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ch. 6

by: Briana Marcy

ch. 6 PSYC 100-001

Briana Marcy
GPA 3.8
Basic Concepts in Psycology
Michael Anderson

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Basic Concepts in Psycology
Michael Anderson
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Marcy on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 100-001 at George Mason University taught by Michael Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psycology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 10/23/15
Briana Marcy PSYC 100001 Dr Anderson Chapter 6 Sensation and Perception Basic Concepts of Sensation and Perception Sensation and perception are actually parts of one continuous process Sensation o Bottomup process by which the physical sensory system receives and represents stimuli at the very basic level of sensory receptors and works up 0 Perception o Topdown mental process of organizing and interpreting sensory input from experience and expectations Bottomup processing is sensory analysis that begins at the entry level with information owing from the sensory receptors to the brain Topdown processing is information processing guided by highlevel mental processes as when we construct perceptions by ltering information through our experience and expectations All our senses 0 Receive sensory stimulation often using specialized receptor cells 0 Transform that stimulation into impulses Deliver the neural information to our brain Transduction 0 Conversion of one form of energy into another Signal detection theory 0 Predicts how and when we will detect a faint stimulus amid background noise Individual absolute thresholds vary 0 Depending on the strength of the signal and also on our experience expectations motivation and alertness How much stimuli does it take to have a sensation Absolute threshold 0 Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 of the time 0 Can see a far away light in the dark feel the slightest touch Subliminal 0 Input below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness Priming 0 Activating often unconsciously associations in our mind thus setting us up to perceive remember or respond to objects or events in certain ways Difference threshold just noticeable difference 0 Minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time increases w stimulus size Weber39s law 0 For an average person to perceive a difference two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage not a constant amount exact proportion varies depending on the stimulus Subliminal Persuasion Subliminal stimuli are those that are too weak to detect 50 of the time Subliminal sensation is a fact such sensations are too eeting to enable exploitation w subliminal messages Subliminal persuasion may produce a eeting subtle but not powerful enduring effect on behavior Experiments discount attempts at subliminal advertising and self improvement Basic Concepts of Sensation and Perception Sensory adaptation o Is diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation 0 Aids focus by reducing background chatter o In uences how the world is perceived in a personality useful way 0 In uences emotions Emotion Adaptation see slide 12 Perceptual Set Perceptual set 0 Mental tendencies and assumptions that affects topdown what we hear taste feel and see 0 What determines our perceptual set 0 Schemas organize and interpret unfamiliar information through expedence o Preexisting schemas in uence topdown processing of ambiguous sensation interpretation including gender stereotypes Perceptual Set Motivation and Emotion Context effects A given stimulus may trigger different perceptions bc of the immediate context Terms to Learn Wavelength 0 Distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission Hue o Dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light what we know as the color names blue green etc o lntensity 0 Amount of energy in a light or sound wave which in uences what we perceive as brightness or loudness lntensity is determined by the wave s amplitude height Sensory and Perceptual Processing in Vision 0 What is seen as light is only a thin slice of the broad spectrum of electromagnetic energy 0 The portion visible to humans extends from the blueviolet to the red light wavelengths 0 After entering the eye and being focused by a lens light energy particles strike the eye s inner surface the retina o The perceived hue in a light depends on its wavelength and its brightness depends on its intensity Light energy from the environment into the brain Waves vary in wavelength the distance between successive peaks 0 Frequency the number of complete wavelengths that can pass a point in a given time depends on the length of the wave 0 Waves also vary in amplitude the height from peak to trough top to bottom Wave amplitude determines the brightness of colors and also the loudness of sounds See slides 18 amp 19 Rods and cones Cones and rods each provide a special sensitivity 0 Cones are sensitive to detail and color 0 Rods are sensitive to faint light Vision Visual Information Processing 0 How does the brain turn light stimuli into useful information about the world 0 Collection and analysis of sensory information 0 Linkage of optic nerve with neurons in thalamus Information Processing in the Eye and Brain 0 Color processing occurs in two stages 0 Retina s red green and blue cones respond in varying degrees to different color stimuli as the YoungHelmholtz trichromatic theory suggested 0 Cones responses are then processed by opponent process cells as Hering s theory proposed 0 Feature detection 0 Involves nerve cells in the brain that respond to speci c feature of the stimulus such as shape angle or movement The Telltale Brain Looking at faces houses and chairs activates different brain areas in this rightfacing brain Information Processing in the Eye and Brain Hubel and Wiesel o Showed brain s computing system deconstructs and then reassembles visual images 0 Found specialized occipital lobe neuron cells receive information from ganglions cells and pass to supercell clusters Parallel Processing slide 24 Visual Organization Gestalt Principles Gestalt psychologists propose principles used to organize sensations into perception 0 Form perception 0 Depth perception o Perceptual constancy Vision Visual Organization 0 How do we organize and interpret shapes and colors into meaningful perceptions People tend to organize pieces of information into an organized whole or Gestalt an organized whole that is seen as more than just the sum of its parts Gestalt Principles Form