Notes for oct 14-23
Notes for oct 14-23 HIST 1010 - 001
Popular in World History I
Popular in History
This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
The European Renaissance October 14 2015 I Italian Humanism Origins Rediscovery of classics Philology Vernacular i Petrarch ii Lorenzo Valla iii Boccaccio Unwgt This is an important time This happening in the 14th century during the crisis of the 14th century Art music inventions Leonardo Divinci Shakespeare etc Renaissance rebirth This is a rebirth of classics romans then Greeks In the middle ages these people were forgotten besides Aristotle and people were illiterate in the Early Middle Ages so this was lost Starting in the 14th century Italy Italy pushes ahead into renaissance due to the humanists A renaissance humanist is someone who studies the classics Our own word for humanity comes from this and in the 14th century Italian scholars got their hands on a few classics because they were in contact with the Arabs Much of these roman sources were in Latin and Italian intellectuals like Petrarch is overwhelmed and blown away by these classics in Latin and this is how Latin should be and people should write He saw how Romans wrote Latin as well superior to middle age Latin Petrarch is the father of Humanism He dubbed the name quotdark agesquot because of how inferior the Latin was before the renaissance He now wants to distance himself from anything medieval because it39s so inferior and he wants to revive how the romans wrote Latin He and his people start ransack forgotten libraries for forgotten texts He also went through monasteries where books were reproduced and haven39t been seen in hundreds of years By ransacking forgotten libraries they physically unearth what the west calls its classical heritage They rst read it and then study how they wrote becoming experts and they begin to write dictionaries of Latin they write textbooks of grammar for Latin and they teach themselves and others how to write Latin like the Romans They become so knowledgeable and this gives rise to philology which is historical linguistics or how a language changes over time They could basically date a book by how it was written they could date texts by the use of grammar and vocabulary used in Latin they even authenticate texts and know styles of individual authors Multiple copies were found of some books which was important because they were hand written by monks in monasteries this is important handwriting to handwriting because mistakes happen and wrong guesses happen so textual errors or corruption happens and later someone takes and copy errors and then make their own Through the centuries lots of errors happen in historical texts so they set out to x them Lorenzo Valla was the man of philology He lived in the 15th century and was extremely good at philology He proved a 4th century text was written in the 7th century to legitimate false claims to territory Vernacular means the language of the time They read Latin and speak precursors to English Italian etc As they work in the classics they begin to write more in the vernacular using what they learned through the classics to produce poetry and drama in their vernacular Lorenzo is famous for quotDecameraquot which is a landmark work in the vernacular a byproduct of humanism Shakespeare is huge in emergence of English vernacular literature Shakespeare tied into interest in vernacular of the time which is a byproduct of the interest in Latin classics Main Points Renaissance is a rebirth of the Greek and Roman Classics ltaly pushes ahead in the renaissance leaving the rest of Europe behind because of humanism which are people who study the classics Petrarch a humanist gets classics from the Arabs falls in love with the Latin and wants to revive it in its original form His goal was to distance from anything medieval He and his helpers spent years unearthing and studying classics to the point where they became philologists which are people who study language changes over time They could take a book and date it by its grammar Multiple copies were found of some books which showed errors and their goals were to x the errors to bring back its original form Lorenzo Valla was the main man in philology he was incredible at it and is famous for quotDecarmaquot a book written in vernacular or the language of the time Shakespeare is a big part of English vernacular literature ll Humanist Philosophy A Revival of Plato B quotCult of Manquot i Marsilio Ficino ii Cosimo de Medici iii Pico della Mirandola iv Michelangelo v Sistine Chapel By the 15th century humanism broadens in meaning to also become more philosophical the content became important especially at this time Plato Renaissance is the age of Plato he is highly embraced and loved at this time By the 15th century Greek classics were on top Marsilio Ficino single handedly rediscovers Plato and he was a single freelance guy He survived nancially because of wealthy families like Cosimo de Medici Medici family was a banking family in Florence most important area and Cosimo set up Marsilio in his own library which becomes the Platonic Academy He is bankrolling Ficino and others to discover Plato