COM 107 WEEK 8 NOTES + CHAPTER 7
COM 107 WEEK 8 NOTES + CHAPTER 7 COM 107
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aria Sivick on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 107 at Syracuse University taught by S. Hollenback in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Communications and Society in Communication at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
CHAPTER 7 MOVIES AND THE IMPACT OF IMAGES Early Technology and the Evolution of Movies 0 The Development of Film 0 Magic Lantern 17th century projected images against a glass plate using oil lamp as light source 0 thaumatrope 1824 two sided card with different images that appeared to combine 0 zoetrope 1834 a cylindrical device that rapidly twirled images making the images to appear they have been moving 0 Muybridge and Goodwin Make Pictures Move rst to use multiple cameras to take successive photographs of humans and animals in motion 1884 George Eastman founder of Eastman Kodak developed rst roll lm I Roundhay Garden Scene 1888 Hannibal Goodwin 1889 improved Eastman s roll lm by using celluloid thin strips of transparent pliable material enabled a strip of lm to move through a camera and be photographed in rapid succession 0 Edison and the Lumieres Create Motion Pictures Kinetograph early movie camera by Edison Kinetoscope housed fty feet of lm that revolved on spools Louis and August Lumiere developed the cinematograph a combined camera lm developer and projection system let more than one person see the screen Vitascope large screen system by Edison made it more real for audiences 1900s short movies very popular 0 The Introduction of Narrative 0 movies that tell stories suspension of disbelief engaged audience s imagination 0 George Melies opened the rst public movie theatre in France jn 1 896 I Vanishing Lady Cinderella A Trip to the Moon I used slow motion and cartoon animation 0 Edwin Porter American I editing diverse shots together to tell a coherent story I 1902 The ice of an American Fireman I 1903 The Great Train Robbery I The Arrival of Nickelodeons O a form of movie whose name combines the admission price with the Greek word for theater Usually an accompanist Silent lms transcended language barriers 1910 entrepreneurs made these makeshift theaters into more lavish locations The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System 0 Edison Trust 1908 Motion Picture Patents Company 0 broken in 1917 due to trade violation 0 George Eastman supplied lm to only members of this company 0 Hollywood became lm capital of the world I cheap labor diverse scenery mild climate for year round lming 0 Vertical Integration 0 control of all levels of the movie business that turned into an oligopoly 0 Production 0 realized lm actors became famous 0 Famous Players Company 1912 0 Mary Pickford America s Sweetheartquot I Charlie Chaplin I DW Grif th 0 Studio Systemszby the 1920s controlled creative talent in the industry I faster production I studio heads managing nances time 0 Distribution 0 lm exchange system in exchange for short lms movie producers received a small percentage of the vaudeville ticket gate receipts 0 block booking under this system to get lms with big names exhibitors had to agree to rent new or marginal lms with no stars 0 Exhibition 0 buying up theaters was the way to go 0 Zukor and others MGM RKO Warner Brothers 20th century fox Paramount gured out that he only needed to buy the front runner movie theaters 0 movie palaces full time single screen movie theaters that provided a more hospitable movie going environment attracted middle and upper class 0 multiplexes featured multiple screens to lure middle class crowds to interstate highway 0 Big Five Paramount MGM Warner Brothers Twentieth Century FOX RKO 0 Little Three Columbia Universal United Artists Did not own theaters The Studio System s Golden Age 0 began in 1915 0 ended with the transformation of the Hollywood studio system post World War 2 0 Hollywood Narrative and the Silent Era O DW Grif th used varied camera distances close up shots multiple story lines fast paced editing symbolic imagery 0 Birth ofa Nation 1915 rst feature length lm the rst blockbuster 0 Silent Era Napoleon Ben Hur The Ten Commandments established star system movies as art 0 The Introduction of Sound 0 talkies had failed since the 1890s 1920s revitalized with Warner Brothers The Jazz Singer musical numbers and brief dialogue The Singing Fool cost 200000 and bright in 5 million 0 newsreels rst lm footage with the sound take off and return of Charles Lindbergh 0 The Development of the Hollywood Style 0 the narrative the genre the authordirector three key ingredients 0 Hollywood Narratives two basics the story and the discourse feature recognizable characters a clear beginning middle and end plot w main character that is resolved at the end Use of CGI 3D IMAX enhances experience 0 Hollywood Genres a category in which conventions regarding similar characters scenes structure and themes recur in combination I goals product standardization and product di crcntiation familiar models that can be imitated Big ones True Grit Fault in Our Stars Chicago Les Miserables Psycho Silence of the Lambs The Big Sleep Sin City 0 Hollywood Authors Alfred Hitchcock editing techniques to create suspense 0 Cracks in the Hollywood System allowed for low budget movies to rake in the millions I George Luca s American Gra iti New wave of trained directors from Film schools Steven Spielberg Mass media borders became blurred combination of news and documentary techniques with Hollywood narratives 0 Outside the Hollywood System 0 3 Alternatives to Hollywood international lms documentaries independent lms 0 Global Cinema American lms capture up to 90 of the market in many countries foreign lms take up 2 Movements of the 20th century German expressionism Soviet social realsim Italian neorealism post World War 2 Japanese Hong Kong Depression made people want their lms in English 1950s and 1960s decline in studio system