Bio200 Week 8 Notes
Bio200 Week 8 Notes BIO 200LLB
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 200LLB at University at Buffalo taught by Lindqvist, C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biological Sciences at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
October 19th 2015 Lecture 15 Seed PlantsGymnosperms 1 The seed in an important advancement 2 Gymnosperms have naked seeds 3 Gymnosperm Life Cycle 4 There are four groups of gymnosperms Seed PlantsAngiosperms 1 Flowers amp fruits 2 Dissecting a ower 3 What is a fruit 4 Angiosperm Life cycle 5 Why are angiosperms so successful Gymnosperms The seed revolutionized the plant world May be the sole cause of success of both gymnosperms amp angiosperms Benefits of Seeds Embryophytic Dispersal Dormancydelay between development of embryo and dispersal of the seed Allows time for dispersalgives opportunity to find best growth conditions Most ferns are homosporous Sporophyte produces a single type of spore Seed plants are heterosporous Females and male cones strobili on same tree Sporophylls are born on cones Pollen grin is the male gametophyte Terminology Microsporangium Microsporedevelop into pollen grain after mitosis Pollen Grainmale gametophyte haploid Microgametophyte The female gametophyte is enclosed in protective tissue and is dependent on the sporophyte for nutrition Terminology Megasporangium Megaspore Megagametophyte Reduction in Size of Gametophytes Horsetail gametophytemulticellular ca 3 mm Freeliving bisexual Pine Pollen Grain 4celled ca 40 um No longer free living no antherinium Important facts about Seed plants All heterospores Allow for dispersal Allow for dormancy Dramatic reduction of gametophytic phase Sporophyte is the dominant form Gymnosperms are divided into Four Groups Gymnosperm means naked seedquot Gymnosperms constitute a monophyletic group 1 Cycads 2 Ginkgos 3 Gnetophytes 4 Conifers Gymnosperm Lifecyclealteration of generations Microsporangia produce microspores and megasporangia produce megaspores Terminology Megasporangiumbecomes nucellus NucellusDiploid MegasporeHaploid Integumentcovers sporangium diploid Seed Coat Micropyleopening in seed that allows the entrance of pollen Fertilization The seed is the mature ovule containing an embryo product of fertilization Can take up to 15 months Seed is basically just a mature ovule that contains an embryo End of dependence on water for reproduction 1 Cycads Ancient lineage that was extensive during age of dinosaurs Slow growing Can reach heights of 15 meters Resemble palms though genetically they are nowhere close Do not ower but bear cones 99969 f Motile sperm that will swim down pollen tube 2 Ginkgos a Dioecioushas separate male amp female individuals b Believed there are no wild ginkgos left c Males have cones females do not d Motile sperm 3 Gnetophytes a Only gymnosperms that share a form of tracheid cellvessel cells or elements b Once believed to be closer related to angiosperms than gymnosperms c Gnetum Welwitschia amp EphedraThree types of Gnetophytes 4 Conifers a Most common gymnosperms AngiospermsFlowering plants Angiosperm means covered seedquot Most successful group of plants Have both owers and fruit Flower Structure Sepalscovering of ower PetalsColorful to attract pollinators AnthersSite of microspore pollen production Filamentshold up anthers StamensComprised of anther amp filament OvaryEventually becomes fruit houses ovules OvulesHouse megaspores which produce eggs StyleWhere pollen must travel through to reach cell StigmaWhere pollen lands CarpelComprised of stigma style amp ovary Fruits AppleSingle carpel with interior seeds TomatoTrue berry with fused carpels Legumeeach seed has a sugary coat bean is the ovary PeachCalled a drupe seed is inside a hard pit Pineapplessinge fruit formed around Many many seeds Angiosperm Lifecycle Female gametophytes7celled 8 nuclei Terminology Egg Synergids Antipodals Polar bodies Male Gametophyte3celled Terminology Generative cell Sperm Cells Tube Cells Each microspore divides into a tube cell and a generative cell The generative cell divides to form two sperm cells Both sperm cells will fuse with parts of the female gametophyte Sperm amp egg2N zygote Sperm and polar nuclei3N endosperm Angiosperms Differ from Gymnosperms Double Fertilization 2N zygotes and 3N endosperm Flowers Reduced cell number in gametopytes Speed of pollen tube growth Triploid Endosperm Fruit Angiosperm s Success Vessel cells Rapid maturation Pollinators Fruits October 21 2015 Lecture 16 Touring the Angiosperms 1 A fossil angiosperm Archaefructus 2 The most ancestral extant group Amborella 3 Modern groups 4 Nymphaeles and Austrobaileyales 5 Chloranthacae and Ceratophyllum 6 Magnoliidae Eudicots amp Magnicots Pollination 1 Pollination vs fertilization 2 Abiotic vs biotic 3 Abiotic Water and wind 4 Biotic Insects beetles bees butter ies moths 5 Biotic birds amp bats 6 Plant goal achievement Trap owers a case study Darwin s abominable Mystery Has become a symbol of the complexities and gap in understanding the origin and earliest phases of angiosperm evolutionary history There seem to be no fossil intermediates from gymnosperms to angiosperms Fossils of Archaefructus Now extinct but though to be a close ancestor to the first angiosperms Dates back to 125 million years Fruits Male and female reproductive parts No petals or sepals