Week Ten Notes: Latin American Independence
Week Ten Notes: Latin American Independence History 370
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 370 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. J. McCarthy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see History of the Caribbean in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Week Ten Notes Latin American Independence Katie Albritton Study Soup Refresh Spain Bourbon Reforms Try to regain control of empire Build economy Use new rational principles Modemize dress comportment Reliant upon Mexican wealth Joseph Bonaparte Peninsular War Napoleon Bonaparte in control of most of Europe Treaty neutralizes Russia 1807 Attempt to starve out England Portugal Vatican do not cooperate Spain invaded 1808 To conquer Portugal Spanish king and his son deposed Napoleon39s brother Joseph as king of Spain Peninsular War 18081814 Guerrilla tactics Joseph Bonaparte wildly unpopular Patriotism ourishes New constitution 1811 Cadiz First to grant voting rights to women rescinded War fought to stalemate NB invades Russia 1812 Technically Venezuela and Mexico rebel against J os I To whom are we loyal Against whom do we rebel Portugal Brazil Portuguese reindependence from Spain recognized 1669 Losing colonies in Asia keeps Macau Goa Timor Brazil very profitable sugar colony Marronage but little rebellion Gold rush 1690s peak production by 1750 Open up in the south inland provinces 12 of population lived in Minas Gerais by 1720 Slaves semiautonomous Portugal very wealthy by 18th century Europe Lisbon as premier European city Cruzado w Mexican dollar high value Xica da Silva 17321796 shocks Lisbon society Shows strength wealth of nonwhite culture Woman with no husband builds huge mansion in Lisbon Former slave woman Enlightenment Age of Reason not as prominent in Iberia but existed Ferdinand VI and Carlos III implement reforms in Spain Marques de Pombal as minister to Jose I in Portugal Evicts Jesuits Strict wealthy Catholic order resented Reform university educational curricula Mass burials after earthquake tsunami 1754 Triumph over oldfashioned theology nonCatholic burials Town planning downtown Lisbon grid Question How much in uence on Latin America People aware of new thinking But eager to control own affairs esp Mexico Creoles furious about renewed racist vigor Bourbon Reforms Spaniards furious that Spain taken over by France Colonial Identities Creole identity strong But kept from being Viceroy archbishop governor Many mestizos Mexico Philippines Predominant indigenous population Peru Quito Central America Predominant European population Argentina Chile Large mulatto population Cuba Puerto Rico Exacerbated by South American wealth Lima Mexico City etc Benedict Anderson sees as beginning of nationalism Imagined community not based on language alone Extensive regionalism due to distance mountains Creole Rights Highest job member of cabildo City council Governor run out of Mexico City 1623 Archbishop of Mexicothen Viceroy l630sl640s Fabulous fortunes from silver Francisco de Miranda 17501816 Venezuela Wealthy creole from Caracas Father from Canaries Brouhaha over poss African lineage Francisco welleducated travelled Fought in N Africa American and French Revolutions Met Washington Napoleon Catherine II Envisions independent unified Spanish America Supporter of Creole rights Met with Jefferson Madison Invaded Venezuela 1806 Supreme Junta group of Caracas established 1810 Independent republic declared 1811 Powerful earthquake 1811 aids Spaniards Miranda defeated died in jail in Spain Cancel Venezuelan independence Simon Bolivar 17831830 Liberator of South America Wealthy creole educated in Spain Supporter then critic of Miranda Napoleon his great hero Recaptured Caracas 1813 Independence proclaimed 1814 Fled to Jamaica then back 1817 Assists independence in Peru Colombia President of Gran Colombia 18191830 Mexico Central America Wealthy but not as much as numerous South American cities More mestizos than creoles 1808 Cabildo of Mexico City declares autonomy from Jose I Miguel Hidalgo rebellion 1810 Grito de Dolores On behalf of Indians priests had often advocated Hidalgo quickly arrested and shot Idea of freedom moved along as guerrilla actions Agustin Iturbide mestizo takes Mexico City 1821 Proclaims self emperor deposed 1823 republic new constitution includes Catholic religion Central America Salvador rebelled against J Bonaparte 1811 Captaincy of Guatemala proclaims independence 1821 Federal republic of Central American 1823 eventually splinters Argentina Banda Oriental Uruguay Newer colonies Compete with Brazil Viceroyalty to stop smuggling 1776 Huge trade with England 1790 on Many Europeans Creoles of Buenos Aires overthrow viceroy 1810 Rule as antiBonapartist council Independence not declared Jose San Martin leads military rebellion 1816 rural NW provinces proclaim independence Fight against royalists some from B Aires Eventually joined by Buenos Aires Montivideo city in B Aires opposes Spain avoids Brazilian annexation Chile Peru Area of good farmland hostile Arucanians in the south Valparasio Callao as key Pacific ports International use Instigation from Argentina into Chile San Martin Army of the Andes O39Higgins descended from Wild geese Peru Instigation from Chile Rebellion begins 1811 Independence 1821 Quito declares for Ferdinand VII Becomes Ecuador Loyalist forces some from B Aires attack Chile San Martin declares independence 1821 Bolivar represses remaining royalists Bolivia splits off 1826 Gran Colombia Brazil Nueva granada as new viceroyalty 1739 Cartegena as major slave port Most profitable coffee production Emeralds Grievances issued to Spain 1810 Autonomous junta established Communicate With all colonies hope to unite Successful fighting vs Spain 18121813 but fails San Martin and Bolivar Win 18171821 Bolivar as president 18211830 Initially includes Colombia Venezuela Ecuador Panama parts of Guyana and Peru Hope for regional unification Royal family ees from Lisbon to Rio de J aniero 1808 Empire ruled from Brazil during Peninsular War Family stays on for several years King J oao VI returns to rule in Lisbon Banda Oriental lost to Spain 1816 King39s son Pedro stays in Brazil as emperor of independent Brazil No war or rebellion Brazil retains sugar economy Cuba and Puerto Rico Santo Domingo had become a part of Haiti Independent 1843 Cuba and Puerto Rico backwaters since 16th c Except Havana Huge eets suspended 1659 Ranching tobacco some sugar 1762 occupation of Havana by the British High quality tobacco reaches world market Smallish populations do not agitate for independence Cuba becomes center of Spanish overseas economy Huge increase in tobacco sugar production Huge import of slaves Girls work rolling cigars Cuba and Spainrare opportunity for employment
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