Week 9: Chapter 23/Lecture Notes
Week 9: Chapter 23/Lecture Notes BIOL 1306/1106
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Lecker on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1306/1106 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Biology Week 9 Important Information Professor s Email aidarrouzetnardiutepedu or anthonvdnutepedu All vocabulary will be defined at the end of the notes Chapter 23 231 Distinct Body Plans Evolved among the Animals Animals share as set of derived traits not found in other groups of organisms including similarities in the sequences of many of their genes the structure of their cell junctions and the components of their extracellular matrix Silicaceous It SPlCUleS Glass 8 on es Choanocytes 39 p g spicules gtSponges Demosponges y Common Two embryonic Calcareous sponges ancestor 390 cell layers nervous system Ctenophores Unique cell junctions gtDiploblastic collagen and ISlmpllflcatlon Placozoans ammals proteoglycans loss of nervous system in extracellular Cnidarians matrix quot 39 PROTOSTOMES Arrow worms Lophotrochozoans g1 Bilateral symmetry along 0 OMolting of cuticle gt D an anterior DOSterlor aXlS gleelSetgpgr wto mouth Ecd sozoans g three embryonic cell layers p y r r gtBilaterians 8 DEUTEROSTOMES triploblastic a Blastopore develops 0 Radial EChinOdermS into anus Symmetry Hemichordates Notochord L Chordates PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 231 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Patterns of embryonic development provide clues to the evolutionary relationships among animals Diploblastic animals develop two embryonic cell layers triploblastic animals develop three cell layers Differences in their patterns of early development characterize two major clades of triplobastic animals the protostomes and the deuterostomes Animal body plans can be described in terms of symmetry body cavity structure segmentation and type of appendages Most animals have either radial symmetry or bilateral symmetry Many bilaterally symmetrical animals exhibit cephalization with sensory and nervous tissues in an anterior head On the basis of their body cavity structure animals can be described as acoelomates pseduocoelomates or coelomates Segmentation takes many forms and improves control of movement especially if the animals also has appendages 232 Some Animals Groups Fall outside the Bilateria All animals other than sponges ctenophores placezoans and cnidarians belong to a large monophyletic group called the Bilateria Eumetazoans which have tissues organized into distinct organs include all animals other than sponges Sponges are simple asymmetrical animals that lack differentiated cell layers and true organs Sponges have skeletons made up of silicaceous or calcareous spicules They create water currents and capture food with flagellated feeding cells called choanocytes Choanocytes are an evolutionary link between the animals and the choanoflagellate protists The two cell layers of the radially symmetrical ctenophores are separated by an inert extracellular matrix called mesoglea Ctenophores move by beating comblike plates of cilia called ctenes The life cycle of most cnidarians has two distinct stages a sessile polyp stage and motile medusa A fertilized egg develops into a freeswimming larval planula which settles to the bottom and develops into a polyp 233 Protostomes Have an Anterior Brain and a Ventral Nervous System Protostomes which means mouthfirst are bilaterally symmetrical animals that have an anterior brain surrounding the entrance to the digestive tract and a ventral nervous system Protostomes comprise two major clades the lophtrochozoans and the ecdysozoans Lophotrochozoans include a wide diversity of animals Within this group evolved lophophores a complex organ for food collection and gas exchange and freeliving trochophore larvae These features were subsequently lost in some lineages The exact placement of arrow worms within the protostomes remains uncertain Lophophores wormlike body forms and external shells are each found in many distantly related groups of lophotrochozoans The most speciesrich groups of lophotrochozoans are the flatworms annelids and mollusks Annelids are a diverse group of segmented worms that live in moist terrestrial and aquatic enviroments Mollusks underwent a dramatic evolutionary radiation based on a body plan consisting of three major components a foot a mantle and a visceral mass The four major living molluscan clades citons bivalves gastropods and cephalopods demonstrate the diversity the evolved from this threepair body plan Ecdysozoans have a cuticle covering their body which they must molt in order to grow Some ecdysozoans notably the arthropods have a rigid cuticle reinforced with chitin that functions as an exoskeleton New mechanisms of locomotion and gas exchange evolved among the arthropods Nematodes or round worms have a thick multilayered cuticle Nematodes are among the most abundant and universally distributed of all animals groups Horsehair worms are extremely thin their larvae are internal parasites Many ecdysozoan groups are wormlike in form Members of several species poor groups of marine ecdysozoans pripulids kinorhynchs