ANT 215 Week 11
ANT 215 Week 11 ANT 215
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jeff Chivis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Origins of Civilization in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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What is Karma?
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Date Created: 03/24/16
Indus Valley—South Asia Harappan Civilization Overveiw • Periods o Neolithic (7000 – 3000 BC) o Bronze Age § Early Harappan (3300-2600 BC) § Mature Harappan (2550-2600 BC) § Late Harappan (1900-1000 BC) • Location: West India between Pakistan and Indian border; Indus and Ghahhar-Hakra no longer river ways—unpredictable duel flooding • Climate: Little rain fall (more during Harappan, less dependence on rivers), hot years with monsoons • Indus River: starts at Tibetian plateau in W. China towards Arabian Sea (21 largest) o Major key water source for Pakistan—Punjab region o Floods in July-September, low levels in winter o Needed for irrigation o Unpredictable floods Neolithic • 7000BC: domesticated wheat, sheep, and goats o Peas, lentils, cotton for clothes, pigs, water buffalo, Zebu cattle • Simple mud-brick homes • Became specialists by 5500 BC o Crude pottery o Copper tools o Imports as grave goods Indus Valley Civilization: • One of least known • Location: Indus valley between India & Pakistan • Utilized metallurgy early • Urbanized rapidly • Large territory centered on trade networks of river (Indus river & Ghagger-Hakra— dried) • No clear evidence of stratification Metallurgy • Smelting: obtaining metals from ore/rocks by combining metals; uses high heat to melt metals • Melting either hardens or makes brittle • Extreme caution of heat to melt ore and extract metals • *Copper: first metal to be extracted from malachite; re-workable and re-meltable—soft metal so heat isn’t necessary to mend • Bronze: mixing copper with tin, creating a stronger metal—used to tools and weapons; reworking is a benefit, all Harappan under this age Early Harappan Period • Scarce evidence but from early Neolithic occupation (farming to more urban life) • Increase in craft specialization • Distinctive Kot Dijian pottery • 3-5 major sites—evenly spaced to exploit own resources • Increase in non-perishable, exotic material trade network—stimulation Harappan cilization o Pay for monumental structure • Writing: Indus script (3000 BC) o Untranslated, too short and no “Rosetta stone” o Read right to left, debatable symbols • Harappan seals: hundreds of small tablets to make trade of products o 350-425 known symbols/signs o 5-6 signs per seal, longest with 26 signs o Cylinder seals of steatite Mature Harappan Period 2600-1900 BC • Defined, large urban cities that are well planned o Dholavira • Little evidence of unification—each was a city-state (independent city with control over territory and population) • Used river for trade • Population growing rapidly (800 known sites) o Mohenjo-Daro: largest of this period (40-80,000 people) o Ordered construction with streets running north and south (9m wide) o Public sewer and drainage ditches o 2 housing structures with courtyard o Raised mound (citadel) with wall surrounding it with public buildings on top o Craft specialization: pottery o Plumbing: indoor to improve sanitation to draw water out of cities, important for dense populations o Most buildings residential (77% homes) with others as work shops for use of craft specialists § Beyond citadel lacks monumental buildings o Seals provide trade between Mesopotamia and other societies o Citadel: several buildings on top with water piped into, lower elevation for houses and craft specialists § Function unknown but could have ritual meaning—within has great bath § Great bath: upper town region of mound with well to get water for ritual bathing § Role of bathing: Hindu religions also practiced; stressed importance of water to purify souls and cleanliness, good luck and karma o Other large settlements built on mound, with mud-brick walls as enclosure § City of Lothal as entrepot (trading/port city) § Grid structure § Little social differentiation in burials § Little known of smaller sites • Use of weights/measures that are standardized, cut pieces of flint/chert provide evidence of merchant culture • Evidence of royalty lacking, although art found that suggest a priest king that could mean class or caste system, lack of great tombs • What we DON’T know: o Religion: hints that Hindu gods originate at Harappan time o Language: no scripts recognized, multiple languages o Political system: Priest king sculpture suggest leadership class Late Harappan Period • Slow gradual decline begins around 1800 BC, by 1700 BC most cities abandoned o Suggests invading Aryans from Asia contributed, less