Week 7 Lecture Notes
Week 7 Lecture Notes 479
Popular in Power, Conflict, Violence, and the Family
Popular in Child and Family Studies
This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joycelyn R. Hutton Jr. on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 479 at Syracuse University taught by A. Krishnakumar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Power, Conflict, Violence, and the Family in Child and Family Studies at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 12 October 2015 Week 7 Notes IPV and children 1 Abusive Men s Use of children to control their partners and ex partners a Prior research has examined a number of the ways in which perpetrators abuse and control their women b Some attention has also been paid to the ways in which abusers also harass or threaten women s loved ones as a means of controlling their victims c Littles is known about how the abusers manipulate and harm their children s mothers 2 How is this done a Engage in long custody battles b Visitation as an opportunity to continue abuse and or monitor mother c Threaten to harm and abduct the child if the mother doesn t agree to the wishes or instructions of the other spouse d Use child s info about mother to monitor her activities 3 In this study a 156 battered women b Community based agency providing short term support t victims of DV following police intervention c Domestic violence shelter d County prosecutor s personal protection order office e Women 2949 years old f Between them 275 children 512 years Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 12 October 2015 4 What were the women s relationship status w perp a 82 not in relationship b 17 still living with perp c 1 woman still in the relationship but not living with perp 5 What were the perps relationship with the child a 41 bio father b 22 stepfather c 20 father figure d 17 nonfather figure 6 Extent of abuser s use of children for controlling female partner a 88 reported that the child was used for control b 70 stay in their lives c 69 monitor d 58 harass e 58 intimidate f 47 turn kids against them g 45 used kid to try and persuade a return 7 Variables related to the abusers use of children a Biological fathers significantly more likely to use control b Women who reported greater use of their children against them had experienced higher levels of physical and emotional abuse c Women who ended ending relationship with the abuser experience greater levels of control via children than women who were continuing Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 12 October 2015 d Assailants with court ordered visitation were significantly more likely to engage in using the children against them e Women who reported more emotional abuse reported greater use of their children against them 8 C que a Would be helpful to know how the child perceived the male perpetrator father figure versus nonfather figure b Mothers reported on types of control exercised using the child may not know why or may be misperception c ID ways that control persists after leaving d Helps us to understand why some women may choose to stay Developmental Effects of Exposure to IPV in early childhood 1 Children exposure to IPV a Almost 50 of IPV occurs w children under 12 years old in the home b Younger kids most likely to witness abuse especially 6 and under especially under 3 c Children under 6 are at higher risk than older children for exposure to IPV d 3060 of families working with child welfare agencies there is likely IPV occurring in the household 2 Children living in violent homes a May be able to hear or see violence b See the emotional abuse stalking threats threats to take them away physical sexua assaults sometimes murder Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 12 October 2015 c May see the after effects of victim or home d May be victims of violence e Parent abilities mental health stress and trauma may impact parents parenting which in turn impacts child development 3 Need to focus on young kids and IPV because early years lay the foundation or later SES development a Express emotions b Interpret others emotion c To be able to regulate their emotions d Develop attachment to caregiver e Attachment i Special emotional relationships that involves an exchange of comfort care and pleasure ii By 1012 months a caregiver or a small number of caregivers iii Moderately strong relationship between maternal sensitive behavior go back iv Typical development of attachment is altered in situations of IPV v Less likely to be securely attached to have trust in caregivers and others f Emotion regulation i Learned ability to adapt and managego back 4 Different type of attachment a Insecure ambivalent resistant attachment i No comfort with parent stressed without parent ii nconsolable and not comforted by attachment figure Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 12 October 2015 iii Inconsistent levels of response to needs of the child from primary caregiver b Insecure avoidant attachment i Indifferent to parents presence no preference versus strangers problems with intimacy ii Attachment figure withdraws with difficult tasks iii Often unavailable during times of emotional distress c Both groups at risk for nonoptimal outcomes but can regulate emotions and exclude painful attachments d Disorganized disoriented attachment i Exhibit fear in relationships