so their name would be associated with Plato and he collected Platonic manuscripts Owning your own classical manuscripts at this time was a HUGE status symbol conspicuous consumption The quotCult of Manquot is a cult of humanity Those inspired by Plato Ficino things humans are special unlike any other creatures of God and as a Platonist there is this miserable universe and there is a separate ideal universe which is truly reality and the thing that links the two is human intellect Pico della Mirandola also believed in human beings dignity being special God gave humans the ability to lower to scum or rise to humans through dignity we can communicate one on one of god There is a celebration of humankind Michelangelo is a good example because the Sistine chapel most famous is the depiction of the creation of Adam where he and God touch ngers Humanism becomes a celebration of humankind David by Michelangelo is a signi cant achievement because he is sculpted as a perfect man which celebrates humankind He even studied cadavers to understand human body more dead people Main Points Humanism broadens towards philosophy mainly Plato Renaissance is the age of Plato who is single handedly rediscovered by Marsilio Ficino who was hired by a wealthy man named Cosimo de Medici who owned an enormous Platonic collection quotCult of Manquot is a cult of humanity that sees humans as special to God above other creatures for our intellect connect our miserable world to an ideal form Humans are special to God because of our dignity which leads to celebration of humankind humanism aka Michelangelo39s Sistine Chapel and David lll Northern Humanism A Polyglot Bible B Erasmus i Ximenes de Cisneros ii Philosophy of Christ Italy was alone in renaissance for a while until the North catches up The major likeness of Italian renaissance is they included a 3rd classical language which was Hebrew They are more interested in Christian sources early Christian history which also includes the Bible They realize the bible itself needed cleaning up and it also had textual errors due to being rewritten by hand Vulgate is a Latin translation of the Bible and is the church39s of cial Bible They needed to clean it up to have an accurate version This took decades to complete and was by Spanish humanists and headed by Ximenes de Cisneros He headed a team of people to expunge errors in Vulgate Polyglot Bible is in many languages They have a column of Vulgate in Latin and next to it it39s in its own original language This shows side by side how much it has changed in time They wanted it to be in its most accurate version to recharge Christianity in the age of Romans they wanted a religious renaissance The grand man of northern humanist was a Dutch intellectual known as Erasmus He was all about doing something with Christianity and revitalizing it it39s become stale and ritualistic He argued that what we need to do is get back to philosophy of Christ and live by message of Christ which got lost in Middle Ages Main Points North nally catches up and starts their renaissance and adds Hebrew into the classics and they were more interested in Christian sources including the Bible They set out to x the Bible to its original form The Vulgate Latin Bible is the of cial Bible of the church Ximenes de Cisneros headed the Spanish humanists in xing the Vulgate Polyglot Bible has many languages This was a Christian renaissance The main man of northern humanism is Erasmus who wanted to bring back the lost philosophy of Christ European Reformations l l Church Before Luther A Clergy B Religion of the people C Indulgence controversy i Avignon Papacy ii Great Schism iii Absenteeism lV Pluralism v Purgatory vi Tetzel vii Ninty vethesis viii Wittenburg There are many problems in the church on all levels not just papal level Many people in Europe were quotunchurchedquot like remote villages there weren39t churches to go to in remote places and they didn39t have access to the sacrament On the eve of the reformation many people without church access had a morphed view of pagan and Christian religion and superstition Some pagan beliefs were allowed to continue in hope what they would zzle out because they church didn39t want to alienate people into becoming Christian In the medieval church there were certain days in the calendar set aside on the calendar saints day people would try not to work and keep these days holy To peasants their beliefs are all blended so on these special days if one were to gather herbs and make medicines on this day they may have better powers to heal this shows magical pagan traditions Take away many argue Europe especially rural areas was still very pagan This was an issue reformers attempt to address The indulgence controversy prompts Luther and his following Protestants this has to do with the concept of purgatory or where the soul would go after death and before heaven where the soul was cleansed and this is a very powerful concept and very vivid Purgatory wasn t a pleasant place the soul spent time in a painful puri cation process before heaven As it evolved it gave rise to an indulgence this is a remission or pardon for some time spent in purgatory An indulgence