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Territorial Expansion and Compromises

by: Erica Kugler

Territorial Expansion and Compromises HY 325-001

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > History > HY 325-001 > Territorial Expansion and Compromises
Erica Kugler
GPA 4.0
US World Power to 1898
Dr. Steinbock-Pratt

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Notes over Territorial Expansion and Compromises
US World Power to 1898
Dr. Steinbock-Pratt
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/23/15
Territorial Expansion and Compromises o Antebellum issues that led to the Civil War western expansion and slavery o Enthusiastic western expansion fervor due to quotManifest Destiny 0 Expansion and slavery would the new territory be free or unfree Missouri Compromise of 1820 0 Was a way to deal with slavery in western territory by helping to answer the question of quotWhere will slavery exist in the US 0 1819 debate over admitting Missouri into the Union gt admit as a free of slave state 0 Antislavery argument I Slavery immoral undemocraticunrepresentative due to 35th compromise o 35th compromise a slave counted as 35th of a person when conducting population census this meant that Southern states with lots of slaves reported higher populations so they received more seats in Congress giving them an undue political influence 0 Proslavery argument I Abolishing slave in order to be admitted as a state would set a bad precedent for future territories who apply for statehood o Admitting Missouri as a slave state would upset the balance of power among free and slave states I Missouri as slave state slave states would have a two seat advantage in the Senate 0 Provisions of the Compromise I Missouri admitted as a slave states and Maine admitted as a free state 0 Meant to preserve the balance of power maintain equal representation for free and unfree states in the Senate I Slavery was prohibited above the 36 30 parallel o 1820 Southern states accept the Compromise Nullification Crisis 0 President was Andrew Jackson gt states rights advocate but had to defend the federal government in this crisis 0 Battle over states rights vs federal rights 0 Tariff issue Tariff of 1828 gt raised duties on wool and raw metal imports o Benefitted the NorthNew England region as they could supply those things themselves and didn t need to import them thus extra tax wouldn t affect them 0 Hurt Southern states as they had to import those things thus had to pay more S o Called quotTariff of Abomination 0 South Carolina believed it had the right to refuse to comply with federal legislation I This belief caused SC to nullify the Tariff 0 Vice President John C Calhoun I Published the Doctrine of Nullification in support of SC claim of states right to nullify federal legislation it doesn t agree with 0 Tariff of 1832 was passed as a mild concession 0 Reduced the import duties by a little bit 0 SC nullified this Tariff 0 Jackson stepped in on behalf of the federal government and asserted the national governments power over states rights 0 Introduced the Force Bill gt military deployment to makes states comply with the Tariffs 0 Tariff of 1833 reduced import duties again 0 SC accepts and rescinds its call for nullification I But SC nullifies the Force Bill Slavery 0 1830s rise of the slavery issue and antislavery movement 0 1820s colonization advocated as a solution to the slavery issue 0 Idea set up colonies abroad to send freed blacks 0 American Colonization Society gt gradual abolition colonization in Africa I Established the African state of Liberia as a colony to send freed blacks 0 Problem colonization wasn t a practical solution I Most slaves in US were not from Africa most were born and raised in US I Slaves resisted leaving their home US and being sent to foreign land Africa 0 1830s formal abolition advocated as solution to slavery o Gradual and immediate emancipation David Walker freed slave who called for slaves to rise up and end slavery by force William Lloyd Garrison white abolitionist newspaper Liberator Frederick Douglas freed slave who traveled and lectured against slavery Harriet Beecher Stowe author of Uncle Tom s Cabin gt popular antislavery novel Abolition movement was minority in number but had a powerful political voice Used new technology to spread its message gt petitions pamphlets newspapers I Sent petitions to Congress asking for a review of slavery policy 0 Congress so overwhelmed with petitions that a quotgag rule 1836 was passed which prevented the reading of petitions on the Congressional floor OOOOOO Expansion 0 Republic of Texas formed in 1836 gt won independence from Mexico and wanted to be incorporated into the US 0 1840s President Tyler asked Congress to approve a treaty