POSI 2310 Ch 13
POSI 2310 Ch 13 2310
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2310 at Texas State University taught by Joshua Quinn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Principles of American Government in Political Science at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
POSI 2310 Ch 13 The Federal Bureaucracy Administering the Government 0 Groups of agencies that carry out policy 0 Hierarchal authority know chain of command 0 Job specialization specific tasks 0 Formulized rules all decisions made from these I Origin and Structure of the Federal Bureaucracy a Initially small 3000 employees in 1800 b Federal government s role confined not much responsibility i Defense ii Foreign affairs iii Currency iv Interstate commerce v Delivery of mail c Dramatic growth in latter part of 1800s in response to economic growth i Department of Agriculture ii Department of Commerce and Labor d Biggest growth spurt in the 1930s in response to the Great Depression i SEC SSA FDIC TVA ii Took on more responsibility and created more branches of government e Types of federal agencies i Cabinet departments 1 Fifteen department heads State Defense Justice etc 2 All have Secretary except Justice which is Attorney General ii Independent agencies 1 Narrower area of responsibility CIA NASA etc 2 Heads appointed by president 3 Apart from Cabinet because hard to categorize iii Regulatory agencies 1 SEC EPA etc 2 Need for ongoing regulation economic activities 3 Help develop lawlike regulations 4 Judge if groups are abiding by their regulations iv Government corporations 1 USPS FDIC Amtrak etc 2 Charge for their services receive federal funds 3 Governed by a board of directors v Presidential commissions 1 Permanent commissions Civil Rights Fine Arts a Provide special advice for the president b Ongoing need 2 Temporary Bush s Commission to Strengthen Social Security f Federal employment i 250000 civilian employees ii Most hired by merit criteria 1 Specialized skills or high test scores iii Patronage system designed to improve link between administration and the people 1 Mild to low level positions 2 Abuses spoils system a Whoever won in office would use high positions to bribe favors corruption iv Merit system 1 Neutral competence 2 Neutral loyalty hire based on competence 3 Problem creates career bureaucrats bias from partisan loyalty The Budgetary Process a Year and a half long begins with presidential guidelines i Where to concentrate b Agencies develop detailed budget president finalizes with OMB Office of Management amp Budget c Congress alters through budget and appropriations committees full House and Senate vote i 23 not discretionary 13 discretionary d President signs or vetoes Policy and Power in the Bureaucracy a Administrative agencies chief task policy implementation i Wide discretion in some areas 1 Given objectives but no specifics on how to do it ii Rulemaking 1 How laws turn into daily practice 2 Majority from bureaucrats iii Originating policy ideas iv Stick to rules even if breaking the rules would have a better outcome b The agency point of view i Groupthink when around people that think the same as you you tend to think that s the way the world works ii Comes naturally to highranking civil servants 1 80 of heads rise through agency iii Cemented by professionalism 1 Creates agenda and loyalty iv Distorts government priorities v Agency must seek support wherever it can find it 1 President Congress political parties a President has broad ideas parties are not extensive support 2 Agencies are forced to play politics c Sources of bureaucratic power i Expertise ii Clientele groups 1 Reciprocal relationship 2 People they serve that benefit from agency iii Friends in high places 1 Agency goals may conflict with president or Congress but they still need agency expertise and competency d Educational backgrounds of bureaucrats i Germany 1 29 social science humanities business other 2 8 natural science engineering 3 63 law ii Great Britain 1 71 social science humanities business other 2 26 natural science engineering 3 3 law iii United States 1 50 social science humanities business other 2 32 natural science engineering 3 18 law IV Democracy and Bureaucratic Accountability a Accountability through the presidency i Reorganization 1 Eliminating wasteful spending putting the customer first reducing red tape ii Presidential appointments iii OMB budgets regulations and legislative procedures b Accountability through Congress i The quotpower of the purse control the money ii Oversight function increased use of GAO 1 Seeing if policy implementation matches legislative function iii Ways to constrain the bureaucracy before it acts 1 Drafting laws with specific instructions for implementation 2 Sunset provisions a Must end at predetermined date c Accountability through the courts i An injured party can bring suit against an agency d Accountability within the bureaucracy itself i Senior Executive Services SES 1 Compromise between experts and the president decide proper outcome of policy ii Administrative lawjudges 1 Work in agency less formal specialize in policy area iii Whistleblowing 1 Reporting corruption or waste within the government iv Demographic representativeness
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