was recognition of good works in one s lifetime and the church counseled people to live good lives and do acts of good work like charity or travelling to a shrine of a saint to pray In return for good works the church could grant an indulgence this is supposed to be a very holy experience On the eve of reformation it becomes very controversial because in this period of the worst popes ever Leo X is in right now and inherited debt so they made an indulgence campaign in the form of contribution to the church to help debt which is an abuse of these in the church People are selling indulgences to ordinary Christians Tetzel is notorious in the reformation because he is in Germany literally selling indulgences on street corners and people are buying them for themselves and deceased family there is no counseling just selling This prompts Martin Luther to raise issues publically and he produced the ninety ve thesis which is 95 points he wants to make about indulgent selling and why it39s wrong and he nailed it to the church door He is trying to provoke an intellectual issue they were taken down and translated from Latin to German and distributed around Main Points The church has issues on all levels Many places didn39t have access to the church so their beliefs included those of the pagans superstitions During the reformation some pagan beliefs were allowed to remain in hopes they39d zzle out In medieval church days in the calendar were set aside as Saint Day39s to not work and stay holy Reformers wanted to x the paganism Indulgences prompt Luther and his following Protestants this leads to the creation of the ninety ve thesis all because of the issue of purgatory or where the soul is painfully cleansed between heaven and hell after death Instead ofjust being a good Christian and being saved that way the church started selling indulgences which as a ticket past purgatory into heaven Problem only rich people could buy them people stopped going to church and also stopped caring about being that good Christian and there was no spiritual counseling This is when Luther nails the ninety ve thesis to the church door to provoke an intellectual issue but it was taken don translated and spread H Luther A Early life and spiritual crisis B Theology 1 Justi cation by faith 2 Scripture 3 Sacraments i Words to know ii Baptism iii Communion iv Transubstantiation v consubstantiation Martin Luther is German and born into a German family that was upwardly mobile Father was a peasant and worked in a mine and worked up socially He put a lot of investment into Luther39s education and he wanted his son to become a lawyer and was sent to a university After vacation and back to campus he encountered a life altering experience where he was struck by lightning and prayed to Saint Anne that if he lives he will devote his life to the church He leaves the university and goes to a monastery and had a monk order of Augustinian This was a serious order un plagued by problems He goes in as a young man to become and train as a priest and this is where he has a spiritual crisis and this is during protestant reformation His crisis was that his upper people saw his worth but no matter how much reading he did and how much he did spiritually he still doubted his worth of going to heaven because he had sinned All the good works the church put out to become good he did everything but still didn t believe it was enough The crisis only got bigger and bigger he was just ordained a priest and went to celebrate the mass communion for the rst time and this is a very huge deal The traditional medieval belief was transubstation or the idea that the ordained priest takes the bread and wine in one communion and makes it into the body and blood of Christ and this is enormous Luther had so much anxiety over this because he39s sinner He read all that he could to prepare and this heightened the crisis we know how he felt because he wrote it down At the alter he chokes and couldn39t go through with it right away Years ago he was subject of psycho history based on psychoanalysis Luther was psychoanalyzed and what was thought is he saw his dad feels he39s very disappointed because he isn39t an attorney and he transferred his feeling to inadequacy from biological father to spiritual father which causes anxiety and makes him choke before following through This is only an interpretation but important He is so overwhelmed and anxious because he s trying to live up to perfection but this is impossible to humans What happens is Luther s superiors like him a lot because of his brilliance so they have him go to graduate school to study theology and he goes to university of Whitenburg He serves as a parish priest as well and that is where the reformation happens As he studies and lectures he reads the letters of Paul who inspires his theological reformation the just must live by faith This becomes basis of a theological revolution and for this Luther sees it as Justi cation by faith Salvation can39t be earned it s a matter of believing because salvation is a gift by God for believers The entire apparatus of indulgences in the church is unhinged by this simple concept All people have to do