Psych 105 Week 9 Notes
Psych 105 Week 9 Notes Psych 105
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annabelle Hutson on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105 at Washington State University taught by Johnathan Preszler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Psych 105 Week 9 Notes ProfessorJohnathan Preszler The writing assignment is due hard copy next Tuesday Writing assignment 2 grades posted at the end of the day Memory Continued The Serial Position Effect the tendency to remember things at the beginning and end of a list better than items in the middle Primary Effect tendency to recall things at the beginning of a list Encoding principle When conditions of retrieval are similar to conditions of encoding retrieval is more likely to be successful People are more likely to remember things if the conditions under which they recall them are similar to the conditions under which they learned them This is the same for the place where things are learned meaning things are better remembered in the location they were learned and mood Flashbulb Memories These are emotionally charged and more common events rather than necessarily more accurate They gradually decay over time This is a memory which recalls very specific details or images surrounding a significant rare or vivid event Forgetting Herrman Ebbinghaus first guy to study forgetting How quickly people forget materials depends on how well the material was encoded in the first place how meaningful the material was and how often it was rehearsed The Ebbinghaus forgetting curve rapid forgetting of some info relatively soon but quickly plateaus One of the most common reasons for forgetting is that the info never makes it to long term memory encoding failure it stays in short term Failure to remember what needs to be done in the future involves a perspective memory error Decay Theory 0 When a new memory is formed it creates a distinct structural or chemical change in the brain memory trace Memory traces fade away over time as a matter of normal brain processes 0 Must be 39refreshed39 for it to remain in memory 0 Challenges some research shows info can be remembered long after without much rehearsal Interference Theory 0 Memories interfering with memories 0 Forgetting not caused by mere passage of time 0 Caused by one memory competing with or replacing another memory 0 Retroactivelnterference o A new memory interferes with remembering old info 0 Proactive interference 0 An old memory interferes with remembering new info 0 Motivated forgetting occurs when an undesired memory is held back from awareness O Suppression conscious forgetting O Repression unconscious forgetting d ja vu Experiences 0 A brief but intense feeling of remembering a scene or an event that is actually being experienced for the first time o Incidents decrease with age 0 1 in 6 people experience about once a month Causes 0 When enough features in the current situation trigger the sensation of matching features already contained in a previous memory leading to disruption in source memory or source monitoring Source amnesia you have indirectly experienced the context before but have forgotten its exact source 0 Can be related to an encoding failure called Inattentional blindness you implicitly remembering something very recent 0 May occur when brain dysfunction triggered by temporal lobe disruptions Imperfect Memories 0 Memory details change over time 0 Without awareness details can be added subtracted exaggerated or downplayed o Misinformation effect 0 Postevent can distort eyewitness recollection of an original event 0 Source confusion 0 True source of memory can be forgotten O A memory can be attributed to the wrong source Eyewitness Testimony 0 Recall is not an exact replica of original events 0 Recall is a construction built and rebuilt from various sources 0 Often fit memories into existing beliefs or schemas Schemas Scripts and Memory Distortions o Schemas organize clusters of knowledge and info about particular topics Scripts are schemas that involve typical sequence of actions and behaviors at a common event False Memories are created for actions that would have been consistent with a script EX participants remembered things that weren39t there but would be typical of a professor39s office Factors contributing to False Memories 0 Misinformation Effect when erroneous info received after an event leads to distortion or false memories of the event 0 Source confusion forgetting or misremembering the true source of a memory 0 Schema distortion 0 Imagination inflation 0 False familiarity o Blending fact and fiction 0 Suggestion Search for Biological Basis of Memory 0 Lashley O Searched for the localized memory trace or engram O Concluded that memories are distributed or stored throughout the brain 0 Was incorrect 0 Thompson 0 Found memory for simple classically conditioned Reponses to be localized in the cerebellum 0 Conclusion simple memories may be localized but complex memories are distributed Role of Neurons in Long Term Memory 0 Memory trace involved changes in the functioning and structure of brain neurons 0 There are three neurons in the memory circuit that create everything for us Processing Memories in the brain 0 Amnesia sever memory loss 0 Retrograde Amnesia inability to remember past episodic events 0 Anterograde inability to create new memories related to hippocampus damage 50 first dates Alzheimer39s Disease 0 Progressive disease that destroys neurons and impairs memory 0 Early dementia mild memory impairment 0 Progresses to more pervasive memory loss and confusion 0 Internal brain damage has become widespread 0 Unable to communicate and sense of self and identity has vanishes 0 Finally complete incapacitation and death o It is said that keeping the brain sharp throughout life especially when younger allows it to fight off the disease later 0 Oral Health fewer teeth predicted dementia symptoms 0 Cognitive Reserve brain resistance expressing systems Two tips for Studying 0 When reading info it is extremely important to self test 0 Interleaving its important not to study for one thing in too big of a time so break up studying stuff Thinking Language and Intelligence 0 Cognition mental activities involved in acquiring retaining and using knowledge 0 Thinking Manipulation of mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions 0 Thinking often involves the manipulations of two forms of mental representation mental images and concepts o It takes our brain longer to do things that would actually take us longer in physical reality 0 Concepts mental groupings of similar objects events ideas or people 0 Concepts provide a kind of mental shorthand economizing cognitive efforts 0 Formal concept mental category formed by learning rules or properties all or nothing thinking 0 Natural concepts mental category formed by everyday experience has fuzzy boundaries and are not always sharply defined 0 Prototype best or most typical example of a particular concept used as comparison 0 Exemplars memories of individual instances of a concept stored up compare new object within a concept to provide exemplars Problem solving Definition thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available Problem solving results from concepts and mental images Strategies 0 Trial and Error trying a variety of solutions and eliminating those that don t work 0 Algorithms Using a specific rule procedure or method such as a mathematical formula that inevitably produces the correct solution 0 Heuristics following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions such as working backwards 0 Insight involves the sudden realization of how a problem can be solved 0 Intuition refers to coming to a conclusion of making a judgement without conscious awareness of the involved thought process 0 The intuitive hunch is new idea that integrates new info with existing knowledge stored in longterm memory 0 Functional Fixedness refers to the tendency to view objects functioning only in their usual or customary way often prevents seeing the full range of ways in which an object can be used Obstacles to Solving Problems Mental Set tendency to persist in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past May prevent seeing other possible solutions especially in areas where one is knowledgeable or well trained Decision Making Single Feature Model one goal getting the cheapest price Additive Model evaluating everything thinking about taste quality price type Elimination by aspects model eliminating the choices that do not have the desired qualities want a certain price want a specific kind Estimating the Probability of Events The Availability Heuristic how available is this event in my mind to be easily remembered probability of an event judge by how easily previous occurrences of that event can be remembered Representativeness heuristic refers to the likelihood of an event occurring based on profiling or how well the prototype is similar to the event Likely to be used when looking at characteristic