and loriciferans have thin cuticles One major ecdysozoan clade the arthropods has evolved jointed paired appendages that have a wide diversity of functions 234 Arthropods Are Diverse and Abundant Animals Arthropods are the dominant animals on Earth in the number of described species and among the most abundant in the number of individuals Encasement within a rigid exoskeleton provides arthropods with a support for walking as well as some protection predators The waterproofing provides by chitin keeps arthropods from dehydrating in dry air Jointed appendages permit complex movements Each arthropod segment has muscles attached to their inside of the exoskeleton that operate that segment and the appendages attached to it Two groups of arthropod relatives the velvet worms and the tardigrades have simple unjointed appendages Chelicerates have a twopart body and pointed mouthparts that grasp prey most chelicerates have four pairs of walking legs Mandibles and antennae are synpomorphies of the madibulates which include myriapods crustaceans and hexapods Crustaceans are the dominant marine arthropods and also also found in many freshwater and some terrestrial environments Their segmented bodies are divided into three regions head thorax and abdomen with different specialized appendages in each region Hexapods insects and their relatives are the dominant terrestrial arthropods They have the same three body regions as crustaceans but no appendages form in their abdominal segments Wings and the ability to fly first evolved among the insects allowing them to exploit new lifestyles 235 Deuterostomes Include Echinoderms Hemichordates and Chordates Deuterostomes vary greatly in adult form but based on the distinctive patterns of early development they share and on phylogenetic analyses of gene structures they represent a monophyletic group There are far fewer species of deuterostomes than of protostomes but many deuterostomes are large and ecologically important Echinoderms and hemichordates both have bilaterally symmetrical ciliated larvae Most adult echinoderms have pentaradial symmetry Echinoderms have an internal skeleton of calcified plates and a unique water vascular system connected to extensions called tube feet Hemichordate adults are bilaterally symmetrical and have a 3 part body that is divided into a proboscis collar and truck They include the acorn worms and the pterobranchs Chordates fall into three principal subgroups lancelets tunicates and vertebrates At some stage in their development all chordates have a dorsal hollow nerve cord a postanal tail and a notochord Tunicates include the sea squirts which are sessile filter feeders as adults Lancelets live buried in the sand of shallow marine and brackish waters The vertebrate body is characterized by a rigid internal skeleton which is supported by a vertebral column that replaced the notochord internal organs suspended in a coelom a ventral heart and an anterior skull with a large brain The evolution ofjaws from gill arches enabled individuals to grasp large prey and together with teeth cut them into small pieces Chondrichthyans have skeletons of cartilage almost all species are marine The skeletons of bony vertebrates are made of bone Among the bony vertebrates rayfinned fishes have colonized most aquatic environments 236 Life on Land Contributed to Vertebrate Diversification Lungs and jointed appendages enabled one lineage of lobelimbed vertebrates to colonize the land This lineage gave rise to the tetrapods The earliest split in the tetrapod tree is between the amphibians and the amniotes reptiles and mammals Most modern amphibians are confined to moist environments because they and their eggs lose water rapidly An impermeable skin efficient kidneys and an egg that could resist desiccation evolved in the amniotes The major living reptile groups are the lepidosaurs tuataras lizards snakes and amphisbaenas turtles and archosaurs crocodilians and birds Mammals are unique among animals in suppling their young with a nutritive fluid also known as milk secretes by mammary glands There are two primary mammalian clades the prototherians of which there are only five species and the speciesrich therians The therian clade is subdivided into the marsupials and the eutherians s REPTILES Tuataras 39 Squamates y Turtles Crocodlllans Pterosaurs extinct 94 35 Lepidosaurs Amniote ancestor Ornithischians extinct v smesoquv Sauropods extinct smesougq Theropods including birds MAM MALS Mammals PRINCIPLES OF LIFEZe Figure 2348 7 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc 237 Human Evolved Among the Primates Grasping limbs with opposable digits distinguish primates from other mammals The prosimian clade includes the lemurs Iorises and the galagos the anthropoid clade includes tariers monkeys apes and humans Prosimians Lemurs Lorises and galagos Tarsiers New World Anthropoids monkeys Old World monkeys Gibbons Apes Orangutans African apes and humans I I I I I l I I 98 65 56 34 23 53 26 a LYJ Y J Y 1 x Y 1 39 Late Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene Pleistocene Cretaceous Pliocene Time mya PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 2354 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Hominid