World History- October 19-23
World History- October 19-23 HIST 1010 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
October 1923 European Reformations Church Before Luther The church had fallen on hard times with crisis on leadership Avignon Papacy as well as the Great Schism Many bishops were not in their role for spiritual reasons because their position had been bought for a social status Priests were often illiterate and not well trained The religion of the people had strains as well They did not all have consistent access to the church due because in villages priests may only visit every two or three months Many people were outwardly Catholic and inwardly Pagan such as following many superstitions This may occur because when people were converting Germanics they would just accommodate certain beliefs of the Germanics On Saint s Days people were encouraged to not work and keep the day holy These were special and when these inwardly Pagan people would hear this they would jump on the chance of any special effectiveness of medicinal herbs etc Indulgence Controversy The church believed that souls go to purgatory to be cleansed before they can ascend into heaven This evolved with a rise of an indulgence remission of pardon of time a soul had to spend in purgatory through recognition of your good works through your lifetime So the church would offer a indulgence if the people did good works such as giving to the poor and to the church or to traveling to a saint s shrine This was suppose to be a very spiritual idea but it did become corrupted Pope Leo X inherited debt so he decided to use these indulgences as a type of leverage to get money into the church Yohan Tetzel was a Germanic person who sold indulgences on street comers People even bought these for deceased family members The falter with this was that there was no counseling or deep spirituality connected with the indulgences In response Martin Luther tacked 96 Theses written in Latin onto the door of a church in Wittenberg He was a priest and a teacher who wanted to provoke a debate among intellectuals However this spread rapidly once it was written in German and given out gt SIGNIFICANCE paired with hard times in the church it s response was inappropriate II when indulgences began to be sold These have true spiritual meaning behind them but selling them was a very negative impact to the church It caused a reform to occur and Luther was one key factor in this His 95 issues with the selling of indulgences spread in a way he was not ready for and caused a lot of changes in turn Martin Luther Within Luther s early life he was a German born into an upwardly mobile family through his father s investment in him His father was a peasant who worked in mines but put a large emphasis on Luther s education Luther was very bright and was studying law when he was returning back to school after a vacation and was literally struck by lightning He prayed to Saint Ann saying that if he lived he would devote his life to the church He then went into the Augustinian order which was a very serious order devoted to education He had trouble with feeling accepted by his family once he decided to join the order He was a very great monk who practiced distraction from the physical and focus on the spiritual However soon Luther encountered a spiritual crisis He had doubts about his own salvation He was very xated on perfection and felt like God had no reason to save a sinner like himself He felt like good works were not enough for salvation Luther was just ordained and going to celebrate communion for the first time Catholicism believed in transubstantiation where the priest takes the bread and wine and transforms it into the blood and body of Christ We know what happened next because Luther kept very detailed journals of his thoughts and feelings He was so worried about his own personal sin that he choked and couldn t go through with this miracle Erik Erikson a famous psychologist thought that he may have applied his feeling of inadequacy to his worldly father to his heavenly father Because of this Luther was sent to go through more schooling He read Paul s words in the book of Romans which reads the just shall live by fait and he was inspired to a spiritual revolution Theology Justification by faith Salvation cannot be earned humans cannot attain perfection and salvation is a gift to believers People questioned him why would they try to be good then He said being relieved of anxiety over worrying of this is good He said grace is a gift from God which allow you to want to do good Scripture The bible is the only source of beliefs and history is no longer a source Sacraments There were seven but he lowered it to two baptism and communion because those are the only two expressed in the bible Luther knew communion was not only a symbol he still believed in a miracle This was called consubstantiation where it was believed that Christ coexists physically with the bread and wine by the faith of the believer gt SIGNIFICANCE Luther was a very important leader of the Protestant reformation and he opened the minds of many people through his deep understanding of the scripture and faith III Spread of Protestantism The reason why Luther posted the 95 Theses in 1517 was because he was upset from parishioners stopping coming to church because they bought indulgences The document was conservative and focused on indulgences but Luther had to become public and start to defend his views The printing press created by Yohan Gutenberg in 1452 became the information highway Northem Humanism was the climate of the criticism of the church because Erasmus and others wanted the people to focus on their daily lived in an interior manner than exterior Political In central Europe there were 300 principalities loosely held together by the Holy Roman emperor Charles V was not the current emperor but was up for election Habsburg was the local ruling family of Austria and others were use to electing from Luther was asked to be questioned during this time and he said he would answer anything on German soil and not in Rome Prince Frederick ruled the area Luther was from but Pope Leo X was preoccupied with this political issue instead He and others did not want Charles V to gain all of the Habsburg dominions and the German empire because that would have been too much power Out of the 300 states which had princes only seven were deemed electors Frederick Elector of Saxony was one This had continued for two years and when Charles V grandfather nally passed away there was no good alternative besides Charles V so he was ultimately elected anyway In turn the protestant ideas had been spreading all the while and Luther was mainly left alone Though Charles V was a devout Catholic he was preoccupied with other things Habsburg vs Valois French Wars and the Ottoman Turks The Ottoman empire contained Greece Baghdad Jerusalem parts of North Africa etc They were seeking out obtaining the Danu basin which included Vienna but it was a very important part of Charles s V empire It took a lot of Charles to get rid of them Therefore this Muslim threat was a lot more immediate and diverted his attention from the Protestant movement gt SIGNIFICANCE The spread of Protestantism was affected in a very positive way since IV the political issues were overwhelming the internal idea of this spread Therefore the issues with elections as well as the Muslims led to a larger spread of protestant ideas Varieties of Protestantism Anabaptist This was a catch all term There was a series of independent denominations under this idea There were a few main identif1ers of the Anabaptists Community of Saints It was believed that you were a member of the church that you personally chose to be a part of and that you should