Cybercrime and Criminology Theories
Cybercrime and Criminology Theories CJ 290
Popular in Special Topics: Cybercriminology
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 290 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kellin Treadway in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Special Topics: Cybercriminology in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Cybercrime and Criminological Theories Criminological Theory o Cybercrime is distinct in that it provides a venue for new offenses while also enabling existing offenses 0 quotold wine in new bottles new wine in no bottles 0 Applying existing criminological theories to cybercrime offenses demonstrates that some factors of crime are consistent both onoffline Subcultural and Learning Theories o Subcultural theories address the notion that groups exist wvalues beliefs and ideas that run contrary to the dominant culture 0 Individuals can gain support and encouragement for their behavior 0 Utilize a distinct language to refer to their behaviors I Language argot o Outward symbols of membership I Ex Anonymous masks 0 Ex Hacker subculture gt profound interest in technology free info for all anonymity Social Learning Theories 0 Differential Association Theory 0 People learn techniques of an action from their peers 0 Crime is a learned behavior stemming from intimate relationships I Individuals learn techniques to offend I Definitions for action are acquired 0 Definitions view or beliefs about a behavior 0 Those who have more definitions supportive of offending than of law abiding behavior are more likely to engage in crime 0 Created by Sutherland in 1947 0 Social Learning Theory 0 Links Differential Association Theory with operant conditioning I 4 components to the theory 0 Differential association with deviant others 0 Definitions supportive of crime 0 Imitation of peer s offending behavior 0 Differential reinforcement of offending o Reinforcement and punishments I Reinforcement increases likelihood act occurs again I Punishment decrease likelihood act occurs again 0 Created by Akers in 1998 Cybercrime and Social Learning 0 Strong links exist between deviant peers deviant definitions and some forms of cybercrime 0 Ex pirating o Reinforcement has limited and mixed success 0 Imitation has strong effects when considered in statistical models General Theory of Crime 0 Created by Gottfredson and Hirsch 1990 o Criminals focus on the rewards of crime not the punishments o Criminals do not consider the longterm ramifications of their actions only look at the rewards of the offending action 0 Crime is simple and provides immediate gratification o Criminals are impulsive shortsighted and risktakers gt low selfcontrol o Selfcontrol formed during childhood development by parents I 3 stages of developing selfcontrol 0 Monitor deviant behavior 0 Recognize inappropriate behavior when it occurs 0 Punish deviantinappropriate behavior 0 Most popular theory used to explain crime gt well supported in research 0 Applied to economic crimes online harassment digital piracy 0 Computer hacking and GTC 0 Simple hacking characterized by low selfcontrol 0 Complex hacking involved social learning process where contact between hacker and mentor aides in the development of skills and the execution of hacks I Complex hacking is the one area where the GTC doesn t apply to cybercrime o GTC as a victimization theory 0 Victimization likelihood person will be a victim of crime based on their habitsbehavior 0 Created by Schreck 1990s 0 People with low selfcontrol have certain characteristicsbehaviors that increase their likelihood to be victimized I Impulsivity I Shortsightedness I The above two aspects put people in close proximity to offenders increasing their odds of victimization General Strain Theory 0 Created by Agnew 1992 0 Strain or negative emotions lead to crime 0 Heightened strain increases likelihood of crime 0 3 types of strains 0 Failure to achieve a goal 0 Removal of a positive stimuli like the loss of a family member 0 Presence of a negative stimuli like a bad experience 0 Strain can be moderated by attitude and coping mechanisms 0 Attitude I Positive attitude decreases strain I Negative attitude increases strain 0 Coping mechanisms I Legitimate gt meditation exercise I Illegitimate gt drugs addictions 0 Little research on GST and cybercrime but GST has been shown to be applicable to cyberbullying Techniques of Neutralization 0 Created by Sykes and Matza o Criminals try to justifyrationalize their behavior 0 Denial of responsibility gt everyone else does it so its okay 0 Denial of injury gt no one gets hurt so crime is okay 0 Denial of the victim gt no victim so crime is okay 0 Condemnation of the condemners gt quothesheit deserved it 0 Appeal to