and postwar prosperity started art house theater 1970s home video market emerged Blockbuster 1990s Net iX 2000s Largest Film Industry Bollywood in India Bombay a thousand lms a year ght between foreign lms as audience want to watch American independent lms 0 The Documentary Tradition interest lms and newsreels 1890s 1911 became extremely popular travelogues recorded daily life in various communities around the world 1920s documentary the creative treatment of actuality or genre that interests reality by recording real people and settings received support from the Roosevelt administration during the Depression requires backing or noncommercial support 1950s 1960s development of portable cameras cinema vert truth lm recorded every day life in more detail documentaries have a willingness to tackle controversial or unpopular subject matter Bully Bowling for Columbine Super Size Me O The Rise of Independent Films m independently produced lm typically operate on a shoe string budget and are screened in college auditoriums and small lm festivals Dead Man Only Lovers Lost in Translation Black Swan The Grand Budapest Hotel these kind fall between studio backed and smaller companies nancing their lms and then picked up by bigger studios Disney purchase of MiramaX Later sold MiramaX for 660 million Viacom folded independent unit Time Warner closed Warner Independent all because of 2010 poor economy The Transformation of the Studio System 0 Hollywood system faltered after 1946 0 audiences under 25 million by 1963 0 changed because 0 witch hunts in Hollywood end of vertical integration 0 suburbanization O arrival of TV 0 appearance of home entertainment 0 The Hollywood Ten 0 ran by the HUAC House Un American Actives Committee includes Richard M Nixon a set of trials spurred by political con ict in the industry coerced prominent people from lm industry to declare patriotism and give up names eventually subpoenaed ten unwilling witnesses nine screenwriters one director were jailed caused by Cold War paranoia until 1950s 0 The Paramount Decision 0 Justice Department demanded ve majors Paramount Warner Brothers Twentieth Century Fox MGM RKO end vertical integration Paramount Decision forced studios to gradually divest themselves of their theaters failed to challenge industry s control over distribution however there were more art houses and drive in theaters 0 Moving to the Suburbs O O O 0 most dramatic drop occurred in 1940s transformation from wartime economy to consumer production had big impact on moviegoing homeownership doubled moviegoing decreased TV eXploded in the late 1950s 0 Television Changes Hollywood 0 O 1948 and 1949 high radio listening years mass migration to suburbs radio was an ineXpensive alternative to movies more serious subjects as a response to the war commercial movies tackled controversial issues Motion Picture Production Code adopted in 1930s to restrict lming of violence crime drug use sexual behavior 1967 rating system began as the Code was ignored Technicolor vs black and white home TVs Cinerama CinemaScope VistaVision 3D appeared then Panavision non fuzzy large screen Eastman 0 Hollywood Adapts to Home Entertainment 0 cable TV and video cassette 1970s 0 Hollywood wanted to stall its development so they led lawsuits against it DVD helped reinvigorate at sales of the home video market Blu Ray in 2008 a bust Blockbuster bankrupt 2010 automated kiosks like Redbox doing okay now all because of the Internet distribution Net ix Amazon Apple TV TiVo video game consoles The Economics of the Movie Business 0 Americans have purchased roughly 1 billion movie tickets each year 0 In order to ourish the movie industry has to revamp its production distribution and exhibition system and consolidate its ownership 0 Production Distribution and Exhibition Today 0 Jaws and Star Wars became rst movies to gross more than 100 million at US box of ce in a single year 0 Making Money on Movies Today a major lm studio on average costs about 66 million to produce and about 37 million for domestic marketing advertising and print costs Make money from six major sources studio gets a portion of the theater box revenue 40 of box of ce about 3 to 4 months after theatrical release comes the home video market VOD subscription streaming and BluRay DVD windows of release for a lm premium cable HBOShowtime and then basic cable showings revenue from distributing lms in foreign markets international box of e are more than double the US and Canadian receipts by distributing the work of independent producers and lm makers who hire studios to gain wider circulation independents pay studios 30 to 50 of box of ce and home revenue they make merchandise licensing and product placement 0 Theater Chains Consolidate Exhibition Film exhibition controlle day ve leading companies Regal Cinemas AMC Entertainment Cinemark USA Carmike Cinemas Cineplex Entertainment all have multiplex as opposed to a theatre with just 1 megaplexes studios with fourteen or more screens theaters now show live art events operas musical theater 0 The Major Studio Players 0 The Big Six Warner Brothers Paramount Twentieth Century Fox Universal Columbia Pictures Disney Except Disney all companies are owned by a larger conglomerate account for 77 of the revenue generated by commercial lms 0 Mini majors Lions gate purchased Summit Entertainment Weinstein Company Relativity 0 1980s to offset losses resulting from box of ce failures move industry began to diversify TV programming print media sound recordings home videos DVDs cable and computers retail stores theme parks economic stability depends on advance promotion and synergy companies sought to control electronic industry for production purposes as well 1985 Australian s News Corp bought 20th century Fox Sony bought Columbia Vivendi acquired Universal but sold it to GE the parent of NBC Comcast bought NBC Universal Disney bought Pixar Marvel Lucas lm and Industrial Light and Magic 0 Convergence Movies Adjust to the Digital Turn 0 biggest