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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Psychosocial Development in Emerging and Young Adulthood Ch 14 Personality Development Four Views ls personality stable or does it change Depends on how we study and measure it Four Approaches NormativeStage Models TimingofEvents Model Trait Models Typoogica Models Each asks different questions about personality look at different aspects of its development and often use different methods NormativeStage Models NormativeStage Models Theoretica models that describe psychosocial development in terms of a de nite sequence of age related changes Changes are normative or seem to be common to most members of a population Depends upon the expectations about the timing of life events in that culture Changes emerge in successive periods or stages Ex Erikson and Piaget Timing of Events Model TimingofEvents Model Theoretical model of personality development that describes adult psychosocial development as a response to the expected or unexpected occurrence of timing of important life events Normative Life Events In the timingof events model commonly expected life experiences that occur at customary times marriage parenthood grandparenthood and retirement People are usually aware of both their timing and the social clock Social Clock Set of cultural norms or expectations for the times of life when certain important events such as marriage parenthood entry into work and retirement should occur If events occur on time development proceeds smoothly If not stress can result Stress may result from An unexpected event An event that happens off time The failure of an expected and wanted event to occur at all Personality differences in uence the way people respond to life events and may even in uence their timing Typica timing of events varies from culture to culture and generation to generation More recent cohorts of young adults are completing the developmental tasks of this period at later ages than were previously normative Later average age when adults rst marry and delayed rst childbirth Since the midtwentieth century the social clocks in many Western societies have become more widely age graded Undermines the predictability on which the timing ofevents model is based Made an important contribution to our understanding of adult personality by emphasizing the individual life course and challenging the idea of universal agerelated change Usefulness may be limited to cultures and historical time periods in which norms are stable and widespread Trait Models Costa and McCrae s Five Factors Trait Models Theoretical models of personality development that focus on mental emotional temperamental and behavioral traits or attributes FiveFactor Model Costa amp McCrae Theoretical model of personality based on the 39Big Five factors underlying clusters of related personality traits Neuroticism Extraversion Openness to experience Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neur0tici5m is a cluster of six traits or facets indicating emotional instability Anxiety Hostiity Depression Selfconsciousness lmpulsiveness Vulnerability Extraver5i0n also has six facets Warmth Gregariousness Assertiveness Activity Excitementseeking Positive Emotions 0penne55 to Experience means you are willing to try new things and embrace new ideas C0n5cientiou5ne55 is common of achievers Competent Ordery Dutifu Deliberate Disciplined Agreeabene55 includes people who are Trusting Straightforward Altruistic Compliant Modest Easily swayed Typological Models Typological Approach Block Theoretical approach that identi es broad personality types or styles ldentified three personality types EgoResiliency Dynamic capacity to modify one s level of egocontrol self control and the selfregulation of impulses in response to environmental and contextual in uences Egoresilient people are welladjusted self con dent independent articulate attentive helpful cooperative and task focused Overcontrolled Shy quiet anxious and dependable people Tend to keep their thoughts to themselves and to withdraw from con ict most subject to depression Undercontrolled Active energetic impulsive stubborn and easily distracted people Ego resiliency interacts with ego control to determine whether or not behavior is adaptive or maladaptive Undercontrol can lead to creativity and resourcefulness or externalizing and antisocial behaviors Overcontrol can make a person highly focused and planful or lead to an in exible and inhibited style of behavior Personality types seem to exist in both sexes across cultures and ethnic groups and in children adolescents and adu s Denissen Asendorpf amp van Aken 2008 Teachers and parents assessed 103 children annually between ages 3 and 12 at 17 and 23 Children who had been overcontrolled between 4 and 6 tended to be shy in late adolescence and emerging adulthood Those who had been undercontrolled in early childhood were more aggressive accentuated at 17 and 23 Both overcontrolled and undercontrolled had dif culty assuming adult roles Tendency of continuity does not mean personalities never change or that certain people are condemned to a life of maladjustment Undercontrolled children may get along if they nd niches where their energy and spontaneity are valued Overcontroled children may come out of their she if they nd their dependability is valued Certain