Week 10 ANT 102
Popular in Human Origins
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Monkeys A Niches 1 2 Separate evolutionary trajectory Occupied every niche at one point B Fully Primate 1 Eyes enclosed in bony orbit 2 Flatter cusped molars mortar and pestle 3 Quadrupedal body plan C Old v New 1 Old world catarrhine i Some terrestrial but most still arboreal ii Tail but not prehensile iii All digits have nails iv More complex social organization 2 New world platyrrhini at nose i Live in trees arboreal ii Prehensile tail can hang from tail iii Some species retain claws iv Less complex social organization arguable v Less mobile face not a lot of expressions vi Live in South and Central America but originated in South continental drift connected the two continents and they migrated into Central America Apes A Geography 1 Asia large and small bodied gibbon siamang orangutans 2 Africa gorillas chimps BHomo 1 Hominoidea super family all apes and humans i Larger bodied ii No tail iii Short deep trunk iv Longer forelimbs except humans v Suspensory locomotion divide weight between branches for more ef ciency in trees with getting food vi Y5 molar pattern 5 cusps vii Larger cerebral cortex viii More complex social behavior 2 Hominidae family great apes and humans i Great apes orangutan Gorilla chimpanzee bonaboAfrican apes ii Terrestrial iii Knuckle walking iv Longer period of dependency on adult apes 3 Homininae subfamily African apes and humans 4 Hominini tribe humans quothomininesquot C Humans 1 African apes Panini 2 Human hominini 3 Body plan in order of the way we evolved i Terrestrial bipeds Broader shorter pelvis than chimps Ilium blade of pelvis in chimps long blade on back of the body Apes have to throw entire hip forward to walk on two legs ii Reduced canines exclusive to chewing iii Large cerebral cortex D Anatomy 1 Apes i Flexors and extensors ii Pelvis along back long and propellerlike iii Head on top of spinal cord iv Overlapping canine sacri ced functional chewing for aggression v Diastema gap for upper canine to t into vi Sectorial premolar sharpens canine every time chimpanzee chews vii Parallel lowerjaw viii Thin enamel on teeth shearing grating shredding 2 Humans i Gluteal muscles to support the hip and keep us from falling over when on one leg ii Pelvis is basinshaped iii Head on top of spinal cord foramen magnum humans much more forward than other apes iv Foot is a modi ed hand v Nonoverlapping canine used for chewing instead of aggression vi No diastema vii Bicuspid premolar replaces sectorial premolar with two cusped tooth mini molars because defense is no longer necessary viii Arc shaped lowerjaw ix Think enamel on teeth crushing grinding lll Primate behavior A Dominance hierarchy 1 Alpha male and alpha female 2 3 l Maintain social control breaks up ghts ii Display behavior baring teeth and exposing canines iii quotrun amokquot acting as crazy as possible to be left alone Upward mobility i Learning and keeping their social role Sexual dimorphism i Malefemale body size differences ii Males are many times twice the size of females iii Females smaller because of lack of food sometimes B Grooming 1 2 Making friends and establishing alliances social role i Maintains social order Cleanliness i Dead skin 3 ii Parasites iii Effective use of opposable thumb Social control i Calming effect ii Hormone released that calms during grooming C Social organization 1 3 4 D So 1 Permanent mixed group i Males and females iL Rank Fissionfusion i Seasonal ii If lacking food lower on the ladder don39t get food Single malemultiple females Mated pair rare cialization Long childhood because of complex rules of socialization E Examples 1 Ba boonsAfrica x Live on savannah in open country xi Sleep in trees xii Lots of food xiii Lots of predators xiv They travel in troops to avoid being eaten They have a system where each baboon is organized according to their usefulness alpha male females and babies in middle juveniles and nonpregnant females in the second ring low ranking males in the perimeter ix Males are much larger than females x Threat posture Males quotyawnquot expose big sharp canines Males quotstarequot closed eyelids give illusion of deadly stare