to annex TX 0 Became a partisan issue as representatives vote along party Whig vs Democrat Republican lines and NorthSouth lines I Voted this way due to issue of slavery expanding westward 0 Election of 1840 William Henry Harrison won gt died in office and John Tyler became president 0 President Tyler gt not a strict Whig follower Virginian slave owner so proslavery o Vetoed Whig legislation on economic issues gt alienated him from the party 0 Election of 1844 Whig nominee was Henry Clay Democrat nominee was Polk won 0 Postelection Polk tried to annex TX but failed to get Senate approval 0 Instead TX was annexed through a jointresolution by Congress in 1845 o MexicanAmerican War was sparked by the annexation of Texas 0 Result of war US gained TX and land in SW and CA US paid annuity to Mexico for the land 0 Gold found in CA in 1840s CA Gold Rush 0 Large population movement out west 0 Question of slavery s expansion gt would new land be free of slave I Free Soil Party formed 0 Antiexpansion of slavery 0 Keep western land for settlement 0 Believed western land served as an avenue through which people could leave lives on East Coast and start over 0 Party platform no expansion of slavery homesteads for settlers o Called quotFree Soil bc it wanted western land to be free of slave and it wanted people to be free to pursue economic opportunities afforded by western land 0 Southerners view of expansion gt slavery required expansion to remain economically viable o Compromise of 1850 0 Issue whether CA should be admitted as a free or slave state I CA wanted to be admitted as a free state 0 Southerners opposed CA admittance because such an action would disrupt the free unfree state representation balance in Congress 0 Henry Clay created the Compromise 4 main provisions I CA to be admitted as a free state I Slave trade in Washington BC was to be abolished but no slavery itself I Slavery in land from MexicanAmerican War was to be decided by popular vote I Fugitive Slave Laws passed 0 Allowed Southerners to reclaim runaway slaves 0 Made it illegal to house or aid runaway slaves 0 Made it illegal to not comply with federal agents who ask for your help in obtaining a runaway slave 0 Made Northerners upset as they saw it as a way to force them to aid in the practice of slavery o No trial by jury for captured runaway slaves Filibustering 0 Some citizens attempted to expand the US wo government sanctioning o Engaged in private wars with other countries in order to capture land for the US 0 Mostly done by Southerners to gain land for slavery 0 Most private wars or armed attacks occurred in Latin America and against Mexico 0 William Walker 0 nvaded Mexico and Nicaragua 0 Declared himself the President of Nicaragua but was deposed and 0 Killed in 1860 by the Honduran army KansasNebraska o 1854 Kansas and Nebraska territories asked for statehood gt question free or slave states 0 Slave status was to be decided by popular sovereignty vote by the people I Essentially repealed the Missouri Compromise s 36 30 clause 0 Issue of slavery divided the Democratic Party and people began to identify more by region North or South and not by party 0 Republican Party emerged o Composed of Northern Whigs Free Soilers antislavery Democrats 0 Focused on preventing the spread of slavery not necessarily slavery s abolition o quotBleeding Kansas 0 Election of 18541855 gt to decided slavery status in Kansas and Nebraska I Missourians proslavery crossed into Kansas and cast ballots to increase likelihood that Kansas would become a slave state I Fighting between antislavery Kansans and proslavery Missourians and Kansans ensued 0 Mini civil war between free and slave supporters o PostquotBleeding Kansas John Brown s raid on Harpers Ferry 0 John Brown antislavery advocate who fought in Kansas 0 Brown and his supporters attacked the armory at Harpers Ferry in Virginia I Goal was to gain weapons arm slaves and incite an uprising I Able to kill some white slave owners but overall it was a failure I Brown was put on trail found guilty and hanged 0 His death made him a martyr for the antislavery cause 0 Harper s Ferry incident increase the divide between the North and South and between freeslave groups Key Words 0 Missouri Compromise o Nullification Crisis 0 John C Calhoun Force Bill American Colonization Society William Lloyd Garrison David Walker American AntiSlavery Society Frederick Douglas Harriet Beecher Stowe Gag Rule William Henry Harrison John Tyler Henry Clay James K Polk MexicanAmerican War Gold Rush Free Soil Party Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Law Filibusters William Walker KansasNebraska Act Republican Party Bleeding Kansas Charles Sumner John Brown Abraham Lincoln


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