HIST1020: Inca Conquest cont., Population and Disease, and Spanish Conquest in Americas
HIST1020: Inca Conquest cont., Population and Disease, and Spanish Conquest in Americas HIST 1020
Popular in World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Aaron P Althouse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
HIST1020 World Civilizations c 1000 1800 Althouse Monday 101215 INCA CONQUESTS continued Atahualpa is held captive by the Spaniards he offered a ransom silver and gold that filled up at least 3 rooms to the jail keepers and they were very poor working on commission so this idea was what they wanted 0 They continued to hold him captive even after he delivered the ransom They were afraid that his release would start a rebellion among the Incas so they held a trial against him for treason even though he was never a citizen he was found guilty and sentenced to death July 1533 0 Before his execution a friar baptized Atahualpa and then strangled him Native responses 0 Spaniards believed that Incas were the equivalent of deer in headlights Even up to Atahualpa39s death he was intelligent he was baptized so that his body would remain in one piece after his execution because he believed in mummifying bodies Cuzco Inca capital conquered in 1533 0 Spanish Conquistadors go wild King Charles wanted funds in his war against the Protestants in Spain but the conquistadors were only interested in their own conquests silver and gold Manco Inca puppet ruler over the Incas who was controlled by the Spaniards Believed that since Atahualpa bribed the Spaniards he could do the same 0 Escaped from Cuzco May 1536 rounded up about 100000 fighters in the wilderness to spark a rebellion Lima founded in 1535 Pizarro founded this as the new capital of Peru because he did not like Cuzco anymore 0 Cuzco the Spaniards abused Inca nobles after Pizarro left 0 3 relief parties are sent from Lima to Cuzco to aide the rebellion but none arrive safely 1537 rebellion ends 1538 Spaniards begin to fight amongst themselves and kill Gonzalo Pizarro 1540s Royal control is sent from Spain to break up the colonists he was decapitated as a sign of battle to send back to Spain POPULATION DECLINE AND DISEASE Aztec Empire controlled 25million people and Inca Empire controlled 915million people 0 Spain is in control of these people now and controls most of the Americas 0 They were supposed to Christianize the people or else they cannot claim the land but they were only going to resist Christianity 0 After conquest ended what about labor The conquistadors did not want to do heavy labor without getting rich Big question can we enslave native people in the Americas Nonslavery labor forced labor but not technically slavery Encomienda a grant of native goods and labor in return for Christianizing natives Disease no immunity 0 Smallpox u measles mumps etc 0 Population went from 25million to under 1million people in a century Population 0 1519 25 million people 0 1620s 730000 people Causes for population decline Illness from Spaniards traveling across the Atlantic Warfare Mistreatment hard labor Malnutrition as a result of blocked access to land and overrun Spanish animals destroying native39s crops Natives resist Spaniards changes Maintained native language 0 Mix religious beliefs with Christianity 0 Use Spanishcolonial courts to create lawsuits for maintenance of land 0 Mayans moved toward the interior of the country to avoid Spanish in uence Congregation congregacion combining two or more native villages into one village so that Spaniards could more easily access their labor and convert them to Christianity Repartimiento a labor draft in which portion of native community forced to do labor for Spanish needs 0 Wage labor Althouse Quote Go somewhere far away and eat street food you39ll get sick The American natives were isolated for thousands of years the Spaniards came oversees to them and if they coughed on natives they died Wednesday 101415 Consequences of Spanish Conquests in Americas 0 Population decline 8110 million people 0 Native responses 0 Movement to avoid Spaniards Mayans moved further into the interior of Latin America away from Spanish in uence 1530s Virgin Mary appeared in Mexico as a mix between Christian view of her and a Mexicanstyle look to her 0 She became a huge symbol for the Americas 1560s Taki Onkoy movement in the mountains of Peru in which natives address the root cause of their mass death 0 they believe they are dying because European lifestyles have been adopted and their gods are angry at them 0 This caused the natives to reject Spanish in uence passive resistance Missionary friars based in Rome named for patron saints 0 American natives were viewed as partialhumans and the missionaries wondered if they were capable of understanding and adopting Christianity 0 in the Americas there were 3 main groups of Catholic missionary orders Dominicans Augustinians and Franciscans Jesuits they were so excited and saw the Americas as a form of Garden of Eden Franciscan by 1533 they converted 12mi11ion Mexican natives to Christianity By 1536 they had converted 5million natives In the course of 1500s natives had a loss of confidence in knowledge of Christianity so missionaries grew negative to them due to false preconceived ideas Antonio de Montesinos delivered sermon on Island of Hispaniola 1511 in which he criticized cruelty of colonists toward native peoples church became protector of natives Bartolome de las Casas known as Defender of the Indians wrote Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies for King Charles of Spain in 1542 0 He was a wealthy man in Spain and moved to Mexico into poverty to work as a missionary and relieve natives of unfair labor 0 Campaigned on the behalf of all native people and wrote the abovementioned book an delivered it to Spain to alert the king of unrest and unfair treatment of natives each chapter shows the death and mistreatment at the hands of the Spaniards in each individual area 0 The book had an impact on the King due to violent imagery and King Charles formed a new set of laws New Laws of 1542 laws created in Spain to protect native citizens in Americas to prohibit them from being enslaved by Spaniards Millenarian utopianism idea among missionaries that final conversion of natives of Americas would bring about second coming of Christ and 1000 years of blessedness and harmony on earth immersed themselves in native society to understand the natives Learned native languages natives did not have words for concepts like the devil and holy trinity so this was difficult Learned about native culture history customs government marriage etc 0 Taught natives about Catholicism and sins 0 Opened schools to educate native priests innovative way of doing things Educated sons of native nobles and it worked to begin with Failed after a while because the colonists disagreed
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