events may change the life course Varied Paths to Adulthood More varied than in the past Before 19605 Young people nished school left home got a job got married and had children in that order By the 19905 Only 1 in 4 young adults followed that sequence Young man or woman may get a job and an apartment and enjoy being single A young married couple may move in with parents while nishing school or recovering from job loss Finding stable work and developing longterm romantic relationships may be postponed until the 30s In uences on Paths to Adulthood Paths are in uenced by Gender Academic ability Early attitudes toward education Race and ethnicity Expectations in late adolescence Social class Emerging adults of both sexes extend education and delay parenthood Usually keys to future success on the job and current well being Schuenberg et al 2005 Followed high school seniors each year since 1975 Highest wellbeing was found among those who were not yet married had no children attended college and lived away from their childhood home Developing Adult Relationships with Parents Leaving home requires Negotiation of autonomy Redefinition of relationship with parents Parents who cannot acknowledge these changes may slow their children s development Failure to Launch Scenario has become increasing common in the United States especially in highincome families Stereotypical view sel sh slackers who refuse to grow up and accept responsibility is largely inaccurate Often they are forced to remain dependent largely out of economic concerns and the need to obtain training or schooling to a greater degree Adult children who continue living with parents may have trouble renegotiating their relationship Process may be gradual and take many years especially if the child is nancially dependent Trend also exists in some European countries where government bene ts to unemployed are lacking In Italy more than half of young men live with their parents until 30 Living with parents has been associated with lower life satisfaction Becoming less true as the practice becomes widespread In over half of European families young adult children living at home is viewed in a positive light New developmental stage lnhouse adulthood livein adult children and their parents treat each other as equals Foundations of lntimate Relationships The need to form strong stable close caring relationships is a powerful motivator of human behavior Peope become intimate and remain intimate through shared disclosures responsiveness to one another s needs and mutual acceptance and respect lntimate relationships require Self awareness Empathy The ability to communicate emotions resolve con icts and sustain commitments Sexual decision making if a sexual relationship Formation of new relationships and the renegotiation of existing relationships has implications for whether or not personality remains the same or changes Friendship Friendships during young adulthood may be less stable than earlier and later periods Due to frequency of relocation Still many young adults do maintain highquality committed long distance friendships Tend to center on work and parenting activities and sharing con dences and advice Some are extremely intimate and supportive others are marked by frequent con ict Some best friendshipsquot are more stable than ties to a lover or spouse Young single adults rely more on friendships to ful ll their social needs Number of friends and amount of time spent with them generally decreases in the course of young adulthood Still friendships are important People with friends tend to have a sense of well being Women typically have more intimate friendships than men Men are more likely to share information and activities not con dences Women are more likely than men to talk with their friends about marital problems and to receive advice and support Many young adults incorporate friends into chosen family networks These close supportive friends are considered to be ctive kin friends who are considered and behave like family members Among gays and lesbians ctive kinship relationships are often with straight friends of the other sex In recent years young adults use of social networking sites has increased dramatically Some people have argued such sites are harmful lndications that they also have advantages Facebook is often used to maintain and strengthen connections to friends and family across geographical distances Still an increasing number of young adults today have no intimate con dants McPherson SmithLovin amp Brashears 2006 Longitudinal study over 19 years Number of people who said there is no one with whom they discuss important matters nearly tripled Decines were sharpest among educated middleclass people who may keep in touch with friends and family by email or phone but not facetoface Love Trianguar Theory of Love Sternberg s theory that patterns of love hinge on the balance among three elements intimacy passion and commitment lntimacy The emotional element involving self disclosure which leads to connection warmth and trust Passion The motivational element based on inner drives that translate physiological arousal into sexual desire Commitment The cognitive element the decision to love and to stay with the beloved Communication is an essential part of intimacy Christensen Eldridge CattaPreta Lim amp Santagata 2006 263 young adult couples in