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Fear/Anxiety Notes

by: Lana Rose Betts

Fear/Anxiety Notes CLP4143

Lana Rose Betts
GPA 4.0
Abnormal Psychology
Casey Strickland

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About this Document

Here are my notes from 10.19 - 10.23. I went to all of the lectures, and understood the material very well. I included examples and categorization. I hope you find them helpful! I earned an A o...
Abnormal Psychology
Casey Strickland
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lana Rose Betts on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLP4143 at Florida State University taught by Casey Strickland in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 10/23/15
CLP4143 Fear 8 Anxiety 1019 1023 OVERVIEW Why do we get anxious The ght ight or freeze response prepares us for threats Physiological Response Adapt StresseH amygdala hypothalamus gt ANS amp endocrine system activation The autonomic nervous system ANS includes the sympathetic NS ght ight freeze amp the parasympathetic NS quotrest amp digest The PNS is our natural resting state and also serves as a parachute after SNS arousal PARAsympatheticPARAchute SNS responses heighten our control in a threatening situation 0 Dilated pupils enables greater vision 0 Inhibited digestion body can focus on other needs 0 Relaxation of lungs amp bladder allows greater breathing amp takes pressure off of sphincter muscles 0 Increased heart rate greater blood ow Along with activating the SNS in the face of a stressor the hypothalamus activates the endocrine system It signals the pituitary gland to release ACTH which then causes the release of adrenaline amp cortisol ive ampMaladaptive Fears 3 determinant Os 0 Are the concerns realistic given the circumstances 0 Is the amount of fear proportionate to the threat 0 Does the concern persist in the absence of the threat The fearanxiety is diagnosed when the distress amp impairment is severe enough to decrease the quality of life for the sufferer if What Class example All we know is that Leonardo is extremely afraid of frogs amp won t go in his backyard What are some questions we can ask in order to see if he should be diagnosed Does he need to go in his backyard What is he afraid will happen Are there actually frogs in his yard How often does he think about it 0 IO 390 390 Anxiety amp Negative Reinforcement Avoidance is effective in decreasing anxiety only in the short term It actually increases anxiety in the long run When faced with a stressful situation ex public speaking people get anxious and they think that the situation will cause the anxiety to keep going up amp up until they can t handle it anymore So they avoid the situation amp their stress goes down because their stress goes down avoidant behavior is negatively reinforced o In reality we cannot sustain a high state of anxiety for a long period of time so we naturally calm down after a while However when people repeatedly avoid an anxietyinducing situation the brain cannot habituate to the natural ebb amp ow of fear Thus anxiety is maintained in the long run Exposure Therapy decreases anxiety by having clients encounter feared situations amp stimuli again and again until they re habituated to the fear PANIC Panic Attacks 0 Discrete period attacks peak with intense fear for about 10 minutes 0 Symptoms 0 Racing heartbeat Numbness Chills Sweating Trembling Breathing problems Chest pain Nausea Dizziness Feelings of unreality 0 Fear of going crazydying Cued v Uncued threat v no threat attacks can occur with serious danger ex facing a murderer or out of the blue at a picnic Panic Disorder PD Recurrent UNCUED panic attacks and worry about additional attacks amp what they mean Also includes a significant change in behavior ex not driving on the highway because of fear of a crash Agoraphobia Greek for quotfear of marketplace Agoraphobia is often associated with PD because 3050 of agoraphobics have PD They avoid situations in which escape is hard or help is not available Agoraphobia can come along with other anxiety disordsers too Prevalence amp Course Panic attacks have a lifetime prevalence rate of 28 whereas panic disorder has only 35 23x more common in women than in men Onset late teensmid 30s 0 The rst time people have a panic attack they tend to go to the ER because they think they re having a heart attack OOOOOOOOO Biological Explanations Genetics people who have relatives with PD are more likely to develop PD Neurotransmitters norepinephrine increases during an attack 0 Structure there are differences in the limbic system Biological Treatments Antidepressants tricyclics SSRIs SNRIs decrease the severity of attacks 0 SNRIs may seem harmful because they increase norepinephrine which is already high during an attack However SNRIs increase the overall amount owing through the body not just during an attack Therefore because norepinephrine is already being used the amount of it during an attack is decreased Benzodiazepines Xanax Valium are used as needed during an attack but can be addictive Anxiety Sensitivity AS 0 Fear of anxietyrelated physical sensations quotfear of fear Sufferers believe that these sensations have harmful somatic amp psychological consequences 0 Cognitive Model of PD 1 Pay close attention to body sensations ex metabolizing food 2 Catastrophic interpretations 3 Snowballing Behavioral Perspectives Safety behaviors actions to avoid or reduce anxietyprovoking situations These maintain fear by avoidance of disconfirming evidence ex if one was to speak to a crowd heshe would realize it s not so bad and false attribution of safety ex if one ignores speaking to a crowd heshe will attribute the decrease in fear to avoidance CognitiveBehavioral Therapy 0 Cognitive restructuring changing thoughts like fear Exposure of some kind causes habituation to anxiety amp provides evidence against maladaptive thoughts Interoceptive exposure exposure to the actual symptoms sufferers fear targets AS 0 Ex making the patient run up stairs to increase their heartbeat purposely making them hyperventilate o More effective than medication and even a medexposure combo SPECIFIC PHOBIAS Excessive or unreasonable fears cued by a speci c objectsituation Person must recognize that the fear is excessive amp unreasonable this requirement does not apply to children 0 Cause impairment amp distress quotnormativequot fear fear is natural strong in children amp decreases with age 0 Some phobias are evolutionary amp aided in our survival ex fear of poisonous animals 4 Phobia Categories 1 Animals in the US fear of snakes is the most common 2 Natural environment heights storms deep water etc 3 Situational planes elevators etc 4 BloodInjection Injury BII sight of bloodinjury andor being injected 0 Different from the other 3 because it causes a response opposite from a panic attack Instead of blood pressure increasing it slows o Difficult to treat this phobia because you can t train habituation if the patient passes out at the stimulus You need to train them with applied tension


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