is believe to be saved and purgatory is wrong this undermines Christian morality So why be good if it doesn39t earn salvation If you knew the anxiety of trying to be saved the relieving of this makes you a better Christian This is a force that makes one better so people should live better lives as a result of grace In his theological revolution there is only scripture not the bible and history to Luther of it isn39t in scripture it39s nothing He drops the 7 sacraments down to 2 communion and baptism He retains these two because they39re the only two in the bible Next he reinterprets communion he still believes in a miracle called consubstantiation which is presence of Christ in communion It39s not the priest that causes it it39s the faith of the individual Main Points Martin Luther is German who was born into an upwardly mobile family father worked in mines and put a lot into Luther39s education He went to school to be a lawyer but was struck by lightning prayed to a Saint Anne and then devoted his life to the church He went to a missionary to become a monk As a young man he began training as a priest and this is when his spiritual crisis began during the protestant reformation His crisis was that even though his peers and higher ups thought he was amazing and good enough he didn t think so for he had sinned and doesn39t deserve heaven The crisis got worse when he went to communion to get ordained a priest and he choked because of anxiety but got through it Historians think he saw his father which made him choke for he related his disappointment of his own father to that of God Luther tries to live up to perfection which is humanly impossible He starts studying theology at the University of Whitenburg and serves as parish priest this is where the reformation happens He starts reading letters by Paul that people must just live by faith so salvation is a gift from God which changes Luther39s life and invalidates indulgences and proves purgatory is wrong He believes in the word of scripture and holds onto two of the 7 sacraments communion and baptism only two in bible Still believes in miracle called consubstantiation which is the presence of Christ at communion lll Spread of Protestantism A Printing press B Northern Humanism C Politics 1 Election of Charles V 2 Habsburg Valois Wars 3 Ottoman Turks i Words to know ii Gutenberg iii Suleiman the Magni cent iv Frederick Elector of Saxony In 1517 he gets so upset that some pensioners aren39t coming to church because they have indulgences as an insurance policy This is when Luther says something is wrong and nails up the 95 thesis This is a conservative document they39re 95 points why indulgence selling is wrong The printing press by Yohan Gutenberg is what allows the 95 thesis to spread like crazy This revolutionizes things so his ideas got out fast and spread wide which ensures his ideas will become a revolution and have a large impact Christian and northern humanism and Erasmus have long been criticizing the church not the doctrine just the clergy and people39s daily lives through reform which created an atmosphere of criticism for Luther to build on Charles V of Habsburg was the holy roman emperor which at this time was todays Germany which was this empire and this emperor was elected consisting of 300 little principalities and was loosely held together IMPORTANT Charles V election helped Luther Germany doesn39t exist til 1871 so there was a loose conglomeration of states known as the holy roman empire and wasn39t just Germans there were others this was a collection of about 300 separate principalities that could be really big like Saxon and others very small but they39re all ruled by a local prince but loosely controlling it all was the holy roman emperor which was elected for life and it just so happens that by early 16th hundreds its customary to elect a Habsburg local ruling family of Austria and others In 1517 the church wanted to talk to Luther but wanted to be heard on German soil and not roman soil because the last guy was burned at the stake Pope Leo X at the time went to Frederick of Saxon which was Luther39s prince and protector and the pope doesn39t try to ght to get Luther because he doesn39t want to see Charles V become emperor because the Habsburgs control a ton of Europe including parts of Italy and Spain so Pope Leo and others don39t want him to have control of basically all of Europe because it39s too much power for one person or one family and maybe even spread the power more becoming a superpower which is threatening balance of power The Pope wants to block the election of Charles V which 7 of the 300 princes are electors and one of them is Frederick of Saxony and the Pope wants Frederick to vote against Charles which is why the Pope didn39t threaten Frederick to get Luther in fear that payback would be worse which goes on for two years because Charles Grandfather held on that long In these two years much was spread of Luther39s ideas because of the printing press Everyone votes for Charles V because there is no better alternative The Pope didn39t do anything because of this political issue and now it39s too late Ironically when Charles becomes emperor