Chapter 1 notes (Week 1)
Chapter 1 notes (Week 1) PY 365
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Green on Thursday January 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 365 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Michael A. LaRocca in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 126 views.
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Date Created: 01/15/15
PY 365001 01162015 General Issues in Adult Development and Aging Overview 0 How old is old Stereotypes about aging 0 De nitions of agingage Why do we study human aging 0 Demographic Trends National Institute on Aging NIA measures the aging IQ Gerontology the study of aging from maturity through old age Stereotypes of Older Adults 0 Negative stereotypes of older people stem from myths of aging The result of these stereotypes could be ageism Ageism a form of discrimination against older adults based on their age Bad hearing poor vision Slow moving Bad balance Physically impaired handicapped need assistance walkingeatingbathing Living in mental facilities Memory loss dementia Alzheimer s Senile not quotall therequot in the head Unable to think clearly remember or learn new things Unhappy fearful depressed Have psychological problems Isolation Enjoy being alone Do not engage in many social activities andor do not have many friends 0 In reality Physical n The majority of the elderly do not have any impairments physically although most suffer from at least one chronic disease a Only 5 of Americans occupy nursing homes Cognitive n The majority of the elderly have the ability to learn are alert and mentally pro cient a 57 suffer from dementia Emotional a All age ranges suffer from disorders such as anxiety and depression n Over the age of 65 is when emotional disorders are at their lowest rate Social n Many have close family membersrelationships n Many have at least one close friend The LifeSpan Perspective 0 Divides the lifespan into two distinct phases 0 1st phase quotearly phasequot childhood and adolescence o 2ncl phase quotlater phasequot young adulthood middle age and old age 0 Identi ed four features of the perspective each feature works together 1 Multidirectionality n periods of growth and decline throughout development a one area may continue to develop throughout the lifespan while another declines ie vocabulary continues to expand while reaction time declines 2 Plasticity a skills even in later life can be learned and practiced I There are some limits to the degree which a skill can be improved 3 Historical context a Development depends on the environment and circumstances surrounding an individual including the historical time and culture 4 Multiple Causation a development is shaped by several factors including sociocultural biological psychological and lifecycle forces Today s Older Adults o How are they different 0 Gradual changes are continuing to happen As technology evolves and new conceptsideas are evolving so are older adu s o Tomorrow s Older Adults 0 In the future older adults will be different from today s older adults A new set of problems will arise as well as a new set of knowledgeskills that the generation will possess as the world is still evolvingchanging Primary aging Diseasefree development throughout adulthood 0 Normal Secondary aging Diseases lifestyle and other environmental changes ie pollution affect developmental changes Tertiary aging quotrapid losses that occur shortly after deathquot Chronological Age 0 Poor descriptor of a process that is timedependent processes 0 Uses calendar time to mark age 0 Cheryl was born in 1980 and it is now 2015 Cheryl is now 35 years old Other ways to de ne age 0 Perceived age 0 The age you think of yourself as being how old you feel Cheryl is 35 but feels no difference than she did when she was 27 0 Biological Age 0 Measures how various vital organ systems function Cheryl s cardiovascular system is functioning as a 50 year olds would even though she is 35 o Psychological Age 0 Refers to psychological abilities memory intelligence feelings motivation and other skills that help maintain self esteem and personal control that people use to adapt to changing environmental demands Cheryl is 35 but has trouble remembering certain things like names or where she left her keys or car 0 Sociocultural Age 0 Refers to individuals roles and habits in relation to their own society and culture 0 Many behaviors fall under this category style of dress customs language and interpersonal style Cheryl is 35 but is still not married and has children even though in her society most women are married with children by age 35 Why do we study human aging 1 Personal reasons 0 younger people may want to know what will happen to them as they get older 0 better interaction with and ability to care for older people if we understand the aging process 0 aging is a lifelong process that begins in late childhoodearly adu hood 2 P0pulation Trends 0 rapid increase in number of older adults 0 increase in the proportion of older adults in the total population 0 increased life expectancy 0 increase in political power Core Issues in Development 0 What in uences development more heredity in uence nature or environmental in uence nurture o The level to which people change or remain the same over time 0 Whether development is a smooth transition over time continuity or a series of shifts from one phase to the next discontinuity Plasticity The capacity of an individual is not xed and can continue to grow over time o Are there several paths of development or just one Basics of Research Methods 0 1 What to examine Research Questions 0 2 Study designs used 0 3 Seattle study example Developing a Research Question 0 Research Question 0 The problem to be investigated in a study stated in the form of a question 0 It is usually more exploratory than a research hypothesis 3 general approaches 0 1 observing systematically systematic observation 0 watching and recording speech and behavior observing how individuals react during an emergency 0 2 using tasks to sample behavior 0 assigning tasks and then recording speech and behavior asking adults to learn and remember a grocery list 0 3 asking for selfreports o people s answers to questions of a speci c topic example interviews and questionnaires Reliability 0 Ability of a measure to produce the same value when used repeatedly Validity Degree to which an instrument measures what its supposed to measure Independent vs Dependent variables 0 Independent variable IV 0 The presumed cause in a study 0 The aspect of the environment that an experimenter modi es or manipulates to measure its impact Dependent Variable DV 0 Behaviors or outcomes measured in an experiment 0 Research question how does chocolate affect serotonin levels IV Chocolate DV Levels of serotonin General designs for research 0 Experimental design 0 The experimenter directly manipulates one or more independentvadames With random assignment causality one variables causes another can be established 0 Strength internal validity One can be more certain than with any other design about attributing cause to the independent variables 0 Weakness external validity It may be inappropriate to generalize results beyond the laboratory Correlational Design 0 Examine the relations among two or more variables as they exist na tural y We cannot make causal attributions We observe behaviors and try to determine whether any relations exists Commonly used in aging research 0 Causeandeffect relationships cannot be determined Designs for studying development Crosssectional designs 0 Different age groups at once 0 Most common design in use in aging research 0 All measurements are made at the same time or approximate tune lnexpengve Good for exploratory investigations Looks only at age differences not changes Confounds age amp cohort effects a Age effect re ects the in uence of time dependent processes psychological biological or sociocultural on development a Cohort effect re ects differences caused by experiences and circumstances unique to the historical time in which one lives 0 Longitudinal designs 0 Follow the same people over time to look at changes 0 The same individuals are observed repeatedly at different points in their lives Confounds age amp time of measurement Allows direct measurement of change Less affected by cohort effects Expensive High level of dropouts from participants loseinterest die move Results could improve because the participants have been asked to do the same tasks again and again and not because of a natural growth or progression Sequential designs 0 Combination of crosssectional and longitudinal designs Can estimate the effects of aging and cohort Expensive and time consuming Selective attrition when people drop out of a study before the study has nished is present here too Seattle Longitudinal Study 0 What are the longitudinal changes in adults intellectual abilities o lntellectualdevelopment o Gradually levels off 0 Period of relative stability 0 Gradual decline in most abilities Trends vary among cohorts Metaanalysis A technique that allows researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables Metaanalysis allows researchers to determine whether a nding generalizes across many studies that used different methods 0 Statistical technique 0 Minimize risks to research participants 0 Describe the research to potential participants 0 Avoid deception Results should be anonymous or con dential o APA General Principle Identify best interests of those with whom you work maximize good and minimize harm Ful ll obligations to those affected by work Keep professional commitments correct misconceptions or mistrust Identify people s vulnerabilities and possible exploitation identify unjust practices Protect autonomv privacv dignity of those with whom you work