Bio Lecture 22: Vertebrate 2
Bio Lecture 22: Vertebrate 2 BIO 209L-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Reyes on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 209L-001 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Renee Kopulos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I Lab - SL in Biological Sciences at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Lecture 22 Vertebrate 2 1 Fish Head Backbone and Jaws but No Limbs l Gills form from Pharyngeal silits in embryo baby Hang from skeleton supports Water moves across the gills to make 02 01 is low concertation in H20 2 Lateral Line System pits with sensory hairs detect changes in water pressure also in amphibians Sense vibration caused by other organisms to help locating prey or avoiding predators 3 Some species detect or even produce electricity Strong electric elds used to stun prey before capture 1A Cartilaginous Fish Includes Sharks and Rays Sharks streamlined powerful swimmers Rays attened dorsoventrally Characteristics Cartilaginous skeleton Shark skin reduces drag allowing greater speed Nostrils just for smelling not breathing Shark reproduction may be Oviparou Lays eggs that hatch outside of female Ovoviviparous Eggs remain in oviduct fed by egg yolk then hatch and are released Viviparous Young develop in females uterus some receive nourishment from mothers uterine blood or placenta 1B Bony Fish Characteristics 1 Bony Skeleton 2 Flap over gills Moves water and hence gases 3 Swim Blabber Gases moved to or from blood to control buoyancy swim oat 4 Most covered in overlapping scales and secrete mucus from skin glands to reduce drag when swimming 2 Amphibians Vertebrates with Jaws 4 appendages more terrestrial Tetrapod s four feet Includes Salamandes tailed even as adults Frogs Toads no tail as adults Characteristics 1 Tadpoles gilled frog larvae 2 Adult moist terrestrial Tadpole Tadpole with Tail Small frog with tail Mid frog with tail and Grown frog with no tail 3 Gas exchange in lungs and through skin 4 Lateral Line System like sh is most larvae and some adults 5 Egg in Jelly no shell keeps eggs moist 6 External fertilization 3 Amniotes Reptiles A Traditionally Includes 1 Lizards 2 Turtles Shell includes some vertebrae and ribs 3 Alligators Broader snoutCrocodiles Skinner snout Characteristics 1 Dry scales made of Keratin gt reduces dehydration 2 Common in deserts 3 Gas exchange via lungs that move by moving ribs 4 Leathery shell forms inside mother most oviparous few viviparous 5 Internal fertilization body part inserted into to produce spermeggs 6 Ectothermic Body heated primarily from environment vs from metabolism is birds and mammals Ex sh and reptile scales develop from different layers of skin sh scales develop from dermis reptile scales from epidermis Analogous traits via convergent evolution Amniote Phylogeny Without birds quotreptilesquot snakes lizards turtles crocodiles is Paraphyletic Descended from a common evolution ancestor or ancestral groups but not including all the descendant group
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