Week Nine Notes: The Haitian Revolution
Week Nine Notes: The Haitian Revolution History 370
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 370 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. J. McCarthy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see History of the Caribbean in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Week Nine Notes The Haitian Revolution Katie Albritton Study Soup The Haitian Revolution Early European Settlement Buccaneers L39Olonais Got Buccanners together stole ships sack a Spanish city Bertrand d39Ogeron New West Indes Company 4000 settlers in Haiti by 1681 Few women Often kept at gunpoint to keep faithful Francois L39Olonais noted buccaneer Had been indentured servant Founded group at Tortuga Killed Spanish raiding party Stole ships sacked and burned city Spain cedes territory 1697 The Pearl of the Antilles Columbus The most beautiful island that human eyes have seen Sugar plantations Slave from Spain UK Later go into direct trade Produce more than all UK islands Coffee irrigation Wealthiest colony By 1790 7000 plantations The Code Noir Issued 1685 To protect right of planters To protect slaves from whimsical excess Fairly generous Required Baptism Sanctions marriage Selfpurchase permitted 2rld in leniency to Portuguese French No time off for worship or education Freed slaves as French citizens Society Af uent colony Mixed society only Brazil comparable Grand blancs French sugar planters and officials live in the north Petit blancs Coffee planters merchants sailors artisans live in north and west Gens de Couleur Free black Frenchmen and people of mixed descent By 1789 24848 30831 whites Overseerss planters of coffee or cotton rural police Most in south and west outnumber whites by far Many wealthy slaveowners Many employ petit blancs Prerevolutionary Rebellions Slave revolt 1679 Not many slaves there yet Leader Padrej an escaped slave from Spanish Tortuga Seeks to massacre all French to impress Spain Followers hole up in central mountains Dislodged killed with help of buccaneers Francois Mackandal raids 1750s Maroon bands had formed in mountains Plantations raided Rumor all whites would be poisoned water supply Betrayed captured burnt alive 1758 Followers scatter get maroon treaty with government Slave rising Gens de Couleur had been arming against something Boukman signals Quick decisive rising 22 August 1791 Helps organize slaves in secret Most northern cane fields burnt 280 plantations 2000 whites killed in two month39s time Some planters saved by slaves Many whites ee the country Spread through St Domingue Gens de Couleur unsure of loyalty Mostly support selves alone or the whites at this point Slaves control north White in Cap Francois amp some of the south Gens de Couleur west province led by Rigaud St Domingue and the French Revolutionary Government 17891791 Prejudice increasing against gens de couleur 1760s on 3 regional assemblies created plus allisland assembly Many whites withdraw Petit blancs oppose gens de couleur as voters Haiti St Domingue sends delegates to Assembly denied seats Moderates purged from French National Assembly France sends Leger SonthonaX to enforce equality Sent to Haiti to insist on equality Represents current government in France Official French Reaction to Rising 17921795 SonthonaX sent in to quell difficulties represent constitutional monarchy Finds it complicated Most of his troops die of illness Dissolves assemblies French troops sent by new government to oppose SonthonaX As representative of now dead king Frees slaves calls them to fight rebel slaves And other recalcitrant Cap Francais is burned 1793 SonthonaX opposes British invasion 1793 French assembly frees slaves 1794 Competes with Toussaint recalled returns 1797 Toussaint I39Ouverture ca 17431803 Most famous hero of the revolution Slave from Breda plantation Haut de Cap Somehow managed to become welleducated Free man by 1776 coffee planter slave owner rising helped Breda owners leave St Domingue Helps negotiate between slaves and French Joins Spaniards in Sto Domingo to oppose France Joins French 1794 after slaves freed Opposed by gens de couleur Rigaud Defeats Spanish and British invasions Competes with supersedes returned Sonthonax Civil war v Rigaud invade claim Santo Domingo 1801 Spanish Invasion Toussaint has gone over to Spaniards To fight the French Spanish troops invade 1793 At war v France in Europe T changes sides 1794 French end slavery Spaniards continue slavery T brings division with him Drives out Spaniards takes Santo Domingo British Invasion UK invades via Cap Francais September 1793 White planters support Horrified by execution of king and queen Oppose ending of slavery British take St Domingue Take Martinique St Lucia rebuffed Guadaloupe British control falls off Maroon wars in Jamaica French retake Guadaloupe Rebuffed trying to take St Lucia St Vincent Grenada 20000 troops die of malaria Confined to ports by Toussaint39s forces Comes from Sto Domingo May 1794 Total British withdrawal 1798 Toussaint Wins the Revolution Excellent generalship Most blacks and gens de couleur eventually support Fighting for freedom then independence Lots of savagery as not all Haitians united Rigaud still autonomous in the south Negotiates between Spanish and French Negotiates for final British withdrawal Negotiates for trade W US president Adams Savage civil war in the south v Rigaud 17981799 Invades and takes Santo Domingo 1801 Napoleonic Invasion NB as emperor in 1801 Peace treaties with Europe for now Toussaint prepares Haitian constitution Haiti Santo Domingo united as a French colony Voudou vodun to be ignored in favor of Catholicism Le Clerc invades Haiti 1802 pits T v Dessalines v Christophe Reinstitutes slavery France also Toussaint captured poss turned in by Dessalines dies in French prison War becomes extremely savage Europeans blame Africanness Land destroyed Le Clerc leaving dies civil War of the Tigers Dessalines v Christophe UK blockades Cap Francais 1803 to get French out Dessalines defeat last French forces 1803 declares independence 1804 Independent Haiti Challenge of poverty isolation unrest JeanJacques Dessalines Emperor Had fought V Rigaud Whites excluded massacred Slavery ended for all times Workers bound to soil army increased Assassinated 1806 Henri Christophe president then king Builds Sans Souci palace Suicide 181 1 Francois Boyer president for life 1818 ousted 1843 Firm control of Santo Domingo Idea of American black immigration fails Legacy Successful slave rebellion Independence 2nd in Western hemisphere Ignored by west Restrictive Poverty Isolation Whites evicted Repression violence instability
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