he was a catholic who believed it was his mission to turn back Protestantism until the end of his reign because he was busy ghting useless wars that go on for ages between his family and the French ruling family the Valois The fact that he has to deal with the Ottoman Turks is also an issue they39re a Muslim empire expanding rapidly that controls north Africa turkey middle east and much of eastern Europe like Greece Serbia Bosnia Bulgaria and much of hungry etc and are at the edge of Vienna which is where the Habsburg family is from In 1529 the Ottomans and laying siege to city of Vienna which would open to Danube basin but they were nally repelled This Muslim threat is more immediate and more pressing for Charles V and distracts him from the issue of Protestantism Sultan is Suleiman the Magni cent and rules from Istanbul Constantinople and he is an incredible commander far superior to any European monarch He will be a major player in history of this time Main Points The printing press by Yohan Gutenberg is the reason why Luther39s ninety ve thesis was able to circulate so far so fast People have long criticized the church so it had an air of criticism that furthered Luther s ideas reforms Charles V of Habsburg is the Holy Roman Emperor which consisted of 300 principalities loosely held together His election for office actually helped Luther in that Pope Leo who was after Luther didn39t want Charles V in office but his only chance to stop that is by the in uence of one of the 7 electors who was Frederick of Saxon Luther is in his territory and starting a battle with him for Luther would lessen his chances of Charles not being in of ce Charles V basically ruled all of Europe which is too much power for one person His goal was to turn back Protestantism but he was distracted by wars with the French Valois family and he also had to deal with the Ottoman Empire creeping in on his own The Ottoman Sultan is Suleiman the Magni cent who was an incredible leader far superior to anyone in Europe Varieties of Protestantism l Anabaptist A Community of saints B Antiinfant baptism C Biblical literalism ll Zwingli i Zunch ii Marburg iii Consubstantiation Luther s theology is Lutheranism which is the early form of Protestantism Early it became clear that Protestantism isn39t going to by one church it will be a variety The rst group to splinter from Luther is the Anabaptist which is a catch all term they were a series of independent congregations that have certain things in common loosely organized These congregations are de ned 1 They regarded themselves as a community of saints which means they believe that you39re a member of their church not because your born into it not because you live in an Anabaptist territory chosen by the prince but you39re an Anabaptist because the individual chose to be such and to be a full member you have to stand before the congregation and say that you have been spiritually regenerated and passed through an inner mystical regeneration in your own spiritual self and have been born again aka a community of saints Only then did they baptize because they opposed infant Baptist aka Anabaptism baptize again The problem with Anabaptist how can a baby have this reawakening It can so they have to be an adult 2 They are biblical literalists interpretation of bibles Scripture should be symbolic in Catholics Luther thought it should be taken face value and everyone should read it or any man and woman should be able to interpret scripture which changes later the Anabaptist was biblical literalists to the point of extreme biblical literalists and tried to live according to the letter of the bible and often practiced communal living because they believed in the primitive form of communism and they were also paci sts because they were instructed not to kill which makes them atypical in 16th century society and these people seem bizarre and nobody really liked the Anabaptist they39re so unpopular they get ran out of German territory and refuge in Netherlands who were more accepting and they begin to disappear as Anabaptist but they are signi cant for giving rise to other churches like Mennonites and most importantly the Baptist churches So 152039s there was a different kind of protestant and a different model of the community Zwingli had a catholic church in Zurich and is a bit skeptical of the church and has read of humanism He read Luther39s 95 thesis and he begins to convert to Protestantism and he converts his church and the city to Protestantism The major difference between he and Luther is the sacrament s of communion he kept 2 of the 5 and there was still a miracle that happens through faith if a believer known of consubstantiation and Christ coexisted with bread and wine but for Zwingli it is symbolic there is no miracle and Christ is spiritually not physically present Many Protestants adopted the symbolic interpretation of communion and he and Luther actually got into it about the differences and the church was panicking so they wanted to put the two in a room to hash out in Marburg to hopefully come to a common ground This failed miserably The emerge each resolute in their own interpretations which makes it