Lecture 7: The Primates
Lecture 7: The Primates Anthropology 1000
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Bird on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthropology 1000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Christopher Berk in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Anthropology Lesson 7 The Primates Why Do We Study NonHuman Primates gt gt gt We study primates because they provide the standard to assess human uniqueness We are closely related to nonhuman primates We share 98 of our DNA with some nonhuman primates We share evolutionary history with nonhuman primates The fact that many of our behavioral adaptations are found among other primates helps us make sense of behaviors that are thought to be distinctly human WE ARE NOT THE SUPREME SPECIES Question Did we evolve from monkeys This is an ageold question that many have believed the answer to be yesthis is not true The answer is NO Humans and monkeys share a common ancestor but one did not evolve from the other This is made clear by examining an evolutionary tree humans and monkeys have separate branches meaning they never evolved from each other Studying nonhuman primates causes the common person to ask two queonns 1 How are we as members of the Homo sapens species similar and different from monkeys and apes 2 What can anthropologists learn about humanity by looking at these similarities and differences Important point We can see how humans classify taxonomy by looking at similar traits shared among species that make them a part of that group 0 REMEMBER Linnaeus Regnum Animale i 17E u L En qnlu 39 l439 lit u Fm 39 quotll r39JJI l E l 1 H I l l 1 mc l 339 L J 39l39bem l IC i E quot n f if 5 gift 1 l in sill131 7 7 7 1 J l n DIILD l Tin F E Primate Taxonomy gt assign and organize organisms to categories according to their relatedness and resemblance gt Many similarities between organisms re ect their common o genetic relatedness based on common ancestry IN OTHER WORDS traits that are inherited from the same ancestor gt The similarities used to assign organisms to the same taxon are called 0 FOR EXAMPLE Mammals There are traits that separate them from sh vermin etc One of these traits that mammals have that other species don t is mammary glands 0 FOR EXAMPLE Humans and Apes Humans and apes belong to the same superfamily and monkeys belong to another Humansapes and monkeys belong to 2 separate orders as well This means that humans and apes become more related the farther down on the evolutionary tree you go and they are especially more related to each other than they are to monkeys gt Common ancestry is not the only way to share traits Species can share traits based on things like the same environmental pressure These other methods of measuring common traits are called and they come from 0 FOR EXAMPLE Dolphins and Fish Dolphins are mammals not sh And yet dolphins are very similar to sh because of the shared environment water 0 FOR EXAMPLE Birds and Bats Birds and bats are two totally different species but they exhibit similar traits They both y and have light bones for example because they are responding to environmental similarities Primates l Prosimians l Anthropoids l Platyrrhines AKA New World Monkeys l Catarrhines l Cercopithicoids AKA Old World Monkeys lHominoids l Hylobatids AKA Gibbons lPongids AKA Orangutans lHominids AKA Chimps Gorillas Humans Primate Tendencies gt All tendencies shared among primates are WITHIN A DEGREE OF RELATEDNESS 0 FOR EXAMPLE Humans are more related to monkeys than to Pongids 1 Grasping Ability o Primates have 5 digits for grasping 5 ngers per hand 5 toes per foot which means that they can grasp with both their hands and their feet 0 Most primates have apposable thumbs that aid in grasping 0 As humans become more bipedal they lose the ability to grasp with their feet This is because the need for grasping with their feet is being eliminated Bipedal locomotion on 2 limbs 0 FOR HUMANS those 2 limbs are their legs o Primates have nails instead of claws to make it easier to pick things up and hold them 2 Reliance on Sight over Smell o The reliance on sight is greater than the reliance on smell 0 Because primates have forwardfacing eyes their sense of sight is far more complex 0 Primates can see in color and depth They also have meaning they have vision using two eyes with overlapping elds of view allowing good perception of depth 3 Reliance on Hand over Nose o The sense of touch is conveyed by tactile information that is received by the pads on our ngers 0 Certain animals like cats and dogs use their noses much more than humans because their noses have a more sensitive tactile surface 4 Brain Complexity 0 Aspects of the brain such as memory thought and comprehension are more developed in primates than other species 0 The brain is considered complex because the ratio of brain to body is much greater than anything else This allows primates to be very smart in the sense that they can process much more information 5 Parental Investment 0 Primates usually give birth to a single offspring versus a litter 0 Human babies take much longer to develop than others which causes the parents to have to be more invested This delayed development