Brazil Italy Taiwan and the United States reported on communication and satisfaction in their romantic relationships In all four places couples who communicated constructively tended to be more satis ed with their relationships Marital and Nonmarital Lifestyles In many Western societies today s rules for socially acceptable lifestyles are more exible Peope marry later if at all More people have children outside of marriage if at all More break up their marriages Some remain single some remarry and others live with a partner of either sex Some married couples have commuter marriages No typical marriage or family Single Life Proportion of young adults ages 25 to 34 in the United States who have not yet married approximately tripled between 1970 and 2005 For women the increase was from 9 to 32 For men from 15 to 43 Trend is particularly pronounced among African American women 35 are still single in their late 305 Between 1970 and 2006 there has been a signi cant decline in marriages in almost all countries Single for different reasons Some stay single because they have not found the right mates others are single by choice More women today are selfsupporting and there is less social pressure to marry Many single adults are postponing marriage and children due to economic instability Some people want to be free to move wherever pursue careers further their education or do creative work without worrying about how if affects another person Some enjoy sexual freedom Some nd the lifestyle exciting Some like being alone Some avoid marriage due to fear it will end in divorce Gay and Lesbian Relationships In the past 40 years gay and lesbian adults have increasingly come out and are living openly 4060 of gay men and 4580 of lesbians in the US are in romantic relationships 828 of these couples have lived together for at least 10 years lncreasing openness has led to greater social acceptance of homosexuality Approximately 4 in 10 Americans has a close friend or family member who is gay Those who are close to a gay or lesbian person are more likely to support legislation focused on gay and lesbian people Relevant to the strength of these relationships Support from family and friends is related to how well and how long the relationship lasts In most ways gay and lesbian relationships mirror heterosexual relationships Tend to be at least as satis ed with their relationships Similar factors predict quality of the relationships personality traits perceptions of the relationship by the partners ways of communicating and resolving con icts and social support Hardy distinguishable in quality There are differences though Gay and lesbian couples are more likely to negotiate household chores to a achieve a balance that works for them Gay and lesbian couples resolve con icts in a more positive atmosphere Gay and lesbian relationships tend to be less stable mainly due to the lack of institutional supports May compensate for this with friends social groups or organizations The APA has declared it unfair and discriminatory to deny same sex couples legal access to civil marriage Opposition to gay marriage correlates with political orientation Roughly 72 of Democrats support samesex marriage 81 of Republicans oppose it Reigion also plays a role 60 of those unaffiliated with religion support gay marriage 85 of those who attend services at least once a week are opposed Age also has an effect Younger generations are more accepting of same sex marriage Cohabtann lncreasingy common lifestyle in which an unmarried couple involved in a sexual relationship live together Rise in recent decades re ects the exploratory nature of emerging adulthood and trend toward postponing marriage Types of Cohabitation International Comparisons Surveys in 14 European countries Canada New Zealand and the United States found wide variations in the cohabitation rates Ranged from 14 in France down to less than 2 in Italy In all countries the overwhelming majority of cohabitating women have never been married Cohabitors who do not marry tend to stay together longer in countries in which cohabitation is an alternative to or tantamount to marriage than in countries where it usually leads to marriage Consensua or informal unions almost indistinguishable from marriage have long been as accepted as marriage in many Latin American countries Especially for lowSES couples In such countries cohabiting couples have practically the same legal rights as married couples In Canada too cohabitors have gained legal bene ts and obligations close to those of married couples In most Western countries unmarried couples who do cohabit typically intend to and do marry These cohabitations tend to be relatively short Premarita cohabitation in Great Britain and in the United States has accompanied a trend toward delayed marriage Cohabitation in the United States In 2010 there were an estimated 75 million unmarried couples living together in the United States 13 increase over 2009 lncrease has occurred among all racialethnic groups and at all educational levels People with less education are more likely to cohabit than those with higher educann Cohabiters are also likely to Be less religious Be less traditional Have less con dence in their relationships Be more accepting of divorce Be more negative and aggressive in their interactions with their romantic partners Communicate less effectively