HIST 1010, Week 10 Lecture Notes
HIST 1010, Week 10 Lecture Notes Hist 1010
Popular in World History 1
Popular in History
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Melissa Blair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 10 October 20 2015 Oceans African Trade and the Impact I The Rise of Ocean Trade II Africa The Development of New Trade Networks III The Islamic Cultural Sphere Rebuilds a The Delhi Sultanate b Emergence of the Ottoman Empire Today s Questions 0 v What are some of the developments in the northern half of Africa around 1100 and how do they help this part of the world tie in more closely with AfroEurasia 3 How did the Islamic cultural sphere rebuild in the wake of the Mongol invasions What were some of the central goals of Muslim leaders in terms of political rebuilding The Rise of Ocean Trade 0 Mingera Needle Compass HUGE when it comes to oceanbased trade 0 Sense of direction especially when it s cloudy I Preciously relied on celestial positioning but you can t look at the stars when it s cloudy o More accurate mapmaking I Easier to sail longer distances 0 By the end of the 11th century there is a welldeveloped ocean trade network that is coming to replace the Silk Road I Important 0 Allows the volume of trade to expand tremendously 0 Ships carry more than camels o More direct access to trade than overland trade for growing populations 0 Populations are booming in this era I Ocean trade really facilitates this boom I Better access to agricultural goods I Makes the societies wealthier o In addition to goods being moved back and forth ideas are moving back and forth just as they had on the Silk Road earlier 0 Many of the governments promote and protect ocean trade 0 The Song Chinese government promoted to construction of new port cities 0 Many Muslim political entities provided escort ships military vessels to protect their ships from pirates I Evidence of the centrality of ocean trade to these societies Africa The Development of New Trade Networks 0 West Africa is getting commercially tied into the rest of AfroEurasia for the first time Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 10 o Centuries before that there had been Muslim traders who travelled into west Africa 0 A kingdom in west Africa a quotland of gold where gold is found everywhere 0 Kingdom ofMai gets really tied into the largescale trade networks I A very active participant in AfroEurasian trade 0 Two main commodities going east 0 Gold I This part of Africa has an abundance of gold I It is really valuable and the kingdom of Mali really likes to show it off 0 quotA procession that included camels carrying 600 pounds of gold 0 Slaves I NOT chattel slaves people who were already outsiders see below I The work they do varies tremendously 0 Different areas so different tasks 0 Some of the men and women were doing plantationstyle agricultural but they weren t the majority 0 Most did domestic tasks women or dock work men repairing ships and docks etc I The main function of slaves in this time was to be status symbols to their owners their work has nothing to do with the economy 0 Mali Tying west Africa to the AfroEurasian world 0 Muslim empire that emerges around 1100 0 Driver of booming transSaharan trade which took gold and slaves east across Africa and brought trade and agricultural goods back to Mali 0 Slaves traded along this route were not chattel slaves but rather were prisoners of war criminals and others who were outsiders in Malian society The Islamic Cultural Sphere Rebuilds o The Delhi Sultanate 0 India is not that affected by the Mongol invasions 0 Two things that are interesting about the Delhi Sultanate I It followed in the footsteps of many earlier Muslim kingdoms in that it didn t require conversion they re making no effort to eliminate religious diversity 0 You are taxed if you re not Muslim but that s literally it o A good example of a flexible and diverse kingdom 0 They adopt the local language when they come in because this is a huge expanse of land so it wouldn t be practical to try and make everyone there learn a new language 0 Defended very well by a very strong military Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 10 I They don t have Mongol invasions and they do not have widespread outbreaks of the bubonic plague I The population actually increases over the course of the 14th century 0 Almost all the rest of AfroEurasia has to rebuild and start over after those bad things the Delhi Sultanate serves as a quotcontrol group that manages to avoid all of these catastrophes o Emergence of the Ottoman Empire 0 The Mongols really destructed the Islamic community I A moment of real soulsearching for a lot of Muslims o What emerges out of this destruction is the Ottoman Empire 0 The Ottoman Empire 0 Begun as the small Osman emirate in 1299 eventually controls much of southwest Asia and eastern Europe see following map 0 Intricate social structure with power flowing along multiple avenues such as religious brotherhoods religious lawyers government bureaucracy and craft guilds I Spreads power out throughout society I Avoids concentrating power in too few hands 0 Used devshirme to gain and train janissaries who could rise to high positions and had their own social structure and power base I The deshirme is a process that takes young