extremely clear that there will not be just one church Ultimately the most important theologian other than Luther is John Calvin who will convert more to Protestantism than Luther in his time Main Points Luther39s theology is Lutheranism which is early Protestantism which early on in history it was clear that the protestant church would not be of one church it would be many The rst group to splinter off are Anabaptists who are a series of congregations that see themselves as a community of saints who choose this life as adults as well as being biblical literalists They were very unpopular and were ran out of German territory in the Netherlands where they splintered into other branches such as Mennonites and most importantly the Baptist Church Zwingli had a catholic church in Zurich but he followed Protestantism and converted his city to Protestantism the only difference is in the communion where he believes consubstantiation where god is present spiritually not physically Zwingli and Luther about the communion couldn39t agree so they were put together in Marburg to hash it out and nd a common ground but this failed miserably Most important is John Calvin who converted more to Protestant than anyone else lV Calvinism A Early Life of Calvin B Theology 1 Majesty of God 2 Predestination C Protestant work ethic i Geneva ii The Elect Very important Calvin is French so appeals to the French people his trajectory was different then Luther law to priesthood Calvin starts by studying for the priesthood or scholastic theology and decides to study law where he encounters humanism where he gets connected to northern humanism where they are critical of the church and this produces his own brand of protestant theology Calvin challenges the truth two major concepts of his theology is 1 The majesty of God which is the idea that he39s all powerful in all ways which is what all Christians believe and this is protestant because he emphasizes it has front and center and this is to the extent that it39s predestined who will be saved and who won t which is predestination 2 Predestination which is God knowing and choosing who will be saved and who won t long in advance this is a gift from god and there is nothing you can do to change your eternal track 2 paths to salvation 1cathoiic salvation is a 2 way street god said you need to lead a good life to go to heaven but the human has to choose 2 Calvin believes it39s all about god and his choosing Problem if it39s predestined why bother to be faithful Calvin said you will never know if you39re among the elect or not the chosen so it is your duty to be as good a human being as possible because god deserves it It39s your duty of a Christian to do it regardless but second if you39re leading a good life you may take those as signs that you39re among the elect Hope and a degree of assurance is that makes Calvinism appealing so being good is a sign of being part of the elect so in many places all over Europe because there isn39t just hope there is security in this concept Calvin also believed in hard work which was important in salvation Many Calvinist communities were energetically hard workers which was very prominent and well known for their culture of hard work For Calvin this work ethic was a way to glorify god Main Points Calvin is French and started out by studying priesthood and then decided to study law opposite of Luther where he encounters northern humanism thus producing his own brand of Protestant theology To major concepts of his theology The majesty of God and paths to salvation 2 Calvin believes in predestination you39ve already been chosen to or no to go to heaven and everything is chosen by God beforehand Problem why be faithful if it39s already set in stone Answer If you39re among the elect you can take signs as hope through being a good Christian that you39re a chosen one There is a security in his concept Calvin believed in hard work which Calvinist39s are famous for Other Reformations l English Reformation Henry VII and the divorce Edward VI and protestant reforms Mary Tudor and Catholicism Elizabeth39s Settlement i Catherine of Aragon ii Anne Boleyn iii Thomas Cromwell Unwgt W Thomas Cranmer v Second Book of Common Prayer vi Martyrs vii Anglican Church The English reformation is carried out by the government and not for religious reasons until later The origins of the English reformation lines the reign of henry Vlll to divorce his wife Henry VIII is married to Catherine a Spanish princess who in which the marriage secured a relationship between the English and Spanish She had one child survive named Mary and now Henry is feeling desperate because he doesn39t have a male heir to the throne He decided that there is something wrong with this marriage so god is punishing him by not giving him an heir He thinks this marriage is wrong in the eyes of god because she was previously married to her older brother Arthur The families just moved her to son 2 They asked the papacy for permission to do such He is still convinced it is wrong and he39s being punished He decides to dump Catherine and secure a second marriage with someone to have a son and Anne Boleyn is who he had already chosen