Angiosperm Origin Flowering plants became dominant 90 million years ago Previous fossil records suggest an origin in Early Cretaceous 140 MYA New evidence pushes the origin back 100 million years Amborella Trichopoda Thought to represent one of the most ancient living angiosperms Represents sister group to all other living angiosperms Dioecious species Basal Nymphaeales Water lilies 80 species Comprised entirely of aquatic plants No vessel cellslive in water amp therefore have no need for vessel cells Austrobaileyales Comprised of woody plants Star anise dried fruit from a tree in China Mesangiosperms Chloranthaceae and Ceratophyllum Magnoliidae Large group of plants that with many economically important species Cinnamon avocado black pepper Trimerous owers multiples of 3 Once were referred to as primitive angiosperms Eudicots Represent 75 of all angiosperms Tomato Venus y trap coffee cocoa Multiples of S Broad leaves with branching veins Monocots Together with the Eudicots they represent 97 of angiosperms Grains amp grasses Corn wheat rice palms bananas orchids tulips lilies coconut ginger onions garlic Trimerous owers Angiosperm Diversity Group Species Number Amborella 1 Nymphaeals 80 Austrobaileyeyales 100 Chlopnathaceae Few Dozen Ceratophyllum 5 Magnoliidae 9000 Monocots 60000 Eudicots 175000 Flowering Plants have Special Adaptations for Mating Matingact of pollination Fertilization is when sperm meets egg cell Two Main Types of Pollination Abiotic Water Pollination Include most water species Pollen must be relatively impermeable by water but still able to pollinate Wind Pollination Small greenish odorless owers that hang from the plant Wind rarely carries pollen more than 100 meters Biotic Insects have resulted in a coevolution between insects and plants Beetles May have been first biotic pollinators Flower scents may be spicy sweet or reminiscent of decaying organic material Bees Short vs Long tongued bees Short tongued bees Visit wideopen owers Longtongued bees can reach into deeper narrow owers Butter ies Flowers are usually pink in color amp have a at landing area Nectar is usually in long tubes Moth Hover well hang in front of owers with rapid wing beating October 23 2015 Lecture 17 What s a Fungus 1 The fungus hike 2 Definig traits of fungi 3 General biology of the fungi Types and ecology 1 Microsporidia 2 Chytridomycetes 3 Zygomycetes 4 Glomeromycetes 5 Ascornycetes 6 Basidiomycetes 7 Fungal ecology mutualists saprobes and parasites Fungus is more closely related to plants Make up their own monophyletic clade More closely related to animals than plants Fungus is very Diverse6Main groups Fungus Share 6 Traits 1 Most fungi have a number of cell types 2 Fungi have cell walls with Chitin 3 Some fungi have dikaryon stages 4 Fungi undergo nuclear mitosis 5 Many fungi have both sexual and asexual reproduction 6 Fungi are heterotrophs that absorb nutrients Fungal Cell Types Unicellular can be agellated or Multicellular Mycelium fungus like composed of long celllike structures called hyphae Hyphae can be septate when septa separates structures or coenocytic without septa Most hyphae can be considered single long multinucleate cells Groups of hyphae form complex structures Mycelium Fungus Have cell walls with chitinwhat gives cell s their structure Same protein that insects use to make their shells hard Dikaryons Form from the fusion of two haploid mating strains Dikaryon means 2 nuclei Though both nuclei are haploid dikaryon cells are protected from lethal mutations that would be masked in a true haploid organism Cannot selffertilize Nuclear Division The nucleus replicates and forms two copies but the cell remains a single unit Nucleus divides without breaking the nuclear envelope Reproduction Can reproduce both sexually amp asexually Sexual reproduction can be common is some groups while rare in others Dikaryon stage1N 1N haploid nuclei function independently they do not fuse Spores develop into new haploid individuals Asexual reproduction is often done by spores in multicellular fungi Digestion Fungi uses External digestionall are heterotrophs Completely dependent on water Can feed in 3 different ways Mutualistsexchange nutrients in a mutualistic manner SaprophytesEat dead matter ParasitesEat living organisms Fungal Groups Microsporidia Obligate parasites of animals especially common in insects crustaceans and fish Host cells are penetrated by a tube inserted by Microsporida Lack true mitochondria has mitosome instead Chytrids are likely paraphyletic Aquatic Unicellular life stages Flagella present May be killing amphibiansbecomes pathogenic at lower temperatures Zygomycetes Bread molds Do not have any septa Zygospores Grow completely asexually Glomeromycota Mycorrhizal and coenocytic fungiform mutual or beneficial relationships with most plants Cannot live without host plants Monophyletic group Do not form mycelia with hyphae Ascomycota Septate Dikaryon forming Bear spores in sacs asci Group Contains Cup fungi Yeast common molds Penicillin Truf es morels Cheese molds Plant pathogens chestnut blight amp Dutch Elm Cordycepsgenus of parasitic ascomycetes that infects insects and other arthropods Basidiomycota Septate Dikaryon forming Basidiocarp houses the basidia that produce spores can produce up to 40 million spores in an hour
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