Criminology Oct/23 notes
Criminology Oct/23 notes CJA2225-01
Popular in Introduction to Criminology
Popular in Criminal Justice
verified elite notetaker
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peter Wright on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJA2225-01 at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Joshua Battin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminology in Criminal Justice at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania.
Reviews for Criminology Oct/23 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/23/15
Social Process theories Micro level theories Includes 0 Social learning theory 0 Social control theory 0 Social reactionlabeling theory Social process in the broad scope Theorizes that all people can become criminal this is the underline assumption 0 Views crime as a function of people s interactions with organizations and processes in society 0 What you arebecame started the day you were born Socialization The process of human development and enculturation Elements of socialization Family relations how well you get along 0 Peer groups what positive or negative pressure you receive 0 Social institutions churchschoolother in uence Effects that come from this Can reduce crime inducements with positive self image moral compass parental support etc Social learning Micro People learn to be aggressive from observation seeking goalsrewards Differential association leads to social learning Imitation copy cat behavior is an element of this but is not the next step it39s a tangent Techniques of neutralization is also an element of social learning but it is also more of a tangentan off shoot of the main problem that can go down a bit of a subject rabbit trail Edwin Sutherland Differential association theory 1939 0 At rst Sutherland was interested in white collar crime after all why would someone so well off and comfortable feel the need to commit such an act 0 This lack of strainanomie made him curious Symbolic interaction see the 9 propositions Maybe crime is just another learned behavior Sutherlands 9 Propositions 1 Crime is a learned behavior 2 Learning happens with interaction and communication Proximity matters If you are close to someone the strong their in uence will be 3 Most happens in family peers and intimate groups 4 The actual behavior itself does not teach crime but rather the interpretation of it by the observing individual This is a case of de nitions Is it being given a positive or negative de nition Motivation for the crime comes from an individual39s personal views Excess de nitions favorable to law violation will result in criminality quotthisquot various in frequency duration priority and intensity Mechanisms of learning by association incorporate in learning criminal behavior Criminality is an expression of needs and values but is different than non criminal ones Uquot 0 De nitions The values you place on speci c behaviors Intensity and proximity is critical to social learning theory ex how much does a person passing you in the hall compare to how your parents in uence you Symbolic interaction Placing meaning on something you observe you look at something and make a judgment happens every single day De nitions is what causes a person to commit one kind of crime like shoplifting but not another similar one like burglary Ex n prison being a murderer is ok but a sex offender is not favorable vs unfavorable de nitions People are able to select certain crimes through observation and de nitions Criticisms of differential association Fails to account for the origin of criminal de nitions Causes Tautological aka circular reasoning Ex Excess of favorable de nitions for crime causes crime why Because they have excess of de nitions Repeat And how do you de ne 39excess39 anyway These are the questions that are not accounted for Assumes these criminal acts are rational and systematic How do you even measure these 39favorable de nitions39 and the ratio of favorable vs unfavorable measurements You can t Mechanisms related directly to de nitions of learning How you decided whether or not to do something Experience you got yourself or learned from other people39s mistakes Sutherland did not talk about the learning process how we decide it39s a positivenegative de nition We may do this for social grati cation Ronald Akers 1966 0 Social learning theory related Retains idea of favorable and unfavorable de nitions Adds how behaviors are speci cally learned operate conditioning This is also known as the learning process Imitation Tarde39s law of limitation 1890 0 Level of imitation is in proportion to closest contact Inferior imitate superior New fashions always replace the old Superiors will be the trend setters the leaders of new movements For quiz Know the de nition for De nitions Differential association Differential reinforcement Imitation