leads to greater learning in the long run as well 6 Sociality 0 There is a selective value in order to care for the offspring meaning it takes an army rather than a single individual 0 Primates generally live in groups which ultimately leads to parental complexity Primate Family Tree gt Observe the graph FIGURE 52 in your textbook gt There are 3 major distinctions to take notice of 1 Prosimians versus Anthropoids Examples Body Brain NocturnalDiur Sociality Size Size nal Prosimians Lemurs Small Relatively Nocturnal More Lorises Small Because of solitary this they have a or an extra lm over their eyes to see at night Anthropoids More Baboons Diurnal Orangutan 5 Large Relatively Large I or sodal The Orangut anisthe exceon n to this gtllt 2 New World Monkeys versus Old World Monkeys o It is important to note that these monkeys have certain similarities analogies because of convergent evolution because they were separated from each other many years ago which assigned them to different infraorders AKA Habitat Tails Locomoti Body Sexual on Size and Dimorphis Aspects m Old Catarrhin Africa They Exist on Evolved Have a World es South have the to be large Asia tails but ground larger to sexual China they are so they face dimorphis and not are predator m lndonesi prehensi slightly 5 Their meaning a They le bipedal size there are are This is a strikes signi can terrestri key fear into t al attribute their anatomic prey al difference 5 between males and females New Platyrrhin Only in They They are They are Not a World es South have all smaller noticeabl and arboreal in size in e amount Central so they order to of sexual America meaning be faster dimorphis They are they can through and m all grasp the trees more arboreal with it a hand agile to If a over avoid monkey hand predator hands moveme 5 They you nt also somethi have a ng with very at his tail nose it is a New World Monkey 3 Apes Apes gt Apes include species like Gibbons Orangutans Gorillas Chimpanzees and Bonobos gt They have 7 characteristics that make them similar to humans Larger bodies Longeerespans Longer birth intervals and period of infant dependency A tendency towards upright posture 0 They still knucklewalk so they are not fully upright like humans 5 Larger brains which leads to a large intelligence 6 Shorter faces 7 No tails whatsoever gt There are 5 different ape species 1 Gibbons 0 They are the most arboreal 0 They have a at face and very long arms for brachiating o Gibbons can be found in South Asia China and Indonesia 2 Orangutans 0 They can be found in Sumatra and Borneo in small groups because of increasing deforestation gtUUl 39 0 They have a very long life and birth span 0 For the most part they are arboreal 0 Their diets consist of fruit bark etc 0 There is a large degree of sexual dimorphism 0 They are the exception to the rule of sociality Orangutans are the only ape species that are primarily solitary o Orangutans are the most humanlike 3 Gorillas 0 These are only found in Africa 0 There is an extremely high degree of sexual dimorphism in terms of weight 0 The average male gorilla is about 400 pounds and stands around 6 feet tall 0 They are more terrestrial than even humans 0 Their diets consist of bulk green vegetation but there is not much nutritional value in their diets o Gorillas live in large social groups of about 1020 members 4 Chimpanzees O O O Anthropologists view chimpanzees and bonobos as the same subspecies They are small and very agile There is barely a mark of social dimorphism which makes them closest to humans in this sense 0 Females are 88 the size of males 5 Bonobos O O O O Primates They take orders from a loose sisterhood meaning that the girls in the colony are the most important The females do not give the males a say THEIR MOST UNIQUE FACTOR is that they do not settle differences with ghting but rather with sex It does not matter what combination it can be youngold malefemale in all combinations The females use sex as a popularity contest Their diets consist of mostly meat gt Many things that we may consider uniquely human exist amongst our primate cousins This is an example of human arrogance In reality apes in the wild and in captivity share many characteristics and tendencies as humans gt There are 4 things that humans believe to be distinct 1 Learning 0 Reality McKasts in Asia eat sweet potatoes and have learned to wash them before consumption 2 Tool Use 0 Reality Chimps use stone tools like the hammerstone to open nuts They also use shing poles to go termite shing 3 Hunting 4 Symbolic Communication 0 Jane Goodall helped discover that these unique traits aren t actually distinct especially in regards to Chimps when she taught them ASL The Chosen Primate gt But there are things humans tend to do that our close near primate relatives do not At present we imagine the following as distinctly human 0 This list is uid and always changing Also the human traits listed are more about degree than they are about type and are subject to tness and group success and selection 1 Share food widely and routinely 2 Cooperate in planning and carrying out complex multistage tasks 3 Use spoken language 4 Classify others as kin of various types and interact with them for life