Week 8 (Knowledge)
Week 8 (Knowledge) PSYC 2014
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Wednesday October 21 2015 Cognitive Psychology Article Discussion There is a distinct weakness look for it What are the subjects doing Task 1 They are shown cards and asked to predict the weather See some predictors of weather playing cards and then asked to predict the weather based on those cards Knowledge This unit is a building on the idea of Semantic Memory the memory of knowledge facts about the world Quillian s Netwek Theory Words concepts images facts represented as nodes Connections between words concepts images facts represented as links This concept is from the field of computer science Not a purely conceptual idea it is a very practical idea of how you think and organize knowledge Did an exercise Name 2 things far from each other Stars and lemurs Lemurs can look at the starts The theory of relativity and Lance Armstrong The theory of relativity was developed by Albert Einstein who is famous and Lance is also famous Hierarchical Version of Network Theory This man can be characterized in many different ways Wednesday October 21 2015 Entity Object Being Animal Mammal Rimate Human Jerk These are all true You can characterize him on different levels 1 NodeLink Structure Class inclusion relations represented explicitly Concepts represented as nodes Class inclusion relations represented as links between nods 2 Question Interface This is how you get access and use the knowledge Gatekeeper to nodelink structure decides whether question is sensible Question A canary is a bird True False Have them respond as quickly as possible Necessary in order to deal with things such as Is a canary a corkscrew You wouldn t start searching the network because there will be a connection in there between the two if you do this This is why it is necessary because everything is connected to everything 3 Spreading Activation Activation spreads in all directions from nodes activated by question Question answered on basis of activation intersection Wednesday October 21 2015 When asked the Is a canary a bird question you use this to search the network to answer this question Basically this process it is a way to or seeing how closely some things are related Equal Links all links in network of equal length In other words the link between canary and bird as well as the link between streets and blocks etc are all the same length Efficient Filing System properties stored at highest possible hierarchical level and not below We re not gonna store important facts more than we have to If we know animals have skin and we know birds are animals we don t need to store that birds have skin because we know that they are animals and all animals have skin It would be pointless to associate skin with birds when you can just associate it with animals and can infer that because birds are animals they have skin Semantic Distance Effect A canary is a bird FASTER THAN A canary is an animal A canary has wings FASTER THAN A canary has skin Why does this argue that this theory is true Because you are spreading activation farther You ll need more time to think that a canary is an animal because you need to go through bird to get to animal gt which is connected to canary You ll need more time to think that a canary has skin than that it has wings because you need to go through bird to get to animal gt which have skin Wednesday October 21 2015 Repeated Path Hypothesis A canary is an animal A bird can fly FASTER THAN JUST ASKING A bird can fly There is activation still sort of lingering from figuring out whether or not a canary is an animal to answer whether it can fly This theory was originally rejected Typicality Effect A canary is a bird FASTER THAN An ostrich is a bird This is a problem for a theory Semantic Relatedness Effect An ostrich is an animal FASTER THAN A canary is an animal This was also a problem for the theory Feature Comparison Model Concepts represented as sets of semantic features Class inclusion relations represented implicitly must be computed Under this theory when you seehear canary what happens is that all these features of canary turn on in your mind When you say bird all these features of bird turn on in your mind When you ask if a canary is a bird you decide whether the overlap applies to a canary being a bird Does this mean that all the features of canary are found in bird Wednesday October 21 2015 That means the canary has to have all the bird feature but the bird does NOT need to have all the canary features Because canaries have their own individual features You have engraved in your mind that a canary is a bird in the old model In this new model you are comparing the objects features to see if they are the same Defining Features Necessary and sufficient characteristics of the category Characteristic Features CommonlyOccurring characteristics of the category Bachelor unmarried male When you think of this you more think of Charlie Sheen not the Pope who is a bachelor The point is in this case even though there is variation in how they fit it they all fit the defining feature unmarried male Why do we talk about these things They are important at explaining the Typicality Effect
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