crim102weeknine.pdf CJC 102 -2
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Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Eiseman on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 102 -2 at Ball State University taught by Jonathan Intravia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
1019 1 Policies Rooted in Structural Theories a interventionpolicy strategies derived from social structural theories i the chicago area project 1 transform bad neighborhoods into better living conditions ii war on poverty iii moving to opportunity project MTO b The chicago Area project i central goal to assist neighborhoods in organizing their communities 1 make residents more aware of criminal activity 2 improving the physical environment and quality of life within communities 3 creating positive models for youth ii social structure 1 poveny 2 residential instability 3 racial ethnic heterogeneity a social structure crime c war on poverty i emphasis on systematic change in urban communities to eliminate criminal opportunities as a result of poverty 1 small business loans programs 2 food stamp act 3 higher education act college ii over 90 federal programs to help war on poverty d Moving to opportunity i randomized social experiment 1 like a medical experiment 2 gave subjects a voucher in low poverty area 3 others didn t get a voucher but maintained federal help with their poveny ii includes 4600 low income families with children living in high poverty public housing projects iii key findings 1 improved housing satisfaction a adults felt safer and more satisfied with new housing arrangements 2 improved adults mental and physical health 3 had no effect on labor market outcomes 4 had negative effects on male youth risky behavior iv video on restoring communities 1021 SOCIAL PROCESS THEORIES CRIME IS SOCIALIZED BEHAVIOR 1 Overview of Social process theories a criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others mainly through socialization i socialization 1 the process through which we learn the skills knowledge values motives and roles of the groups we belong to or communities we live 2 effects can be socialized to conform or to violate norms and values ii what types of agents socialize us 1 family a first people we interact with 2 schools a have both positive and negative effects on socialization b connects us to institutions neighbors peers c if schools hold kids back or expel kids often that39s going to negatively affect the kids socialization 3 religion a collective institution with similar values and beliefs 4 peers a peers drive social learning theories 5 its the socialization not the structure that affects us the most iii social learning theories human interaction 1 differential association theory 2 neutralization theory iv social control theories 1 containment theory 2 social bonding theory 3 self control theory v social reaction labeling theory b Product of learning the norms values and behaviors associated with crime i involves techniques of crime how to commit it ii involves psychological aspects of crime how to deal with the guiltshame associated with crime 2 Social learning theories a Differential association theory i Edwin Sutherland People commit crime when their social learning leads them to perceive more definitions favoring crime than favoring conventional non criminal behavior b Key principles vi vii criminal behavior is learned 1 learned how all other behaviors are learned such as reading or writing or driving criminal behavior is learned by interacting with others 1 people don t commit crime SIMPLY because of a bad environment or where they live learning criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups 1 people most intimate groups such as peers family friends teachers 2 greatest influence on our perspectives on crime learning includes techniques to commit crime and the motives drives rationalizations and attitudes 1 learn how to REACT to their criminal behavior as well A person becomes delinquent because they have an excess of definitions favorable to law violation over definitions unfavorable to law violation 1 key principle of differential association 2 if your friends and celebrates people you admire are favorable to the crime you re more likely to do it if you get in trouble or see people get in trouble the crime is less favorable differential associations may vary in frequency duration priority and intensity 1 how long these associations last 2 how often they occur 3 amount of prestige that occurs from whom the learning came from overall the theory has received favorable support 1 keyissues a does not take into account shortterm triggers i crimes of passion or ignorance ii defensive crimes b it does not explain individuals who never come into contact with criminal associates i some people work alone learn alone 3 Neutralization theory sykes and Matza law violators must learn master techniques that enable them to neutralize balance guilt before they are free to commit crimes individuals drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior Techniques of neutralization a b denial of responsibility 1 they made me do it ii denial of injury 1 they have too much money iii denial of victim 1 heshe had it coming to them 2 they deserve it iv condemning of the condemner 1 everyone steals why pick on me for stealing v appeal to higher loyalties 1 I had to protect my friends e research generally finds support for neutralization theory i neutralization techniques are highly correlated with involvement in gang activities 1023 1 Social control theories overview a assumes that all individuals have potential to violate the law and that society presents many opportunities to do so b asks why people do not commit crime instead of why they do c argues that people obey the law because behavior and passions are controlled by internal informal control 2 Containment theory a Walter Reckless b focuses on how individuals who face social pressures to commit crime fail to resist the pressures c individuals must become socialized to resit quotpushesquot and pulls to crime i pushes 1 experiences personal characteristics that increase vulnerability to crime 2 hanging out with friends and being encouraged to rob a gas station ii pulls 1 perceived rewards of engaging in crime 2 financial rewards of robbing gas station d containments are barriers tha counteract the effects of pushes and pulls i outer containments 1 watchful eyes around us that we take into consideration before we decide to commit crime 2 bad rep from family or friends ii inner containments 1 ability of a person to follow expected norms 2 comes from within 3 internal beliefs and morals iii only when contaminants become weak do the pushes and pull become strong 3 Social Bonding Theory a Travis Hirschi b assumes all individuals are potential law violators but most are kept under control due to strong social bonds i SOCIAL BONDS 1 ties that bind people to society a strong social bonds less likely to commit crime b weak social bonds more likely to commit crime 2 what social bonds does the class have a future job career goals b family disappointment c friends viewpoint d commitment to education c four types of bonds d i attachment 1 family friends community ii commitment 1 future career school personal goals a the amount of energy or effort we put into goals and commitments iii involvement 1 social activities sports church social clubs a amount of time we spend with others in our shared activities b suppon iv belief 1 honesty morals fairness a guilt Social bonding theory i support for all four social bonds 1 attachment consistently has strongest support ii keyissues 1 social bonding a fails to explain individuals who have strong bonds but still o end 4 Self control Theory a b Gottfredson and Hirschi argues that individuals with low selfcontrol are more likely to commit criminalanalogous behaviors characteristics of low selfcontrol i impulsive ii insensitive iii physical more aggressive iv risktaking v shortsighted not concerned with long term goals or accomplishments vi nonverbal d these characteristics do behaviors that aren t always illegal butjust looked down upon i drop out of school ii baby out of wedlock iii smoking iv drinking e These types of individuals are less likely to have high cognitive and academic skills more likely to have manual skills i goodbad parenting 1 not saying no 2 neglect 3 no manners 4 being supportive and involved f Self control is either developed or not developed early in life i ages 810 g developed by proper childrearing practice parents must i monitor the child s behavior ii recognize deviant behavior when it occurs iii must punish the deviant behavior 1 thus poor parenting produces low self control 2 once an individual s level of selfcontrol is developed it remains stable over life 3 general theory or crime GTC applies equally to all crimes a murder corporate theft h Criticisms of Selfcontrol theory i is low selfcontrol the only cause of crime 1 other personality traits may be important 2 amount of self control compared to how much time you spend exercising ii does not explain racial and gender differences in crime 1 are males or females more impulsive 2 do certain racesethnicities have lower selfcontrol iii one s level of selfcontrol may change 1 people spouse 2 opportunities job 3 peer groups change better friends smaller groups
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