challenge industry faces the internet 0 companies faced it buy buying into streaming companies Apple iTunes Hulu NBC Universal 20th century fox and disney X nity Comcast Google Youtube 0 2012 turning point for the rst time movie fans had accessed movies more online than in DVDs rentals revenue from streaming is low however Digital turn creates 2 paths 1 studios and theaters will lean more heavily toward making and showing big budget blockbuster franchises with a lot of special effects 2 inexpensive digital distribution of lower budget documentaries and independent lms 0 Internet makes ads cheaper and easier 0 Alternative Voices 0 digital video a shift from celluloid lm allows lmmakers to replace expensive and bulky 16 mm and 35 mm lm cameras with less expensive lightweight digital video cameras camera works instantly no need to wait for lm to develop no lm stock and processing costs rst fully digitals release Timecode directed by Mike Figgis in 2000 allows lms to bring in more revenue than their budget Paranormal Activity budget 15000 to top box of ce revenue 0 digital formats can be lost however Popular Movies and Democracy 0 consensus narratives cultural products that become popular and provide shared cultural experiences OOOO 1022 FILM average cost for a movie 110 million US 550 features a year not the most but the most well known India Bollywood 1200 features a year Nigeria 2nd largest producer in the world lm has been standardized since 1896 photography and stills into moving pictures Lumiere brothers vs Georges Melies Georges traditional animation tradition 1894 slot machines Elite Folk and Popular arts Culture both widely consumed and often criticized Creators Purposes Contentform style Public audiences consumers Elite Art Tradition known artist through maybe unknown until after death aesthetic purposes often to question counter or advance accepted tradition or styles could be done for patrons following or countering known set of conventions and skillscompleX themes and forms building own known classics appreciated by public for its own sake often gives or implies status usually in museums concert halls etc can be understood appreciated across times and diverse cultures Folk art traditions anonymous creator part of community utilitarian purpose Daily use rituals celebrations simple themes uncomplicated forms often from natural sources emerging from available sources one of a kind culturally speci c bc understood by those in community often indigenous roots but appreciated over time and cultures Creators of popular culture celebrities folks in front usually with massive support personnel behind them best are insightful talented distinctive artistic publics can in uence artists producers collaborators decisions often rest with powers that be corporations and or mega artists Purposes of popular culture make some astronomical but risky business to entertain or provide escapism to reach massive audiences though always been niches some send message theme non ction personal eXpression to create controversy to be different Popular culture content form style best are original and innovative but lots of spin off and slight variations success is copied faddish rapidly changing new even throw away many forms styles genres often driven by technology sensationalism often trumps substance ca be complex themes and forms but often requires little effort lots of marketing and promotion so we can have global appeal re ects contemporary cultural attitudes and values Popular culture audiences masses of us often cross generational but usually generation speech classics do eXist but much content isn t memorable much focus on individual taste preferences frequently costs us gives us collective eXperience impressive even engrossing draws us in signi cantly super cially often we have personal connection to the work andor creators with long lasting impacts pleasant to return to and re eXperience nostalgically Stages in lm creation From idea to theater screening Development Pre production production post production marketing may often occur throughout with push at end distribution exhibition in theaters Negative cost development pre pro post prod BUT THAT DOES NOT INCLUDE marketing 40 100 million dollar range often about as much as it took to make movie distribution STAR WARS in 1977 marked the birth of the modern movie licensing and merchandising business This franchise has generated 20 billion 20th century FOX let George Lucas keep ownership of merchandising and sequel rights to the rst lm Including 6b cinema and DVd sales Feature lms may lose money at the box of ce but fuel pro ts in ancillary marketsquot Ancillary Market for Films Potential revenue based on synergy Domestic TV Foreign TV Pay cable Cable Satellite Video on demand Merchandising Promotional tie ins Product placement Home Video DVD Music CDs Mp3 downloads licensing book publishing webcasting concerts Video games amusement park rides THINK Star Wars Harry Potter Lord of the Rings Pirates of the Caribbean Batman marvel universe james bond avatar titanic jurassic world the avengers the dark night jurassic park ET lion king independence day terminator 2 1020 FILM Most news short immediate news stories what s going on and is keeping up with the news created to inform factual objective or balanced most impact on greatest Documentaries 6 8 minutes many 20 maybe 1 2 hours longer timely or retreat bc new research etc often compleX many perspectives more eXplanations depth and chooses ti receive bc of title focus POV eXpects to be educated or provoked factual but in creator s intent purpose or arguments importance but not necessarily to huge numbers Jon Stewart Sarcasm of today Synergy of news and entertainment Cynical nature with presentation lures people in especially 18 34 range Makes you more critical aware Expand you Tv is easier to watch casually analytical engages with audience instead of at audience my enemy is your enemy
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