Diversity of Life I Notes Week 8
Diversity of Life I Notes Week 8 210
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Diversity of Life I Notes Week 8 102015 Mutualisms are Everywhere Mycorrhiza Symbiosis Endosymbiosis mitochondria amp chloroplasts are bacteria Plants get from fungi water soil minerals N P K Ca ack of root hairs l plants don t need them they get what they need from fungi pathogen resistance heavy metal tolerance mediation from competition with other plants Fungi get from plants Energy sugar from photosynthesis Mycorrhizal Fossils found in 1st Land Plants gt400million years ago rhizomes underground stems found lplants may have helped fungi colonize land or viceversa Arbuscular Mycorrhizae AM arge surface area when developed allows for large amount of nutrient exchange form resembles oak tree only about ZOOspecies known worldwide 70 of world s plant species associate with AM fungi liverworts ferns grasses most agricultural cropsso most plants you see NOT seen in spinach broccoli seen with smaller agricultural farms that are starting to incorporate theseideas increased AM fungus diversity increased AM plant diversity ie number of species Ectomycorrhizal Roots EM Fungi don t penetrate plant cells but colonize along roots Ony 1520 of world s plant species many are economically important Pinaceae Fagaceae Betulaceae Myrtaceae eucalyptus Salicaceae Dipterocarpaceaea tropical legume trees about 10000 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi known Douglas r associates with 2000 of them penty of edibles AM and EM found in Phylums Ascomycota and Basidiomycota The Hidden Half competition between multiple species of fungi seen in root systems of different species of trees Think of fungi as hosts and will reject parasite plants Orchidsalso take sugar from fungus for further growth Local Version Indian pipe or Monotropa uni ora Some Ectomycorrhizal Fungi critical for Large Charismatic Megafauna Northern Spotted Owls Flying Squirrels l Truf e Fungus 102215 Characteristics of Brvoohvtes very different from majority of other plants most primitive of extant land plants many botanists don t consider them quotrealquot plants hapoid dominant life cycle Alternation of Generations characteristic of Plant Kingdom and algae ife cycle includes haploid gametophyte n alternating with diploid sporophyte 2n higher plants life cycle is dominated by diploid sporophyte gametophyte greatly reduced Bryophytes are gametophyte dominant nonvascular no true leaves true stems or true roots poikilohydric internal water levels regulated by outside moisture think poikilotherms nutritiona dependence of sporophyte on gametophyte Evolutionary Origin of Bryophytes mosses liverworts and hornworts Archaeplastida green algae embryophytes green algae are close relatives of embryophytes land plants but are Qrotists not plants Embryophytes are descendants of Charophyceae a type of green algae Bryophytelike organisms become rst land plants Ordovician 475MYA Bryophyte lineage likely diverged during the Devonian anywhere between 360 and 400MYA Are bryophytes the ancestors of higher vascular plants No they have a common ancestor With higher plants charophyean ageae Features shared with Charophyceae true plants intermediate photosynthetic pigments cell division phragmoplast forms wall between mother and daughter cells 3D branching presence of antheridia dominant gametophyte stage presence of rhizoids not true roots used for anchoring plant to substrate New traits in Bryophytes for life on land both egg and sperm are protected in multicellular structures the fertilized egg Zygote 2n is retained by the parent plant for greater protection the diploid 2n sporophyte is dependent on haploid gametophyte origin of cuticle and stomata for water conservation not all Bryophytes have cutices amp stomata some do have them but not a synapomorph y Survev of the Brvoohvtes Division Anthocerotophyta Phyla of the hornworts Rosettelike thallus gametophyte long sporophyte dehisces longitudinally found typically in moist soil Only 100 species in 6 genera Division Marchantiothta thla of the liverworts 6000 species Primarily asexual repro via fragmentation and gemmae asexual propagules found in cups at tops of liverworts dispersed by raindrop splash sexua repro possible simple sporophyte splits open 2 growth forms leafy leaves in 3 rows thallose strongly attened form How did they get that name Doctrine of Signatures liverwort resembles lobed liver What is a moss Largest group of bryophytes Club Moss Spanish moss member of pineapple family Sea moss Reindeer moss lichen a of these are not actual mosses Division Bryophyta the mag 16000 species tissue specialization still different from true leaves and true stems protonemal stage eaves are spirally arranged complex sporophyte 2 growth forms acrocarp erect stems protrudes straight up pleurocarp horizontal stems found protruding off laterally Classes within Brvoohvta Andreaeopsida the granite mosses Only 1 genus Andreaea restricted to granite substrate have been seen in Adirondacks CLBS sedom see green form more reddish or black short tuft capsue splits longitudinally sporangium wait until dryer conditions for dispersal Sphagnopsida the peat mosses 1 genus Sphagnum network of dead and living cells contains large amounts of carbon decomposition doesn t really occur since oxygen levels are slim to none enormous waterholding capacity drives production of wetlands Formation of peatlands role as ecosystem engineers sporophyte opens with quotpopgunquot mechanism on the operculum using lots of pressure END OF NOTES
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