contradictory behavior and disorientation when they needed parental comfort ii Child feels both comforted and frightened by parent confusion results iii Fear and confusion about how to access caregiver during stress iv Highest risk for behavioral problems and hostility v Problems with attention vi Regulation of emotions vii Poor relationships with others viii Poor sense of self e Problems with emotional regulation are established early i In infancy the child depends on caregivers to externally regulate his emotions so he is not overwhelmed ii 618 months are critical periods when infants learn how to recognize and respond to emotions Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 12 October 2015 iii Caregivers lack of response exacerbates child s distress 5 Effect on brain development a All areas of the brain develop at different rates b Experiences and environmental influences go back c Important for i Regulation for emotion and behavior ii Memory iii Emotional attachments to others iv Control of motivation and reward outcomes v Empathy for others vi Influences interactions with caregivers and baby s social and emotional development vii Romanian study children that experience neglect have smaller brains nearly 13 smaller 6 Stress of IPV during pregnancy as well as pregnancy trauma may impact later development a Prenatal anxiety in late pregnancy is association with hyperactivity inattention behavioral and emotional problems in children under 4 b Low birth weight c Smaller brain d Lower gestational age 7 How do children react a Infants may refuse to eat or may have trouble keeping food down b Extreme difficulty falling asleep or may wake frequently at night Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 12 October 2015 c Difficult to soothe or may respond with heightened irritability d Fearful expressions crying or blank expressions 8 Exposure to IPV attachment and emotional regulation a Hearing seeing unresolved angry conflict or witness a parent being hurt vi vii viii ix Sleep disturbances Eating problems Lack of typical responses to adults Loss of previously acquired developmental skills Chronic levels of stress problems in memory learning thinking emotional regulation expression and interpretation of emotions Early experiences of neglect results in structural changes in the brain insecure attachment 615 of infants witnessing IPV in a study by Zeanah et al 1999 insecurely attached Most disorganized 13 secure mothers reporting less violence or violence with a former partner 9 Not all kids have developmental delays when exposed to IPV a Depends on the degree to which IPV affects the parenting relationship b Maternal stress sensitivity and metal health impact infant child attachment and behavior c Depends on levels of parenting stress d Sensitive and responsive care can buffer the impact e Effects can be reversed w appropriate social and emotional support Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 14 October 2015 Week 7 Notes Continued Advocacy and Intervention 1 Professionalization of the antiDV movement a Entry of mental health professionals i Focus reverted the individual ii Ignores social context of violence apolitical b Focus on mental health versus social change c Women clients with psychological issues versus victims of oppression d Women population to treat versus population to advocate for 2 Tension between the two approaches a One group i Promoted medication for victims symptom reduction maintaining family stability b Other group i Focus on feminist empowerment advocacy c Risks as seen by feminists i Advising counseling when partners have unequal access to power ii Psychological problems of women be used against them in child custody or child welfare proceedings 3 Theories of IPV used by mental health professionals a Explanations for the scope and frequency of partner violence and why many victims stay with their abusive partners even after assault i Battered women s syndrome or learned helplessness Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 14 October 2015 ii 1960 s and 1970 s women as causing violence iii Provoking the batterer s actions or demanding equality in intimate relationships iv 1980 s focused on women mental health issues and behaviors a response to DV rather than a cause 4 Battered women s syndrome Lenore Walker a Women become entrapped in their violent families by two processes b Learned helplessness i Trying to stop the abuse by changing behavior has no effect ii Continue go back and review c Cycle of violence Lenore Walker i Tension building stage ii Acute battering incident iii Loving contrition iv Repeated over time d Both of these processes keep women trapped with their abusive partners e Suggested tools for helping battered women i Assertiveness training ii Psychotherapy f Although the battered women syndrome explained why women cannot leave their abusers is was good because it allowed society to see entrapment evoke public sympathy Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 14 October 2015 i Bad because it made it seem like it was women s psychological difficulties that made it hard to leave not larger obstacles inadequate resources money control etc 5 In response to these limitations researchers indicated that a Seeing battered women as survivors strengths i Psychological and structural factors that affect women s lives ii Inadequate