MU 2313 Ch 12
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2313 at Texas State University taught by Thomas Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Fine Arts in Music at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
MU 2313 Ch 12 The Baroque Age The CounterReformation amp Catholic Reformation a Reactions to Protestantism amp internal reform within the Roman Catholic Church b Pope Paul III i Inquisition ii Board of Censors iii Index of Forbidden Books v Society of Jesus Jesuits c Council of Trent 154563 d Protestants individual conscience and the bible first e Catholics conscience and scripture must be interpreted by the church The Scientific Revolution a Francis Bacon i Induction specific gt general observations b Galileo Galilei astronomerphysicist i First astronomical telescope ii Law of accelerating bodies iii Principle of the pendulum c Johannes Kepler i On the Motion of Mars 1 Planetary motion devotes his life to the heliocentric model d Rene Descartes i Deduction general gt specific observations 1 He plays baseball gt he plays shortstop ii quotI think therefore I am 1 Questioning asserts our existence establishes our presence iii Mathematical approach to science e Isaac Newton i Particles attract other particles gravity ii How science not why religion the universe operates Concepts a Academicism i Academie Francaise 1653 ii Art too important to be left in hands of artists government institutions need to watch over it b Scientific rationalism i Knowledge must be tested amp confirmed using objective methods c Social contract i The way humans interact with each other H Hobbes 1 Driven by fear of death quest for power mankind is essentially evil 2 Establishes absolute monarch then people won t lust after power iii Locke 1 Democracy mankind is essentially good d Absolutism i Divine right of monarchs 1 Louis XIV quotOne God one king one faith 2 God placed me on the throne 3 France strictly Roman Catholic ii Roman Caesars iii England switches based on the religion of the ruler 1 Henry VIII Anglican Mary of Scots Catholic Bloody Mary Protestant IV Baroque Music a 16001750 b Describes large irregularly shaped pearl i Baroque originally applies to the sand that gets stuck in an oyster and becomes a pearl c Written for specific instruments d Sudden contrasts in tone color or volume e Majorminor tonality firmly established f More emphasis on purely instrumental music g Birth of opera Johann Sebastian Bach V a 16851750 b Leading composer of Baroque age but known only for instrumental virtuosity at the time i 200 cantatas vocal works combine choir and small orchestra ii Mass in B minor iii 3 settings of the Passion iv 600 organ pieces based on chorale tunes v Hundreds of harpsichord amp organ works c Grew up in a musical family d At age 10 his father dies supports himself by singing in the church choir e His voice changes becomes a concert performer f Writes music for church g Has 4 children with his first wife she dies then has 13 children with his second wife only 5 lived to adulthood h Ability to improvise a feud i Equal temperament same degree of separation between notes everything in tune i Allowed composers to work with more keys major and minor tonality ii Bach wrote pieces that featured this V Antonio Vivaldi a 16781741 b Master of the concerto i 450 of them c 23 sinfonias predecessor to symphony 75 sonatas 49 operas Cantatas motets and oratorios vocal works Most famous work Four Seasons i Program music written around a nonmusical concept ii Different sounds and experiences we have in each season iii Spring gt Ritornello quotto return ABACADAEA 1 A is bird song B is babbling brook C is thunderstorm and drama 2 After the storm the bird song comes back in minor change in mood iv Features violin h Popularizes concerto as Baroque form i Musical family became a priest in 1703 but refused his duties j Taught violin at a girl s orphanage composed music k Scandal relationship with a vocal student banned from church retired to Vienna VII Opera a work in Italian b Primary form of entertainment 18th and 19th century c Influence of Greek theatre would sometimes sing to project their voice d Theatre with music or music with theatre i Focus has changed throughout time e Castrati i Initially all roles were played by men ii Castrated before puberty to sing the high notes of female roles Camerata Florence 1575 g Recitative vs Aria i Recitative dialogue between characters sung ii Aria features vocalist sopranotenor heroic roles h Purcell Dido and Aeneas 1689 i Aeneas has left Dido to achieve his destiny Dido sings an aria about how she s going to kill herself ii Singing to her friend to not be bothered by her death anhrvsz 7h VIII Art a Caravaggio The Calling of St Matthew 15968 i Religious themes ii Unseen light source highlights St Matthew iii Angel pointing to Matthew he is charged with spreading the good word b Caravaggio The Death of the Virgin 16056 i Made for the church but church rejected the painting ii Claimed it was indecent her bare feet are visible c El Greco St Jerome c 161014 i Not much depth ii Strong contrasts between dark and light dark background and light figure of the man iii Obvious brushwork d Diego Velasquez The Maids of Honor 1656 i Paints himself in the image ii Princess in the center the little girl iii Parents are reflected in the mirror commissioned the painting Peter Paul Rubens Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus c 1648 Peter Paul Rubens Henry VI Receiving the Portrait of Mario de Medici 16225 Nicolas Poussin Landscape with the Burial of Pocion 1648 Jan Vermeer The Girl with a Red Hat detail 1665 i Contemporary of Rembrandt selftaught ii Use of light and shade to create contrast iii Textures of different surfaces fluffy hat and velvet wrap i Jan Vermeer The Music Lesson c 16625 i Large amount of detail gradation of light on the back wall ii Held a mirror at a 45 degree angle of the image and painted what he saw camera obscura IX Rembrandt van Rijn a 160669 b 1st capitalist artist i Valued art for the aesthetics and market ii Monetary value aesthetic value iii If it can bring more money then it has more value c Strong contrasts in light and dark i Chiaschuro increases drama of work d Emotional e The Night Watch 1642 i Work commissioned by a group of people ii Leaders featured more prominently given more light f The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Tulp 1632 i Group portrait surgeon s guild X Sculpture a Gian Lorenzo Bernini David 1623 i The Ecstasy of St Theresa 164552 X Architecture a Giacomo della Porta Gesu Rome 156884 b Palace of Versailles France i Louis Le Vau and Jules HardouinMansart garden facade 166985 ii The Golden Gates iii Grand Entrance iv Jules HardouinMansart and Charles Le Brun Hall of Mirrors begun 1678 ranhrb
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