HIST1020: Humanism and Protestant Reformation in Western Europe
HIST1020: Humanism and Protestant Reformation in Western Europe HIST 1020
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Aaron P Althouse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
HIST1020 World Civilizations c 1000 1800 Althouse Wednesday 1021 15 HUMANISM and PROTESTANT REFORMATION Aspects of quothumanismquot 39 Reason Classics and Worldly Ideas spread from Italy to Northern Europe Northern Humanism Late 1400s Italian Renaissance ideas warped as they traveled north Confidence in human abilities remained the same Religious reform was added as an important aspect Desiderius Erasmus 14661536 39 Dutch quotPrince of Humanistsquot 39 Combined in writing a couple ideas to explain societal success CiVic Virtue and Christian piety Sir Thomas More 14781535 author of Utopia 1516 39 English friend of Erasmus Wrote Utopia about what he feels would be the perfect place it39s a republic plan for society Reason is used to make all decisions there is no bias He wanted to criticize his society without getting in trouble for stating controversial views Background leading to Martin Luther 1400s1517 Political tension expanding monarchies vs local power Cities impacted presentday Germany and Switzerland viewed themselves as independent quotRepublicsquot Monarchs are closely tied to the pope Printing press invented in Western Europe 1444 Literacy increases still fairly low Later 1400s frustration with Rome church is wealthy and is politically and morally corrupt Martin Luther 14831546 Catholic who wants reform but the church doesn39t work with him Left church in Germany to begin a reform of his own Upper middle class growing up and did not come from an excessively religious family Was a lawyer until a lightning storm when he pledged himself to a career in the church 1512 gained a doctorate in theology Entered monastery and became a monk in Wittenberg Germany 15131517 spiritual crisis troubled by the Catholic Church39s views on sin and how to gain salvation it was unachievable and seemed like people had to be perfect to be saved 39 quotJustification by faith alonequot you don39t get to heaven by doing a ton of works you must have faith worksbased salvation is changed to a faithbased salvation 39 Indulgences payments for release from sin Luther disagreed with this business in the Catholic Church people were literally paying money for their salvation 39 10311517 Halloween published 95 Theses Against Indulgences 95 reasons why indulgences were wrong 39 Church began investigating him for heresy pleading him to quottake it backquot he refused 39 1519 pulled out of the spotlight by Charles39s rise to power began debating publicly saying that the quotpope is not infalliblequot follow scripture not the pope 39 1520 released 3 pamphlets expressing his core ideas 39 1521 excommunicated from the church no longer considered a Christian and became an outlaw because he was a problem for Emperor Charles V 39 1522 is hidden from Charles 39 1526 an agreement is reached between Charles and Luther in order to get military support from Germany Charles allowed Luther to do what he wanted wherever he was welcome Johann Tetzel Emperor Charles V rules Spain in 1519 pulled Luther out of the spotlight 39 Central Europe Germany 39 Used silver from the Americas to fund the Catholic war against Protestants Friday 10 23 15 PROTESTANT REFORMATION WESTERN EUROPE German Reformation Martin Luther Swiss Reformation Ulrich Zwingli French Reformation John Calvin England Reformation Henry VIII Catholic gt Luther Zwingli Henry VIII gt Calvin gt Anabaptists SWISS REFORMATION Zwingli 1480s1530s Similar to Martin Luther and beginning the same time Based in city of Zurich Switzerland His people wanted him to take the religious wars to more extremes ANAB APTISTS 39 Found most commonly in Switzerland and Germany 39 Adult baptism infants cannot understand Christianity 39 No one else likes them 39 Began being put to death for baptizing adults 39 Took over German city Munster 1530s FRENCH REFORMATION John Calvin 15091564 39 Grew up near Paris and wanted to be a lawyer until he had a spiritual crisis and began wondering about spiritual salvation 39 15411564 lived in Geneva on SwissFrench border 1530s Protestant beliefs arise in France so Protestants are persecuted because the people are afraid of the change and possibility of an uprising Geneva center of Protestant reformation 0 Very disciplined work ethics 0 Christian republic 0 Predestination spiritually chosen before birth God39s elect are moved to do the right thing 0 Located on SwissFrench border Enforce quotgodlyquot standards 0 Plain church buildings and very long sermons 0 Combination of church and state 1540s1550s Protestants and Catholics are royals 1560s King dies in jousting accident and spurs a religious war 1560s1590s religious violence in France and upheaval Didn39t end until a king in 1593 converts back to Catholic to quotsave France39 Spain and France become Catholic superpowers Hugenots 125 million French Protestants 1820 million French Catholics ENGLISH REFORMATION Henry VIII 1520s 0 Opposed reformation and defended Catholic faith 0 Given title quotDefender of Faithquot 0 Wanted divorce from Katharine of Aragon daughter of Spanish monarchs Protestant Anne Boleyn caught his eye approached pope to request divorce from Katharine to marry Anne pope denied his request 0 Late 1520s began moving away from Rome 0 Created Anglican Church Church of England surrounded himself with Protestant advisors 1547 Henry dies Mid 1500s one ruler is Catholic and another is Protestant 1558 Queen Elizabeth I takes over the throne and shows that England will be Protestant England Protestant stronger challenges Spain catholic weaker Mary Queen of Scots Catholic granddaughter of King Henry V11 1568 Elizabeth put Mary on house arrest 1587 Elizabeth orders execution of Mary due to attempted murder plots 0 1588 Spanish Armada Spain39s navy decides to send a crusade to England to remove Elizabeth from the throne but it is defeated NETHERLANDS 1560s under Spanish control Calvinists protest Spanish rule and form Protestant revolts 1577 Netherlands split from Spanish rule 0 England had sent troops and support to Netherlands to fight Spanish 1579 northern Dutch republic splits from Spain and becomes Protestant By late 1500s rise of Protestant Europe and England sets standard for others 0 Counter reformation Catholics want to return to Catholicism 15451562 Council of Trent rewrites catholic traditions 0 Bible ethics trained young men better 0 Church authority split authority among different people 39 Created Jesuit Order missionary soldiers
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