higher loyalty gt quotfor the greater good 0 Applies to cybercrime in terms of pirating hacking and identity theft Deterrence Theory 0 Created by Beccaria o Idea of inflicting punishments for crimes as a way to deter future crime 0 3 punishment components that must be met for deterrence to be effective 0 Swiftnesscelerity gt punishment will not be delayed o Certainty gt punishment will be levied if caught 0 Severity gt punishment fits the crime 0 Two types of deterrence specific and general 0 Specific gt deterrence is aimed toward a specific individual I Prevent a person from engaging in crime again 0 General gt deterrence is aimed toward the public at large I Prevent members of society from engaging in crime 0 Little research regarding deterrence theory and cybercrime Routine Activity Theory 0 Created by Cohen and Felson 0 Accounts for victimization and why some people are more prone to being victims of crime 0 3 things must converge in time and space for the Routine Activity Theory to occur 0 Motivated offender 0 Suitable target 0 Absence of a capable guardian o Cybercrime research in relation to Routine Activity Theory does not take into account the motivated offender aspect of the 3 requirements Space Transition Theory 0 Created by Jaishankar o Combines many theories 0 Main idea is that people s behave change when they are online 0 People affect differently in an online setting than they would in the realworld 0 Technology is used by people as a form of communication to connect wothers to express opinions and to achieve an escape from the realworld o Hasn t been welltested empirically Key Words 0 Components of techniques of neutralization theory 0 Appeal to higher loyalties o Condemnation of the condemners o Denial of a victim o Denial of injury 0 Denial of responsibility 0 Components of Routine Activity Theory 0 Motivated offender 0 Suitable target 0 Absence of a capable guardian o Argot 0 Special language utilized by subcultures to refer to individuals in and out of the group and demonstrate connection to the subculture o Celerity o Swiftness in the context of deterrence theory 0 Certainty o Refers to how likely it is that an individual will be caught and punished for an offense within deterrence theory logic 0 Definitions 0 One of the four principle components of Aker s social learning theory o Suggests that the way an individual views a behavior will affect their willingness to engage in that activity Deterrence theory 0 Argues that people will be deterred from choosing to commit crime if they believe that punishments will be certain swift and proportionately severe Differential association 0 One of the four principal components of Aker s social learning theory 0 Argues that who we associate with influences our willingness to engage in crime and our exposure to definitions supporting offending Differential reinforcement 0 One of the four principal components of Aker s social learning theory 0 Argues that the punishment or positive reinforcement we receive after engaging gin crime will influence our willingness to perform that act again Drift o Refers to the transition between criminality and conformity wo accepting a deviant or criminal identity General strain theory 0 An individuallevel theory developed by Robert Agnew that discusses the role of frustrations leading to negative emotions which if not addressed appropriately can lead individuals to engage in crime as a response General theory of crime 0 Argues that crime stems from low selfcontrol and opportunities to offend Imitation 0 One of the four principal components of Aker s social learning theory 0 Suggests that an individual s first act of deviance or criminality is an attempt to model the behavior of their peers and imitate others Selfcontrol 0 Ability to constrain one s own behavior through internal regulation Severity o The intensity of the punishment relative to the harm caused by the crime in the context of deterrence theory Social learning theory 0 Criminological theory created by Akers which argues that the learning process of any behavior including crime includes four principal components 1 differential association 2 definitions 3 differential reinforcement and 4 imitation Space transition theory 0 Theory that argues that people behave differently while online than they otherwise would in physical space Subculture 0 Any group having differentiating values norms traditions and rituals that set them apart from the dominant culture Techniques of neutralization 0 Theory that focuses on how beliefs affect the process of deciding to commit a delinquent or criminal act o Assumes that most people hold conforming beliefs but may till engage in criminal behavior occasionally through the application of definitions that justify their actions