community support DV services cultural and religious beliefs 6 Seeing battered women as survivors a Focus of the strengths displayed by women b Women learn to i Develop escape plans ii Placate their partners iii Fight back iv Seek outside help from families and friends and formal sources v Seek out domestic violence agencies vi Encourages providers to address external obstacles to a victim s safety and well being before addressing psychological issues 7 Emotional and psychological symptoms experienced by women a PTSD diagnosis i Intrusive symptoms reliving experience ii Avoidant symptoms numbing withdrawal iii Hyperarousal emotional distress expectations of danger iv PTSD symptoms showed severity of outcomes Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 14 October 2015 v failed to ID the ways IPV differs from other traumatic events eg being raped by a stranger 8 Theory of mental health models a Psychodynamic how their unconscious psychological conflicts shape their responses to violence b Psychoeducational teaching coping strategies to deal with the psychological consequences of DV c Cognitive behavioral helps reframe maladaptive beliefs that they women are responsible for the abuse d With more positive adaptive beliefs about themselves or their relationships 9 Feminist theory bridging the internal and external a Psych problems result of social conditions focus on providing resources b Role of oppression social cultural and economic oppression c Knowledge of abuse dynamics within the relationship d Importance of resistance assertiveness training e Importance of social support f Limit ignores other forms of oppression race class immigration ethnicity sexual orientation religion etc g Needs an intersectional approach 10 Implications for intervention prevention and research a Need to make distinctions between types of IPV when considering prevention and intervention efforts b IPV is not an unitary phenomenon IT not the same as SCV not same as VR Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 14 October 2015 c We still have a lot to learn it s largely theoretical right now and needs to be applied to real life situations d With any type of violence the focus is to provide protection and assistance to the victim survivor e Shelters in the US today are more focused on providing protection and assistance to victims and survivors f Function within feminist empowerment model i Provide resources to victims ii Gain financial independence iii Services to help women protect themselves within the relationship 11 Shelters and battered women service a Protection orders against abusers b Support groups with other IPV victims c How to move to a life without violence d Do not distinguish between types of violence assume that clients dealing with IT e They focus on power and control f Violence will be repeated and will escalate does not matter SCV or IT both can be lethal 12 Implication for intervention prevention and research a What are the limitations of making services for victims tailored to address the problems of IT rather than SCV i Better to be safe than sorry ii SCV women will think that do not need help because that s not their type of violence Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 14 October 2015 iii After hearing about IT they may think their violence isn t that serious iv They may no longer define their SVC as domestic violence b Safety first no matter the type of violence i Emergency shelter ii Long term intervention iii Safety plan escape plan social support c Counseling is not always appropriate i When type of violence is assessed different intervention SVC counseling about communication skills deficits ii SVC individual counseling for one or both partners iii Support group meetings SVC and IT iv Promote financial independence IT d Law enforcement deal primarily with the perpetrators shelters with victims i Used to assume it was at SCV ii Now states may have mandatory arrest policies or no drop prosecution iii More women enact violent resistance are now arrested iv Police must make a distinction between IT and VR do so by ID the primary perpetrator e Restorative justice in lieu of the criminal justice system i More about inclusion and healing ii Apology and reparation as alternatives to penalties and punishments iii Issues of safety may arise in case of IT iv Restorative justice is not incident focused eg theft destruction of property Hutton Joycelyn CFS 479 14 October 2015 v But IPV especially IT power and control long period vi May be appropriate for SVC 13 Batterer programs a Minimal success men do not participate in these programs b Do not distinguish between the two types of partner violence c Different interventions work better with different batterers d SCV men 77 more likely to complete the program compared to IT e What kind of IT are we dealing with i Antisocial intimate terrorists sociopathic personalities have their way by using violence with everyone in any situation ii Emotionally dependent intimate terrorists complete control of their partners 14 Feminist cognitive intervention a More successful twice as effective for antisocial than for dependents b Psychodynamic intervention twice as effective for dependents as for antisocial c Unfortunately no differential assignments of different types of batterers to different programs
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