ancestors developed efficient bipedal locomotion Several species of Homo coexisted in part of the world until recently In the lineage leading to Homo brains because larger as jaws became smaller The two events appear to be developmentally linked and are an example of evolution via neoteny Lecture Notes There is a common ancestor and it is the colonial flagellated protest and is 700 million years ago This is related to the Single cequot choanoflagellates So the animal kingdom is monophyletic Copyright 6 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Benjamin Cummings There is two type of symmetry in the animal kingdom radial and bilateral As you can see in the image below radial radiates out from a center and is symmetrical while bilateral is if you cut something in half such as human would be bilateral Radial Symmetry Bilateral symmetry l Dorsal back Anterior head Posterior tail Main axis Ventral belly Sponges No true tissues asymmetric filter feeding heterotrophs Jellyfish Two types Ctenophora comb jellies and Cnidaria jellyfish sea anemones corals They are radially symmetric They have muscles nervous systems and sensory organs They are typically predators They also have nematocysts which is stinging structures Sea anemones look like the image below it something you would find a clown fish swimming through Corals look like so As you can see they are radically symmetrical and have a nematocyst for stinging outer nematocyst epidermis digestive filament stomach I x septum gastrodermns z COGI IOSBFC Jquotr Echinoderms Are starfish sea urchins sand dollars sea cucumbers They are deuterostomes this is a sister group to chordates They look radial but have bilateral larvae and are predatory SDE NOTE Deuterostomes means quotmouthsecond the anus develops first all humans are deuterostomes Tree for Chordates Vertebrae HaQ SheS o Jaws teeth paired fins 0 Bony skeleton I swim bladderlung Lam preys Chondrichthyans Rayfinned fishes Coelacanths Lobe fins Lungflshes 0 Internal nares 04 Amphibians nasal openings 0 into the mouth Terresma39 lImbS Amniotes and digits Amniote egg PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 2338 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Basal Chordates and Vertebrates are ijd xivi Jawless fishes SSlBqulJeA Peqwll39eqc J Auog Y SGlBqulJeA sumow Mei SGLUOlSOL BUE Tunicates which is a notochord Lamprey which is a vertebrae or a nopecreature from the sea of nopeland please note that was joke and not a true thing Sharks are chondrichthyans they have cartilaginous skeletons Fish such as the rayfinned fish coeocanths and lungfish have bony calcified skeletons They have swim bladders or lungs There are about 30000 species nv Eusthenopteron 380 mya Fully aquatic lobed fins m Tiktaalik 375 mya Aquatic lobed limbs intermediate between fins and legs Acanthostega 365 mya o Humerus Semiterrestrial Radius tetrapod Ulna 39 Distal elements of finwristhand PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2 Figure 2344 39 XIIl SumoJr AsyJLialcs luc Tetrapods are limbs that were modified from fins Amphibians these are frogs toads salamanders etc They are usually found in moist environments and undergo metamorphosis Reptiles lizards snakes crocodiles turtles dinosaurs birds Most lay eggs and are cold blooded Except birds Tree for Amniotes REPTILES Tuataras Lepldosaurs Squamates Turtles Crocodilians Amniote ancestor Ornithischians extinct V smesouwv Sauropods extinct smesougc Theropods including birds y MAMMALS Mammals PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 28 Figure 2348 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Birds are descended from theropod reptiles warmblooded roughly 10000 species There characterized by feathers beaks wings no teeth and hollow bones Relationships among bird lineages is uncertain Mammals Have sweat glands mammary glands hair and a fourchambered heart Tree of Primates Available larger in section 237 of notes w Prosiiians Lemurs Lorises and galagos Tarsiers New World Anthropoids monkeys Old World monkeys Gibbons Apes 7 Orangutans African apes K and humans I l l I l 1 l 98 65 56 34 H 23 53 26 J l Late Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Cretaceous Miocene Pleistocene Pl39 Time mya locene PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 2e Figure 2354 c 2014 Sinauer Associates Inc Primates have hands or feet for grasping forward facing eyes welldeveloped cerebral cortex large brains and short jaws omnivores and have an overlapping field of vision for depth perception Tree for Lophotochozoa Deuterostornia Ef hi p Phomni a Mollusna nneli a H emertea pmmammia F39Iat5lhelminthea Entoprocta Ettoproita F39Iatyhelrninthes 539 scanthocephala F iotifera Enmho omuli a Eastmtrinha Eo ysmoa Lophotrochozoa are protostomes Animals includes Mollusks and other Iophophores annelids segmented worms Platyhelminthes flat worms bryozoans moss animals and rotifer rotifers Many worms are included in this group Mollusca these are squid octopus gastropods snails slugs clams oysters scallops and mussels They have a muscular structure known as a foot Structure below Mantle Heart Foot Gms caV39ty Digestive gland
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