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PY370- Week 1

by: Courtney Green

PY370- Week 1 PY 370

Courtney Green
GPA 3.79
History and Systems
Evan S. Kennedy

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About this Document

A compilation of class notes, in-class discussion, and important highlights from the chapter thus far!
History and Systems
Evan S. Kennedy
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Green on Thursday January 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan S. Kennedy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 347 views.


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Date Created: 01/15/15
PY 370001 01162015 History amp Systems in Psychology Schools of Thought Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Gestalt Psychoanalysis Humanism Cognitive most today are a mix of several theoriesschools of thought 0 shift from experimental experimenting and learning about ideas to applied applying what we ve learned in the experiments to try to help others Genesis of Psychology Founded about 150 years ago Seeking to answer philosophical questions in a laboratory 0 Original focus was the scienti c study of the human mind 0 Still relativelv new Art or Science Greeks no distinction between science and philosophy 0 Extensive theories and disagreements on whether psychology is an art or a science How does science work 0 Traditional view data accumulates over time o Kuhn shared worldview of standards Preparadigmatic phase competing viewpoints Normal science phase evidence gathering to support the paradigm typical example or pattern Anomalies discovery of exceptions lead to a paradigm shift In other words discovering abnormalities that exist Exceptions to the norm The Principle of Falsi ability o Said theories must be falsi able able to be proven false testable 0 Progress comes with risky predictions 0 Post diction the idea that the experimenter claims he quotknew that was going to happenquot only after it happened doesn t count Women in Psychology 0 1800 s no women for the most part 0 intellectual inferiority periodicity function the theory that women are quotcloser to naturequot meaning that they act more emotionally and irrationally variability hypothesis the idea that because there were more men meant that there were more smart men 0 First female president of the American Psychological Association APA 0 Studies centered around gender differences and childhood education amp welfare 0 Best known for animal behavior studies and motor theory development African Americans in Psychology 0 1800 s minorities viewed as inferior o 1930 s40 s arguing racial differences in intelligence were due to racial bias and discrimination First African American to receive PhD in Psychology quotFather of Black Psychologyquot Experiment where he gave African American children and gave them a white doll and a black doll and asked the child which doll they preferred Most children chose the white doll There have been several criticisms of this experiment and several re nements and revisions Unresolved Basic Issues MindBody Problem 0 Monistic Positions matter is the only reality and therefore everything in the universe must be explained in terms of matter consciousness is the only reality and even the socalled physical world consists of ideas in our mind believe that the one and only type of substance in the world is neither material nor mental It is more basic than either 0 Dualistic Positions the mind and body exist independently and in uence each other the mind emerges from bran states and then can in uence subsequent brain activity and thus behavior the mind is a byproduct epiphenomena of brain activity and cannot affect behavior environmental experience causes both mental events and behavior and the two are totally independent and do not affect one another mental and physical events are independent and do not affect one another but are coordinated by some external agent eg God mind and body do not interact but mental and physical events are experiences simultaneously and cannot be separated because they are two aspects of the same reality o Determinism belief that everything that occurs has a cause which allows for the prediction and possible control of that occurrence Physical determinism emphasizes material causes of behavior that can be quanti ed and measured Biological determinism emphasizes genetic and physiological determinants Environmental determinism emphasized environmental events external to the organism Sociocultural determinism emphasizes the roles of society s rules customs and beliefs as determinants Or an interaction of elements of all 0 Physical determinists believe that the most important determinants of behavior are subjective including such things as beliefs emotions and values 0 Soft determinism is a compromise version of determinism Soft determinists see human behavior as arising from a cognitive appraisal of options in a given situation 0 lndeterminism assumes that human behavior does have causes but that they cannot be completely known 0 Nondeterminism posits that human cognition and behavior are freely chosen and therefore not caused by antecedent events o Applies to ideasknowledge as well as behavior 0 Debated since the time of Aristotle and Plato with no clear victor for either side 0 Nature in uence of genetics on an individual 0 Nurture in uence of environment on an individual 0 Mechanism natural processes are governed and determined by mechanical laws 0 Vitalism life is dependent on a force that does not exist in inanimate objects 0 Relationship of humans to animals 0 There are quantitative differences between different species of animals and between animals and humans 0 The big question is whether there are also qualitative differences whether or not an animal can possess emotions intelligence sense of self control selfactualization 0 Appropriate Level of Explanation o Reductionism involves explaining a complex phenomenon by reducing it to its simplest components 0 Phenomenology refers to focusing on the wholeness of an experience without attempting to reduce it to component parts


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