3 to 5 years The personality progresses through con icts of attention and differentiation Genita1 Puberty The personality progresses through con icts of sexuality and behavioral norms imposed on behavior Piaget s Stage Theory Learning takes place through adaptation and Piaget believed that adaptation has two aspects assimilation and accommodation Senorymotor Birth to 18 months Child learns to coordinate muscles and control environment Preoperational 18 months to 7 years one of the major achievements of the preoperational child is the use of symbols and language Behavioral characteristics 39Egocentrism 39Inability to form cause and effect relationships between behavior and outcome Concrete Operational 7 to 11 years Children in this stage can think much more systematically and quantitatively The child39s reasoning processes become logical and they acquire operations quotsystems of internal mental actions that underlie logical thinkingquot Flavell Miller amp Miller 1993 Formal Operational 11 years to Adulthood oLogical and systematic thought functions people in the formal operations stage can apply these processes to more abstract problems and hypotheses oThis is Piaget s last stage of cognitive development after this he proposed no further structural improvements in the quality of reasoning Wadsworth 1989 pg 1 15 Unfortunately it is believed that not all adults arrive at formal operations although most have reached their full potential by about 14 15 years of age Usefulness of Developmental Theories SPED 3803 GN class 1 5 Inclusiveness Good Veri ability Poor Predictive Utility Fair Parsimony Poor Developmental Theory Many in developmental psychology do not believe in veri cation of theoretical constructs N0 causal relationship has been established between developmental stages and behavior These theories offer general explanations which do not help predict individual behavior in speci c circumstances Not a helpful theory if you are looking to change behavior through changing conditions Teachers of students with special needs if relying on developmental theory may wait a LONG time for a student to become developmentally ready for each task It can become an excuse not to teach oMelanie s just not ready to learn to share Cognitive Explanation Pr0p0nents of cognitive theory believe that a child learns through natural discovery of the environment Learning is explained on the basis of insight pattern rearrangement and intuitive leaps Teachers do not impart knowledge they merely rearrange the environment to facilitate discovery oConstructivism M0tivati0n to learn comes from inside the student thus any attempt to use external motivation may retard discovery and development Gestalt Theory 39Behavior is caused by attempts of humans to impose structure in their environment and see relationships rather than isolated objects or events 39Principles of Organization OProximity OSimilarity OClosure OPragnanz Proximity close together in time or space grouped together S O S SPED 3803 GN class 1 6 Similarity similar objects are seen as grouped together xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Closure Incomplete objects seen as whole What do you see Pragnanz gures seen as correct or simple Many people have difficulty proofreading because they sea words spelled correctly even when they are not Cognitive Theory Teaching based on the nding of neuroscience 0 Brain Based teaching methods From Daniel T Willingham Professor of Psychology the University of Virginia Consider for example an 8yearold boy who can t read A neuroscientist could give his teacher an image of his brain and explain that the wrong areas of his brain are active when he tries to read A literacy coach or school psychologist could give the student a 45minute assessment and then explain to his teacher that he doesn t have a good grasp of the sounds that the letters make As a teacher which test results would you rather have The brain image might be interesting but it does not provide any information about how to help the boy read In a nutshell that s about where neuroscience is today on most matters related to the classroom Very exciting research is being conducted but it is exciting to researchers trying to figure out how the brain works Some of it is of interest to cognitive researchers who are trying to figure out how the mind works And Viltually all of it is far from being able to guide teachers Brain based teaching fallacies debunked oEveryone has a learning style unique to themselves SPED 3803 GN class 1 7 This neuromyth says that everyone is either a Visual Auditory or Kinesthetic type learner This claim erroneously assumes that individual differences in perceptual acuity are maintained throughout higherorder information processing and ultimately with learning It is a false assumption Neuroimaging studies into crossmodal processing have demonstrated that input modalities in the brain are interlinked Calvert et al 2000 visual with auditory visual with motor motor with auditory visual with taste and so on A moment s re ection shows this must be the case From John G Geake Paper presented at Neuroscience and Education the emerging dialogue symposium BERA 2005 This neuromyth is based on clinical research in the 1960s describing lateralized functioning in splitbrained patients who had their corpus callosum severed in an attempt to reduce their severe epilepsy and more recent psychophysical and neuroimaging research showing that in most people the semantic system is left lateralized The resulting over simplification says that the leftbrain thinks analytically the rightbrain thinks holistically and therefore these two brains can be taught separately in the classroom Everything in this claim is wrong Most brain functions occur bilaterally ie in both hemispheres This is true for higher order cognition and for keeping our bodies ticking over body states typically being represented contralaterally e g actions of the right hand determined in the left motor cortex From John G Geake Paper presented at Neuroscience and Education the emerging dialogue symposium BERA 2005 Usefulness of Cognitive Theory Inclusiveness Poor Verifiability Poor Predictive Utility Poor Parsimony Poor Cognitive Theory and Education No way to confirm the existence of the cognitive processes hypothesized by theorists oHave you seen my cognitive map In many instances the teacher who uses a discovery or contstructivist approach has very little control over what the students will discover or construct oCan 2 3 6 Many in cognitive theory do not want to predict outcomes of learning oUnfortunately this has lead to poor outcomes for many students participating in educational experiences that adhere to this theory Behavioral Explanation for Human Behavior SPED 3803 GN class 1 8 Behavior is a product of biological predisposition and the results of the organism interacting with its environment over the course of its life oNature and nurture work together Behavior any observable action is a result of the consequences a result of that action Behavior is something that is directly observable and quantifiable Anything a dead man can t do oYou can see hear feel or smell it oYou can count or measure it Q Fundamental Assumptions Any given behavioral sequence has three components antecedent behavior consequence AKA three term contingency oAntecedent conditions that occur just prior to a behavior eg physical environments instructional match teacher directionsassistance peer initiations antecedents occasion or set the stage for certain responses antecedents may be clear and short or extended and not so clear eg teacher says Jeremy what is 22 or tells David Sit down Behavioral Sequence cont d Behavior a response to the antecedent or stimulus situation any observable action 39in ABA the behavior is observable eg writing speaking answering questions and not inferred oUnderstanding is a byproduct of behaving in a certain way Where are you oConseguence an environmental change stimulus that occurs after the behavior in relatively immediate temporal sequence and affects the probability of that behavior occurring again in the future under similar stimulus situations A new stimulus is presented or added to the environment An alreadypresent stimulus is terminated or removed from the environment If a consequence is a controlling variable it will either increase or decrease the future occurrence of behavior Diagram of the 3 term contingency Antecedent Behavior Conseguence Name a TReX Well done carnivorous dinosaur Icy road drive at normal Crash into the car in front of you speed
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