and he had fallen desperately in love First he has to get rid of Catherine The Pope said no to the divorce Catherine didn39t want the divorce at all because she is a devout catholic she is very resistant This is when he switches to plan B which is to forget the divorce in Rome by the Pope instead he wanted to split from the church in Rome and make his on the Church of England so he can divorce as he pleases This is very political he didn39t want the pope telling him what to do and try to control his England He could control this new church himself or have an institution control it such as the parliament which are the reps of the people His right hand man Thomas Cromwell is the mastermind behind a lot of this and he works with parliament to engineer the break with room to have parliament do it He get them to break with Rome and he does it through parliament instead of Henry because it looks like it39s the will of the people wanting this change Parliament splits the throne He ends his marriage and marries Anne The church under Henry doesn39t do much at all Henry personally was very devout to the Catholic Church he just didn39t want to be controlled by a church He ends up having 6 wives in all Anne gives birth to a baby girl and that s when he gets rid of her He dumps Anne by having her executed by incest witchery and adultery The third wife gives him a boy named Edward VI who becomes king as a boy when Henry dies This is a very important reign There are people in England like Thomas Cranmer who is the high person in the English church Canterbury Cranmer use the opportunity of Edward being so young to change the church to be very protestant Edward dies prematurely and he doesn39t have an heir so goes to his halfsister Mary of Catherine of Aragon Mary is a devout catholic She feels like she is duty bound to restore the catholic church and papal control in England so she tries to reverse everything ad has parliament repeal the reformation that separates them from Rome The problem is that reversing is not doable at this point Too many people loved the changes and were very protestant There are a lot of clergy in Church of England who are very committed to Protestantism and a lot of them had married which protestant clergy couldn39t do and clergy who refused to comply Mary has them executed this makes them martyrs Thomas Cranmer was one of these and the problem with this is it39s a show of martyring or dying for your faith so people were even stronger in the protestant faith Mary ended up making England more Protestant She had no heir to the throne He halfsister comes to the throne which is Elizabeth I by Anne Boleyn She may have been England greatest monarch she treated hard times fairly Mary didn t act rationally and didn39t act quickly enough and drove her advisors crazy because she took so long to make decisions Elizabeth39s rst decision was to choose Mary s religious path or keep her father39s way and she wanted to choose how her dad went She loved the English church how her dad had it and its beauty and liturgy Liturgy the collection of prayers and responsive readings that because part of the church She loved how the Catholic Church was and the Protestants were taking and getting rid of much of the beauty She would have gone back to that but it39s too late so she does a compromise A church whose doctrines and ideas are protestant but looked on the exterior very catholic She had the imagery priests and a hierarchy of bishops This structure is episcopal which refers to the bishops and when the church isn39t structured like this and is more Calvinist it39s called Presbyterian These refer to the type of structure in the church By 1563 there was an Elizabethan settlement This was in the second Book of Common Prayer which is the liturgy for the Church of England written by Thomas Cranmer before being executed which helps Elizabeth greatly Main Points English reformation started political then turned religious all because Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon she couldn39t have a baby boy to be heir so he feels punished by God so he started his own church the Anglican church or Church of England which was basically catholic minus being controlled by a papacy He did this splitting through the parliament to make it seem like it is the people s choice and the mastermind was his right hand man Thomas Cromwell He divorced Catherine and married Anne Boleyn and had a baby girl so he divorces her and executes her and marries the third of six wives who gives him a boy Edward VI who takes reign when Henry died but he is too young to rule so Thomas Cranmer who is high up in the Anglican Church uses this opportunity to turn the church Protestant Edward dies to his halfsister Mary Catherine39s daughter takes reign and sucks at it and can39t make decisions to save her life and her goal was to turn the church back to Catholicism which fails so she kills the leaders of it including Cranmer who wouldn39t convert so this made them seem like martyrs those who die for their faith and made the Protestantism even stronger than before She had no heir so halfsister Elizabeth I reigns and people love her because she cares and makes