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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Marcy on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 211-002 at George Mason University taught by Paul Cooper in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
CHEM 211 CH 5 An Overview of the Physical States of Matter Distinguishing gases from liquids and solids Gas volume changes signi cantly w pressure 0 Solid and liquid volumes are not greatly affected by pressure Gas volume changes signi cantly w temp o Gases and o The volume change is 50100x greater for gases than for liquids and solids Gases ow very freely They have relatively low densities They form a solution in any proportions o Gases are freely miscible they form homogenous mixtures w each other Gas Pressure and its Measurement Pressure forcearea Atmospheric pressure arises from the force exerted by atmospheric gases on the earth s surface The force arises from Earth s gravity attracting atmospheric gases to the surface Atmospheric pressure decreases w altititude Pressure arises from countless collisions between gas particles and walls sldes 68 TABLE 51 The Gas Laws 0 The gas laws describe the physical behavior of gases in terms of 4 variables 0 Pressure P 0 Temperature T 0 Volume V 0 Amount number of moles n 0 Variables are interdependent any one variable can be determined by measuring the other three 0 An ideal gas is a gas that exhibits linear relationships among these variables 0 No ideal gas actually exists but most simple gases behave nearly ideally at ordinary temps and pressures Boyle s Law At constant temp the volume occupied by a xed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the external pressure See slides 1113 for more info Charles s Law At constant pressure the volume occupied by a xed amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute Kelvin temperature Slide 1416 Avogadro s Law At constant pressure and temp the volume occupied by a xed amount of gas is directly proportional to the amount of gas molecules Slide 17 and 18 Other Relationships At constant volume the pressure of a xed amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute Kelvin temperature Slide 19 Gas Behavior at Standard Conditions STP or standard temperature and pressure speci es a pressure of 1 atm 760 torr and a temp of 0 C 27315 K The standard molar volume is the volume of 1 mol of an ideal gas at STP Standard molar volume 224141 L or 224 L The Ideal Gas Law see slide 2223 R is the universal gas constant the numerical value of R depends on the units used
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