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Date Created: 10/23/15
Tuesday October 20 2015 Week 8 Notes Nematodes Roundworms reated to Arthropods shed their cuticle external coat as they grow called molting widespread live in oceans freshwater habitats soi inside plants and inside animals NOT SEGMENTED they are an important part of food webs by decomposing organic material and cycling nutrients in agriculture some nematodes are harmful and some are beneficial Entomopathogenic insect disease causing nematodes attack planteating insects helping crops most common parasitic one in US is pinworms 1 eggs are ingested or breathed in eggs hatch and adults develop in intestines 2 3 females exit out anus to lay eggs at night eggs on body and bedclothes 4 nonfat but causes irritation 5 most common in temperate climates moderate not extremely hot or cold Arthropods very diverse toughhard exoskeleton made up of large chitin restricts growth so anthropods molt shed arth jointed Tuesday October 20 2015 pod foot or appendage segmented appendages perform a wide variety of functions different types of appendages develop from different segments controlled by homeotic genes where and when many terrestrial arthropods breathe through branching air tubes via openings on later abdomen thorax tracheal system many aquatic species have gills water moves over feathery structures with large surface area allowing gas exchange Anthropoda lncludes Arachnids spiders have two main body parts scorpions venom tipped tail cks daddy longlegs do not have venom 2 body parts less distinct spiders are a medical concern to humans in US rarely fatal L black widow female a shiny black globular abdomen with red hour glass on underside b neurotoxin form jointed fangs 2 Brown Recluse a dark fiddle on headend top side arachnids have 6 pairs of segmented appendages 4 walking legs 1 pair as foodmanipulators sperm transfer 1 pair Chelicerae inject venom digestive enzymes Phylum Arthropoda includes Crustaceans obsters shrimp crayfish crabs people like to eat crustaceans Tuesday October 20 2015 pillbug rolypoly isopod giant lsopod usually in deep waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Phylum Arthropoda classes are Arachnida Crustacea nsecta largest class 1 pair of antennae feelers sellers 3 pairs of thoracic walking legs 4 2 pairs of wings usually 5 2 compound eyes multifaceted little light detectors in between most insect species undergo complete metamorphosis arvae wormlike with internal wing development egg to larva to larva to pupa to adult popout stage some insect species incomplete metamorphosis arvae miniature adults but with wing pads can t fly external wing development NO PUPA STAGE egg to nymph to bigger nymph to etc to adult Insects Centipedes flattened with venom and claws Millipedes cylindrical mostly scavengers Deuterostomes Echinoderms Tuesday October 20 2015 mouth second indeterminate cleavage early embryo cells can each form a complete organism in gastrulation 1st opening becomes anus secondary opening develops into mouth Classes incude sea stars sea cucumbers sea urchins sand dollars sea lilies ive at bottom of the ocean many attached or sedentary don t move much Larvae have bilateral symmetry even if adults don t appear to no cephalization can regenerate body parts that are lost water vascular system use seas water instead of blood for gas exchange oxygen in and 002 out starfish are predators Crownofthorns Seastar widespread in southern pacific ocean feeds on corals occasionally outbreaks removing large areas of live coral form coral reefs outbreaks have been linked to fertilizer runoff which results in more food for Crownof thorns larvae and loss of natural sea star predators Chordates phylum Chordata includes invertebrates and vertebrates animals vertebrates fishamphibiansreptilesbirdsmammals Tuesday October 20 2015 derived characteristics some of these characteristics only present in embryo traits of of chordates 1 Notochord semirigid rod along length of body in embryo 2 a in humans forms discs between the vertebrae 3 b tissue around the rod rod dorsal allow nerve cord aka neural tube back ectoderm cells along back dorsal surface of embryo fold upward to create a tube cord develops into the brain spinal cord central nervous system Pharyngeal slitsgrooves a pharynx region of digestive tube behind mouth b b these slitsgrooves develop into 1 filter feeding structures 2 gill openings in fish 3 in humans remains as grooves not slits develop into jaws inner ear tonsils postana tail usually composed of segmented muscles and skeleton propulsion thru water or as in humans reduces during development to small vertebrae at