stand up and say that you have been spiritually regenerated internally This meant that you had been savedbom again and then they would be baptized Antiinfant baptism The also rebaptized those who were originally baptized as a baby Biblical literalist This had the potential to be extreme The old Catholic church believed that the bible should be read symbolically but Luther claimed it should be read with face value This was a fundamentalist view claiming that you should live according to it These extreme fundamentalist believed in a primitive form of communism where they lived together and were also pacifist This was not a norm in their time and place so many of them ed to the Netherlands and certain parts of England This gave rise to the Baptist denomination Zwingli Zurich was a Swiss city in which Zwingli had a Catholic Church in which he was a priest in He became protestant and converts the church and the city The way in which he differed in beliefs was the idea of communion Zwingli said there was no miracle even though Christ was present People started to panic so Zwingli and Luther had a meeting Meeting at Marburg but they could not meet a compromise Calvinism John Calvin was a very important theologian He was French and was unhappy with studying theology so he went to study law instead He found humanism and became critical of the church It is important to note that many humanists never converted to protestants because they wanted to see a change in their religion and were very hopeful of this Calvin decided upon a different strain of theology Majesty of God focused on the allpowerful omnipotent and all knowing God This was not a new idea but Calvin kept a very large emphasis on this Predestination who shall be savedwho goes to hell and determined that the individual had no say in it The elect were the ones going to heaven People questioned why bother leading a good Christian life Calvin said that you never know if you are among the elect or not but God deserves good so it is your duty to do good Good works among the people led to the idea of signs that they were elect and this doing good gave hope to people Scotland parts of France and Europe became Calvinists Protestant work ethic People worked energetically which was a way to glorify God This was a part of culture changing even though Catholics held this as important as well This led to economic results as well gt SIGNIFICANCE The protestant beliefs differed slightly and historians are very understanding of the fact that this split was bound to happen and happened in many various manners Certain beliefs may differ but they still have the same basic necessary beliefs V English Reformation This occurred because of the government and not due to religion Henry VIII was trying to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon princess of Spain Mary was their daughter but Henry was getting antsy since he had not had a son heir He though God was punishing him for marrying Catherine for political reasons since they did not marry for love and the fact that Catherine was married to Henry s older brother before he had passed away Anne Boleyn was who Henry wanted to marry The embassy was sent to the pope to discuss this issue but the pope said that it was not allowed since Henry s marriage had been approved by the church Therefore Henry decide to create his own church the Church of England He decided to seek Parliament to allow for the divorce and to show the people that it was done as the will of the people Thomas Cromwell was his righthand man throughout this The church doesn t change much under Henry Henrican Catholicism because he didn t want to change the theology he just didn t want the pope telling him what to do Henry had siX wives total Anne was executed His third wife nally gave him a son Edward VI but he didn t reign long as he passed away early in his life Thomas Crammer was in a high political position He became Lutheran and used that to reform doctrines to protestant ideas Mary Tudor was another of Henry s daughters who came to power after Edward She was a very strong Catholic and tried to reverse the reform She went to Parliament to change laws back so that woman could reign etc Clergy who went against her wishes were martyred including Thomas Crammer This actually caused the protestant religion to spread more She realized that she hadn t really reformed anything back to it s original position because too much change had occurred She died with no children but her halfsister Anne s daughter reigned Queen Elizabeth She never acted rashly and considered an issue very thoroughly She decided that the religious issue could be settled with a compromise She personally believed like her father She believed in Catholic ways but did not want the pope to rule over the monarchy She loved the physical beauty of the Catholic church as well as the liturgy collection of prayers and responsive readings of churches Her compromise was that she would impose Protestant ideas and doctrines with an exterior Catholic sense with Catholic artwork liturgy vestments of priests and the hierarchy of bishops episcopal governed structure of bishops vs Presbyterian committee of member s structure gt SIGNIFICANCE The English reformation was brought on by unreligious ideas but it VI did cause big changes in the religious ideas of battling old Catholic ideas and new Protestant ones Catholic Reformation This started before the Luther and was occurring during the Protestant reformation Northem Humanism wanted clergy s internal motivation caliber to raise example Polyglot bible New Monastic Orders Monastic clergy was not designed to be living out in the world among the people and work with them Many of them would target specific populations such as the poor or woman specif1cally Jesuits founder Spanish nobleman Ignatius Loyola He was injured in battle and was stuck in bed so he read everything he could Lives of Saints was one in which he read where he and his close friends decided to devote his life to the Church Paul III was the first pope to recognize the Jesuits They were very carefully screened They had to be smart and young to physically stand up to the tasks of working among others Training was very rigorous They were seen as a type of special forces elite group Mission To serve as priests to men and woman in a missionary manner and go where priest generally weren t permanently at They were also suppose to go out and act as teachers Education was very important to Catholics which was known as catechism Catechism can be found in Protestants religions too not specifically the Catholic religion Papal reform Paul III appointed a committee to investigate problems within the church and wanted advice if there was any way to impose better ideascorrections He called a church council called Council of Trent They did make some changes such as there was now a specific age one had to be to become a priest Paul wanted the church to compare with Luther s doctrine to see if there were any possible compromises The outcome was conservative and they concluded that there would be no changescompromises He wanted to recharge the batteries of the clergy There were efforts by the Catholic Church to make religion more meaningful to individuals One such change was that confession went from public and formulaic to private with a partition to allow for a freer confession This was meant to allow for an internal spiritual movement The church regained lost ground as many people who converted to Protestant converted back to the Catholic church It was triumphant in its changes and imposed new healthy changes gt SIGNIFICANCE The Catholic reformation was done so that people would nd a new spiritual internal rebirth for their spirituality The Catholic church was successful in this