quick smart decisions Elizabeth compromises and makes the church look catholic but it uses protestant ideals based off of Cranmer s writings in the Book of Common Prayer ll Catholic Reformation Northern Humanism New monastic order Papal Reform Council of Trent i Jesuits ii Loyola iii Paul lll iv Catechism Unwgt At the same time this is taking place England there is a catholic reformation that actually started before Martin Luther and started in Northern Humanism The second thing was a creation of new monastic orders of monks and nuns There is a new model now for monastic life There are new monastic orders to live among laypeople not separately and they needed to get out and work with the people and they target speci c elements in population like an order to serve the poor and work with women The most important of these orders is the Jesuits Jesuits were founded by a Spanish nobleman by the name of Loyola JesuitsSociety ofJesus Loyola as a warrior who as in battle severely injured and was laid up from months convalescing and he spends his time reading and started with tales of chivalry etc then turns to literature of lives of saints This changes his life By the time he is recovered he decided he was going to devote his life to the church and Virgin Mary He has 6 plus likeminded people and they start the Jesuits The reform pope who recognized them was Pope Paul lll Loyola wanted them to be different from other monastic peoples They were recruited differently by being extremely screened physically and intellectually very smart and strong Once in the training and preparation and ordeal they are put to intellectually is vigorous they were emotionally trained they were to be the best and the brightest and if you made it to be a Jesuit you were superbly educated and tough in all ways historians use military reference Primary missions 1 Service priests to ordinary men and women and get to parts of Europe where people don39t have access to church and stay there Ultimately they become missionaries and even go to china and Americas and Canada 2 Teachers They got out and served as teachers many became faculty in universities and also ordinary teachers like in grammar school A byproduct of reformations is education Massive illiteracy from middle ages was curbed by Protestants and Catholics who taught people to read and write to teach people about religion to allow them to read the bible which is catechism Schools start springing up all over and Jesuits become teachers here An aspect of the reform is papal reform and Paul III is important he appoints a committee to investigate problems of the Catholic Church and report it back Paul calls the council of Trent which was a bold move they identify the problems and propose corrections such as improvements in priests and clergy The other thing the council did was Paul lll said take church doctrine and compare it to Luther and Calvin point by point and decide if there is room for change and correction They decided Luther and Calvin were wrong and they kept their old ways but they did take other steps such as suggesting reforms implemented gradually but are enormous such as an effort from Catholic Church to make Catholicism more meaningful to the individual ordinary man and women which partly they have to be educated the other is reforms Example the sacraments need to be moving and spiritual The sacrament of confession in the middle ages it wasn t private so they would do this in front of the public and people were editing their confessions and also it happened in a written group way so through Trent the catholic church adopts for everyone the private confession aka the confessional booth with a screen between the individual and pope this is more spiritually heightened and make a repented sinner The net effect Catholic Church leaves the 16th century regaining lost ground and many came back to the Catholic Church and the church feels different focuses on individual and is triumphant Main Points There is a catholic reformation happening in Norther Humanism during the English reformation They wanted to create a new monastic order of nuns and monks in which they live among the people and help serve the people The most important are the Jesuits who are chosen extremely carefully based on physical and intellectual properties and then trained extensively They are then used almost as missionaries sometimes like when they are sent out into the very rural areas to stay because those people have no access to church They had 2 primary missions service priests and go to the rural areas and be teachers The Jesuits were founded by Loyola who read about the saints which changed his life as he was bedridden due to a war injury The Pope who is known for reforming is Paul lll Schools started springing up and Jesuits were used as teachers because they had extensive knowledge As a part of reforms Pope Paul lll calls on the Council of Trent to nd and report the church39s problems to him to x them Effect they regain lost ground and the Catholic Church is and feels different very triumphant in focusing on the individual and making it a better church for the people
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