boys and turns them into government servants 0 quotAny family under Ottoman rule Muslim or nonMuslim high or low could be sucked into this slavery etc I Trained and placed into really powerful positions once they re trained they re called janissaries 0 Not allowed to marry nor have children to keep it from being hereditary no kids to pass it on to o Becomes a really cohesive group loyal only to the empire 0 Only one of many groups that have power in Ottoman society 0 You could be born into a landed aristocratic family I However technically all the land in the empire belonged to the sultan o The sultan could take away from landed noble families 0 You could also be a part of a religious group called the Sufi brotherhood I Followed particular religious leaders 0 Also you could be part of a craft guild I Controlled entry into a particular trade or craft I Licensed the practitioners of that trade or craft o If you were not a Muslim you could be a part of a millet 0 Those millets based on religious lines had their own schools their own charities etc Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 10 0 They provide another power base 0 A Visual of Ottoman Social Groups 0 Sufi brotherhoods cut across class among Muslims guilds connected Muslims and non Muslims o The interconnected social structure prevents any one group from getting too much power and enables people to be folded into their place as the Ottoman society expands 0 Unlike earlier Muslim empires the Ottoman Empire is durable Terms and WrapUp o TransSaharan Trade Kingdom of Mali Ottoman Empire janissaries o What are some of the developments in the northern half of Africa around 1100 and how do they help this part of the world tie in more closely with AfroEurasia o How did the Islamic cultural sphere rebuild in the wake of the Mongol invasions What were some of the central goals of Muslim leaders in terms of political rebuilding October 22 2015 The Black Death I The Black Death The Rise of Ming China I A Worse Hard Time Europe a The Plague Years in Europe b Political Rebuilding in the Fifteenth Century Three Approaches i The CityState Approach Florence ii The Monarchy Approach Spain iii Continuing Chaos England Today s Question 3 How do Europe and China rebuild politically after the Black Death What do they prioritize when setting up new government The Black Death 0 The current theory of why the disease broke out when it did is related to climate change in central Asia 0 Communicated by fleas that usually live on rodents 0 Central Asia went through a drying period that forced rats and squirrels into closer contact with people I BTW this disease has not gone away 0 The massive outbreaks begin in China 0 The disease spreads so far because the main carriers of the disease are sailors Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 10 I Rats with the plague board the ship and die the fleas need somewhere new to go so they jump off of the dying rats and onto the sailors I The disease is really really infectious o It can spread in multiple ways 0 Big blisters would ooze pus pus was contagious o Coughing and sneezing o Fleas biting you 0 There is no real sanitation or formal ways of training doctors o VERY high death rate 0 Created a lot of fear I quotlike death coming into our midst like black smokeruthless phantomno mercy I quotTrade which like blood should circularly flow stopped trade stops completely out of fear out of death etc I Brought society to a standstill o It spreads to Europe in 1347 0 Population percentages drop tremendously over the course of 10 years The Rise of Ming China 0 Political Structure of Ming China 0 Eventually though not immediately reestablished bureaucracy with members chosen through civil service exams Also established bureaucratic structures to oversee production of trade goods porcelain silk etc 0 Used villagelevel structure to carry out infrastructure improvements Villages were told to complete a project but had to plan and pay for it on their own 0 Eliminated office of prime minister all matters above the village level went directly to the emperor 0 System designed to give lots of power to emperor which he also increased through assuming a religious role 0 Zhu emerges from a religious group declares himself emperor and drives out the Mongols after many years to begin the Ming dynasty 0 Looks nice in his picture see slides on Canvas but no he had a reputation for being really brutal and ruling with quite a lot of central authority I Tried to gain quotcentralized control over the world s largest and most diverse state 0 Talked a lot about agriculture as the key to China s economic fortunes I Suspicious of international trade 0 Obsessed with quotselfsufficiency I He would order infrastructure projects see bullet 2 above with the goal of diminishing the threat of flooding and also reclaiming farmland 0 Programs are successful but the imperial government aren t providing any money for it bullet 2 0 Led to a lot of inefficiency and a LOT of corruption Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 10 I Said in policy that the army had to be selfsufficient 0 When not fighting they should be farming for food for the army 0 The army had shrunk by 90 after this was implemented 0 Trying to govern China without bureaucratic structure I Family gets put in charge of large