Perception How do we know where one object begins and another ends 0 Figureground Organization of visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings o Grouping Perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into meaningful groups Grouping see slide 28 Gestalt Principles Depth Perception Depth perception o Represents the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional o Allows us to judge distance o Is present at least in part at birth in humans and other animals The Visual Cliff Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk 1960 0 Test of early 3D perception Most infants refuse to crawl across the visual cliff Crawling at any age seems to increase an infant s fear of heights Seeing Depth Binocular Cues Binocular cues 0 Two eyes help perception of depth Retinal disparity o Binocular cue for perceiving depth 0 By comparing images from the two eyes the brain calculates distance 0 Used by 3D lm makers Seeing Depth Molecular Cues Monocular cue 0 Depth cue such as interposition or linear perspective available to either eye alone Light and shadow Relative motion Relative size Linear perspective Interposition Relative height OOOOOO Perceptual Constancy Objects are perceived as unchanging having consistent color brightness shape and size even as illumination and retinal images change Gestalt Principles Color Constancy Color constancy Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths re ected by the object Visual Organization Shape and Size Constancy 0 Size constancy o Perception of objects as having constant size even when distant from them varies o Perception of form of familiar objects as constant even when retinas receive changing images 0 Size constancy o Perception of objects as having constant size even when distant from them varies Experience and Visual Perception Perceptual Interpretation Restored vision and sensory restriction 0 Effect of sensory restriction on infant cats monkeys and humans suggests there is a critical period for normal sensory and perceptual development 0 Without stimulation normal connections do not develop Perceptual adaptation 0 Ability to adjust to an arti cially displaced or even inverted visual eld The Nonvisual Senses Hearing Sound waves from the environment into the brain 0 Sound waves compress and expand air molecules Ears detect these brief pressure changes Hearing Sound Characteristics Amplitude height determines intensity loudness in sound waves Length frequency determines the pitch Sound is measured in decibels dB Sound waves are bands of compressed and expanded air Human ears detect these changes in air pressure and transform them into neural impulses which the brain decodes as sound Sound waves vary in amplitude which is perceived as differing loudness and in frequency which is experienced as differing pitch Hearing Decoding Sound Waves see slide 40 Decoding Transforming Sound Energy into Neural Messages slide 41 Hearing Loss Sensorineural hearing loss nerve deafness Damage to cell receptors or associated nerves Conduction hearing loss Damage to mechanical system that conducts sound waves to cochlea Cochlear implant a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea Perceiving Loudness Pitch and Location Place theory in hearing Theory that links the pitch heard with the place where the cochlea s membrane is stimulated best explains high pitches Frequency theory temporal theory in hearing Theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone thus enabling its pitch to be sensed explains low pitches Some combination of place and frequency theories Handle the pitches in the intermediate range How do we locate sounds Why two ears are better than one 0 Sound waves strike one ear sooner and more intensely than the other 0 From this information our brain can compute the sound s locann The nonvisual Senses Touch 0 Sense of touch is actually a mix of four distinct skin senses 0 Pressure 0 Warmth 0 Cold 0 Pain 0 Other skin sensations are variations of the basic four The Pain Circuit Sensory receptors nociceptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinal cord which passes the messages to the brain which interprets the signal as pain Controlling Pain Placebo distraction hypnosis slide 47 The Nonvisual Senses Taste 0 Like touch taste 0 Involves several basic sensations 0 Can be in uenced by learning expectations and perceptual bias 0 Has survival function Table on slide 48 Taste A Chemical Sense lnside each little bump on the top and sides of the tongue are 200 taste buds Each bud contains a pore w 50100 taste receptors Each receptor reacts to different types of food molecules and send messages to the brain Sense of Smell 0 Information from the taste buds travels to an area between the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain o It registers in an area not far from where the brain receives information from our sense of smell which interacts w taste The Nonvisual Senses Smell Smell o Is a chemical sense 0 Involves hundreds of different receptors 0 Involves odors that can evoke strong memories Taste Smell and Memory 0 Information from the taste buds travels to an area between the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain 0 It registers in an area not far from where the brain receives information from our sense of smell which interacts w taste The Nonvisual Senses Body Position and Movement 0 Kinesthesis 0 System for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts 0 Interacts w vision 0 Vestibular sense 0 Sense of body movement and position including the sense of balance The Nonvisual Senses Sensory Interaction Senses are not totally separate information channels 0 Examples of sensory interaction 0 Smelltexturetaste avor o Visionhearing interact The Nonvisual Senses Sensory Interaction Embodied cognition 0 In uence of bodily sensations gestures and other states on cognitive preferences and judgments 0 Examples 0 Physical warmth may promote social warmth 0 Social exclusion can literally feel cold 0 Political expressions may mimic body positions Sensory Interaction c When a hardof hearing listener sees an animated face forming the words being spoken at the other end of a phone line the words become easier to understand Thinking Critically Perception wo Sensation 0 Most relevant ESP claims 0 Telepathy o Clairvoyance o Precognition o Psychokinesis o Bern 0 Nine experiments that suggested participants could anticipate future events 0 Critics 0 Methods or analysis viewed as flawed 0 Most research psychologists and scientists are skeptical


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