likely now o River valley changed course, irrigation and water supply they rely on is now changed (Dholavira especially) Mesoamerica Cultural diversity very great rather than geographic Home to many diverse cultures/ethnic groups Eventual scene by Spanish invaders • Geography: complex and variable o Lowlands: below 1000m above sea level o Alitplano—highlands: 1000-2000m above sea level o Much of Northern is volcanic, south (Yucatan) of limestone flats o Limited water sources out of Mayan region • Climate: variable o Arid highlands, humid low lands (tropical or sub-tropical) o Temperate/moderate yearly rainfall • Chronology o Archaic 8000-2000 BC o Formative/preclassic 2000 BC – 100 AD o Classic 100-700 AD § Mayan until 1000 AD o Epiclassic 700-1100 AD o Postclassic 1100-1542 AD Archaic: mobile hunter-gatherers; domesticated squash, chili, and maize; bands cultivate plants and leave until harvest season • Tehuacan Valley: 4300 BC maize domesticated, occurred quickly and seen as godly to states o Earliest evidence of sedentary by 2000 BC (domestication precedes settlement) o Lag of domestication to sedentary lifestyle for the evolution of plants (small cobs with few kernels wouldn’t support sedentary life) o Food trinity of beans, maize, and squash all support one another Pre-classic/Formative: beginning of sedentism and intense cultivation, begins cultural complexity, larger populations with specialization • Olmec culture emerges, provides roots for cultural traits later • Early Zapotex • Olmec heartland: gulf-coast region, chiefdoms along the river o San Lorenzo: 1150-900 BC—nearly 20 Lagunas o La Venta 900-400 BC § Originates structure of Mesoamerica centers—clay pyramids and earthen works § Caches that stored ritual objects § Elite residence and activity of rituals—few residential occupations, more surrounding areas § Lagunas: man-made depressions lined with waterproof bricks—possible ritual bathing o Settlements centered around ceremonial center o Olmec heads made of blocks of salt that being imported § Depict kings, gods, or warriors § Brocken, buried suggesting ceremonial loss of power after kings died o Roots § Calendar system § Religious organization: human sacrifice, importance of water, jaguar of mythical figure, caves as roots to underworld § Number/writing system Mesoamerica calendar Solar/Haab: years of 360 days, 18 months or 20 days Lunar/ritual: 260 days on astronomical sights of moon/Venus Mayan Long count: start date set by them to set base of all dates, system is very accurate Overlapped in 52 year cycles Number system: intervals of 20 instead of 10 (vigesimal), systems of bars (5) and dots (1), invention of null as zero • Oaxaca: rise of complexity in this period o Trade between here and gulf-coast § Magnetite mirrors, marine goods, obsidian • San Jose Magote 1400 BC o Trade & ritual center o Little evidence of government control o By 700 BC rose to dominate over entire valley § Better public architecture and trade goods o Evidence of violence in art • Monte Alban: on top large hill top away from agriculture o Second large site in valley of Oaxaca o Dominant in 500-200 BC o Located high above from protection of violence o 200 BC becomes capital of Zapotec culture o Danzantes: 300 carving and stone figures, victims of human sacrifice but previously thought as dancers, wartime and military propaganda Classic Period: widespread trade networks and increased social complexity • Major regions o Central Mexico (Teotihuacan) o Mayan § Tikal, Copan, Caracol, Quirigua • Basin of Mexico: lakes fed by natural springs (present Mexico City) o Temperate climate and central plateu o Teotihuacan § Established end of second centry BC § Primary center/city, first urban civilization § Population min. 80,000 people § Exerted control of trade routes (especially obsidian) § Widespread of influence but not by conquering or control § Everyday life unknown from lack of writing system § Ceremonial core: smaller settlements surrounding • Pyramid of moon to north • Pyramid of sun in center o Over artificial cave o Size of Khufu • Ciudadela (citadel): location of another pyramid of feathered serpent—human sacrifice • Great compound—marketplace • Architecture plain—plastered and painted § Origin of City: population increase around 100 AD, coming from surrounding regions (volcanic eruption may have caused) • 300 AD city was rebuilt in grid pattern • North/south axis • Building controlled by state—built with standard apartment compounds for majority of population (100 people/compound) • Uknown political organization, assumed collective leadership o No evidence of kingship • City organized to districts (barrio) for foreigners or ceremonial centers § Trade network: based on control of Pachuca obsidian (gold-green) • As far away as Arizona