territories 0 They start accumulating their own power and the Hongwu Emperor starts to see them as a threat 0 He rebuilds the bureaucracy but has the position of prime minister taken away I Every issue above the local level went straight to the emperor which is crazy for such a huge expanse of land and people 0 The second Ming emperor constructs the Forbidden City in the early 15th century to communicate the sense of the emperor s power I Designed to be the physical representation of the power I Gave a good sense of the twotiered nature of the emperor 0 Lots of power but is totally removed and distanced from Chinese men and women A Worse Hard Time Europe 0 Things were going really well for Europe for a couple of centuries but then the 14th quotcalamitousquot century hit 0 Population numbers in 1346 the year before the plague hits has already decreased because of famine I In the first couple decades of the 14th century the climate had shifted etc and much of Europe fell into famine o Plague outbreaks reemerge about every 7 years at the start of 1347 until the end of the century 0 Effects of the Black Death in Europe 0 Millions of people died from both the 14th century famines that preceded the Black Death and the plague itself 0 Parish churches which had grown in number and in connection to their parishioners lives during the high Middle Ages proved illequipped to reassure people as many priests either fled in the face of the disease or died from tending to ill parishioners I Do not deal well with the plague at all I Priests either fled or were dying I The church tried to become more strict in the rules of religion o Persecutions of those who are not conforming to Catholicism o Feudalism was also undermined because lords could not protect their peasants nor could they provide for them adequately leading peasants to revolt in many parts of northern Europe I They also don t change the working terms of the peasants while everybody is dying 0 Political Rebuilding in the Fifteenth Century Three Approaches o The CityState Approach Florence Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 10 I Italy remained as it had been a collection of small citystates I Governing Florence in the 15th Century 0 Influential families put forward name of candidates for office which were then selected by random lottery every two months to form the city council called the Signoria Each family s candidates went into its own bag and one name was drawn from each bag to prevent any one family from having all the power 0 After the Medici become the most dominant family in the city in 1434 they introduce a system of generally elected committees which they controlled in order to keep power in their family heads 0 Politics are vulnerable to control of powerful families 0 You become a powerful family by using your money to pay for architecture art funding young businesses and just becoming the most valuable patrons in the city 0 Because there was no executive in this system heads of wealthy families could become the most powerful people in Florence without ever having official political offices 0 The Monarchy Approach Spain I The crisis of the 14th century allows for a dramatic change I By the turn of the 14th century only Granada remained Muslim they were driven out by the Portuguese I The Spanish families spend that time marrying their children to one another as a means of forming alliances I Unification and Reconquest of Spain 0 In the 14th century Portuguese kings defeat Muslim rulers and minimize Muslim political power on the Iberian peninsula o In the 15th century Spanish noble families slowly intermarry with one another working towards stability for the region which is finalized in the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella the heirs to the thrones of Castille and Aragon the two largest and most important provinces in 1469 0 Between them they rule what is most of Spain today 0 They really focus on enforcing a cultural unity to match the political unity that their marriage has created 0 Ferdinand and Isabella institute what they call the reconquest of Spain a military effort to push the Muslims fully out of the Iberian peninsula as well as the Spanish Inquisition to root out anyone who is not a practicing Catholic 0 The Inquisition is particularly brutal for those who are subjected to it especially for Jews 0 The Jews found safe haven in Spain after the rest of Europe started trying to banish them 0 Continuing Chaos England I England is fighting the 100 Years War with France Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 10 o Eventually the English lose 0 A crippling psychological loss I A civil war War of the Roses breaks out to determine who the new king will be I England in the 15th Century 0 Turmoil of 14th century led to continuing political turmoil in the 15th but most notably the War of the Roses succession fights 0 But there are not major calls for fundamental political reorganization as happened in Spain 0 Modesty improved daily conditions for ordinary folk in the aftermath of the peasants revolt partially responsible for lack of calls for major changes Terms and WrapUp o Ming Dynasty Reconquest of Spain War of the Roses Medici o How do Europe and China rebuild politically after the Black Death What do they prioritize when setting up new governments