end of spine these things make a chordate Lancelet chordate but invertebrate Basal invertebrate chordate displays all 4 characteristics even as adult Tuesday October 20 2015 chordate groups defined based on shared derived characters Hagfish lack backbone chordate makes slime mucus that may help them escape predators some of the slime is used in cooking in parts of Korea similar to egg whites Lamprey vertebrae that lacks a jaw but they have a hard backbone sea lamprey accidentally introduced into the Great Lakes in the 1800s attaches to wish and feed on their blood reduces populations of economically valuable game fish eg lake trout control programs have reduced their numbers but still present Gnathostomes vertebrates with jaws modification of skeletal rods that supported pharyngeal gill slits Dunkleosteus extinct prehistoric animals that showed the early jaw species vertebrates with jaws BUT NOT LIMBS mostly fish they lack limbs Cartilaginous Fish sharks and rays Bony Fish regular fish vertebrates with limbs are Tetrapods four feet limbs have digits fingers and toes allow movement on land terrestrial transitional fossils in between fish and amphibians exist vertebrates with limbs but not amniotic eggs are amphibians ex frogs and salamanders Tuesday October 20 2015 extinction rate is high their eggs are surrounded by gelatinous coating that is permeable to gasses water no sac similar eggs some on landwater or completely aquatic Amniotes reptiles mammals birds similar extra embryonic membranes most have shell produced in mother it provides fluid environment on land Extra embryonic membranes amnion contains embryo an fluid to protect against shocks yolk sac contain nutrients that are transported to the embryo allantois waste receptacle chorion gas exchange last two forms placenta in humans and other nonmarsupial mammals NO monophyletic clades Chordate Evolution remember that all have a shared ancestor at the end of the tree remember that fish are a paraphyletic clade Fish Generally Have A Gills form form pharynges slits in embryo gills hang from skeletal supports large surface area maximizes efficiency of gas exchange B later line system Tuesday October 20 2015 pits with sensory hairs detect changes in water pressure sense vibrations by other organisms to help in locating prey or avoiding predators this is also present in some amphibians some species detect or even produce electricity Examples electric eel l electric catfish A Cartilaginous Fish it includes sharks and rays Sharks streamlined powerful swimmers Ray flattened dorsoventrally shark skin reduces drag allowing greater speed sharks nostrils are JUST for spell not breathing sharks skin can be made into swim suits shark reproduction may be Oviparous lay eggs that hatch outside of the female BIRDS Ovoviviparous eggs remain in oviduct fed by egg yolk then hatch and are released Sharks Viviparous young develop in female s uterus some receive nourishment from mother s uterine blood or placenta HUMANS SHARKS NOT MANY B Bony Fish most speciose vertebrate class 1 bony skeleton 2 EX rainbow trout and catfish 9 flap over gills moves water and hence glass Tuesday October 20 2015 4 swim bladder gases moved to or from blood to control buoyancy 5 most covered in overlapping scales and secrete mucus from skin glands to reduce drag when swimming Amphibians vertebrates w jaws 4 appendages more terrestrial tetrapods lncludes 1salamanders tailed even as adults 2 frogstoads no tail as adults Characteristics 1 tadpoles grilled frog larvae 2 adult moist terrestrial 3 gas exchange in lungs and through skin this makes them very burnable to pollution and the environmental changes 4 lateral line system system like fish in most larvae and some adults 5 egg in jelly no shell keeps eggs moist in amniotes extra embryonic membranes and shell do this 6 external fertilization Reptiles A includes lizards and snakes no lizards or venomous species in DeKalb ON THE TEST SNAKES ARE TETRAPODS 2 Turtles shel includes some vertebrae and ribs 3 Alligators broader snout Crocodiles skinnier snout Tuesday October 20 2015 B 1 Dry scales made of keratin on human fingers reduces dehydration 2 common in deserts 3 gas exchange via lungs that move by moving ribs fish and reptile scales develop from different layers of skin fish sales develop from dermis reptile scales from epidermis EX analogous traits via convergent evolution 4 leathery shell forms inside mother most are oviparous although a few are viviparous 5 internal fertilazation 6 ectothermic body heat primary from environment vs from form metabolism in birds and mammals remember that amniote phylogeny is paraphyletic 1O 11 Tuesday October 20 2015