Although US family law currently gives cohabitors few of the legal rights and bene ts of marriage this situation is changing Cohabiting relationships tend to be less satisfying and less stable than marriages Cohabiting couples who have divergent expectations about the division of household labor are highly likely to break up Many cohabitors who want to marry put off marriage until they feel their economic circumstances permit it Some research suggests that cohabiting couples who marry tend to have unhappier marriages and greater likelihood of divorce Teachman 2003 Nationally representative crosssectional survey of 6577 women ages 15 to 45 Women who cohabited or had premarital sex only with their future husbands had no special risk of marital dissolution Beliefs about cohabitation cohabitation patterns and the stability of cohabitation vary among racialethnic groups and are very complex in nature Couples who cohabitate on average are younger black and less religious Black and Hispanic couples are less like to view cohabitation as a trial marriage and more likely to regard it as a substitute for marriage White couples who cohabit are more likely than other groups to end the relationship Their children have almost 10 times the risk of going through a parental separation Younger adults are much more likely to think living together without being married is not wrong Marriage In most societies marriage is the best way to ensure the protection and raising of children Allows for division of labor and a sharing of material goods ldealy offers lntimacy Commitment Friendship Affection Sexual ful llment Companionship An opportunity for emotional growth In the US and other industrialized countries we have seen a weakening of the social norms that made marriage almost universal and its meaning universally understood In the US it has been affected by wider demographic and economic changes in the population In 1970 only 4 of women 35 to 44 years made more money than their husbands By 2007 this had increased to 22 Marriage is now associated with increases in economic security for both sexes What Marriage Means to Emerging and Young Adults Today In the United States some 90 of adults will still opt to marry at some point Emerging and young adults think about marriage differently Some view traditional marriage with its rigid gender roles as no longer viable Expect greater space for individual interests and pursuits both within and outside the marriage Put more emphasis on friendship and compatibility and less on romantic love Majority see the primary purpose as the mutual happiness and ful llment of adultsquot rather than being based on parenting and children Marriage is no longer seen as an inevitable step toward adu hood Tend to believe that to be married they should already be an adult Most plan to marry but only when they feel ready See being nancially stable and established in careers as obstacles Entering Matrimony The typical marrying age has risen in industrialized countries 3050 years ago most people married in or before their early twenties In 2009 the average rsttime US bridegroom was 281 and the rsttime brides were 259 Slightly more women are living without a spouse than with one Ages are higher in Europe 29 or 30 for men and 27 for women Most common way of selecting a mate historically and across cultures has been through arrangement Parents or professional matchmakers Marriage is focused on the union of two families rather than on love between two individuals Lower divorce rates Couples in arranged marriages have different expectations of their spouses Decreased expectations of intimacy and love Responsibiity and commitment are emphasized Only in modern times has free choice of mates on the basis of love become the norm in the Western world Despite variations in beliefs about what marriage should look like couples in arranged marriages are equally happy Western ideal of a relationship based on love and personal attraction has changed the nature of arranged marriage Semiarranged marriages are more and more common Parents are heavily involved but the young adult has veto power Onine dating is also increasingly common Third most popular way to meet a mate According to a Matchcom survey as of 2012 17 of marriages in the last year and 20 of current relationships began online Courtships started online tend to be shorter 185 months vs 42 months According to an eHarmonycom study marital satisfaction is higher Not much data on divorces among couples who met online Relatively new phenomenon eHarmonycom study found divorce rates were low Sexual Activity after Marriage Americans have sex less often than media suggests Married couples have sex more often than singles but not as often as cohabitors Married couples report more emotional satisfaction from sex than single or cohabiting couples Surveys suggest about 18 of married people have extramarital relations Most prevalent among younger adults and twice as common among husbands Tends to occur earlier in the relationship Young adults of both sexes have become less permissive in their attitudes toward extramarital sex Disapproval is even greater in US today 94 than disapproval of homosexuality Order of disapproval extramarital sex homosexuality and then premarital sex is the same in European countries United States has more restrictive attitudes than most European countries