WEEK 4 notes
WEEK 4 notes Psych 413
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynette Walker on Friday October 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 413 at University of Washington taught by Kathryn Monahan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/23/15
Psych 413 Week 4 notes 10211023 Chapter 4 Family Relationships Generation Gap Fact of Fiction gt Early adolescence is when con ict between adolescent and parents arise 0 Asian Americans experience more con ict in the later years of adolescence o Immigrant families see less con ict when the primary communication is done in native language 0 Why Adolescents go through changes in cognitive functioning they interact with parents differently from before gt ParentTeen Con ict Judy Smertana o The parent and teen de ne issues in different ways Example Cleaning a room 0 Parent Moral issue what if guests come and the room isn39t tidy Adolescent Personal choice you don39t have to come into my room I like it this way Most con ict is seen between the mother and child 0 However kids report a stronger emotional closeness with the mother Possibly because the relationship is emotionally charged so con ict often arises Both boys and girls are closer to their mother than their father during adolescence Parenting Styles gt There are two general INDEPENDENT dimensions that characterize parenting styles 0 Demandingness degree to which the parent will expect the child to be mature and responsible Also manifested in the amount of control the parent has over child 0 Responsiveness the extent to which a parent will respond to the child s needs in an accepting and supportive environment 0 See page 129 in textbook for parenting style diagram gt Authoritative The parenting style with the best psychological and developmental outcome for child 0 High expectations but a strong focus on the child s needs 0 Setting clear boundaries on things that matter or that need parent supervisionregulation o Allows child to practice and move in a realm of independence not everything is restricted Children are allowed to make mistakes and talk to parents about it o Allowed to negotiate new rules as child develops 0 Child is more likely to talk to parents Resulting in more selfreliance down the road and social responsibility gt Authoritarian The parenting style with the most control over the child 0 High expectations low in warmth and acceptance 0 Essentially rules are rules Parents decide what is right child follows authority of parents 0 Parents value obedience often seen in poor ethnic minority families as a way of keeping the child out of danger and trouble 0 Restrictive and punitive 0 Child develops anxiety often failing to initiate activities on their own with poor communication skills gt Indulgent The parents that hold cocktail parties for their kids and give them everything the kid asks for The spoilers 0 Very responsive and warm with little to no expectations and demandingness of child 0 The parents are very involved in the child39s life but the child holds the reigns 0 Child develops a sense of authority they can have it their way Usually have few friends sel sh in ated views of themselves gt Neglectful The parents who don39t know and don39t care to know what their child is doing 0 Low in warmth and low in demandingness Letting kids run wild without a care for how they end up 0 Uninvolved in teens lives not emotionally close no behavioral boundaries 0 Teens end up not being able to handle independence well more likely to make bad decisions get into things like drugs sexual behavior criminal activity gt Ethnic differences in parenting styles 0 Authoritative most common among white families It is bene cial for all youth 0 Authoritarian most harmful for white youth It can be advantageous in an unsafe environment to be stricter on kids Often seen in ethnic minority families where corporal punishment is the norm in the minority culture Reciprocal Relationships gt The kids39 personalities will dictate how the parents will respond gt Differences in temperament high impulsivity vs low impulsivity 0 Each type of temperament will respond differently to the same parenting styles 0 Low impulsivity shows not much delinquency even before stricter parenting style is applied This fact does not change with increase in control 0 High impulsivity Already susceptible to rislq delinquent activity This reduces as parenting style holds more control Sibling Relationships gt As children move into adolescence 0 They report greater con ict and general negativity between siblings 0 They have less effective methods of con ict resolution with siblings than they do with parents gt Across adolescence 0 They become much more egalitarian but more distant and less emotionally intense 0 Why the con ict Adolescents want to develop their own identity The rst way to do that is to establish who they are not and they are not their siblings 0 There is an observed difference between malefemale sibling intimacy compared to same sex sibling intimacy Malefemale siblings show consistent intimacy throughout adolescence often seeing an increase in intimacy Less competition with opposite sex siblings Same sex siblings show a decrease in intimacy during the adolescent years though it eventually increases again once they reach adulthood Web of Connections gt The in uence of parent sibling and peer relationships on each other 0 Parentchild relationships the quality of this relationship has an impact on the sibling relationship Good quality between parent and child good sibling relationship 0 Sibling relationship Quality of this relationship in uences the quality of the peer relationship Child tests out social skills on siblings and applies it to peer relationships 0 Peer relationships Also has in uence on quality of sibling relationship Learned social skills in peer setting is then used to increase quality of sibling relationships Behavioral Genetics gt How much of behavior is genetically mediated gt Family context or genetic in uence Research on related individuals in different family settings 0 Shared Environmental In uence Studies on identical and fraternal twins along with normal blood related siblings and adopted siblings test the variance in each pair of kids39 behavior in a shared family environment 0 Nonshared Environmental In uence Same pairs of kids with varied amounts of shared genetic material but who were separated early in cthhood These studies showed a strong indicator that temperament and behavior is somewhat genetically mediated Identical twins in a shared environment showed the strongest relationship in genetically predisposed behavior Followed by Identical twins in a nonshared environment then fraternal twins then normal siblings 50 correlation then nonrelated adopted siblings gt Gene and environment correlation 0 Children can shape their own environment because of their genetics Passive Having a predisposition to a skill but not ever being exposed to opportunities to utilize skill until later in life by chance or curiosity Evocative having a predisposition to a skill and show casing some of that skill at an early age parents realize the talent and cultivate it Active Having a predisposition to a skill and living in an environment where opportunities to use the skill have been exposed to child essentially since birth Example Musical ability Passively a child may not know they have a music ability until an opportunity to play an instrument comes along Evocatively a child shows signs of musical ability at an early age and parents decide to put the child in music lessons Actively the child was always exposed to music and naturally cultivated skill Changes in Family gt As the prevalence of 2 parent families decrease in society the number of children in 1 parent mother only families increase gt Americans have the highest divorce rate of any country in the world 0 However divorce rates have leveled off since the 200039s and started to decrease again 0 Teenagers these days are less likely to experience divorce gt From highest to lowest divorce rates by ethnicity 0 Black White Hispanic Asian Personality and Divorce gt Some evidence of genetic predisposition to divorce has been seen 0 30 genetic effect of personality is seen in women that causes divorce 0 48 genetic effect of personality is seen in men that causes divorce Impact of Divorce gt Black Americans are more likely to experience parental divorce gt Children from divorced families are more likely to experience school failure sexual behavior delinquency and drug use 0 Also causes uncertainty and behavior problems 0 Most children recover from initial period of stress after divorce 1 year recovery time There are some sleeper effects effects not seen until provoked by environment 0 Late effects like romantic relationship issues seen in children who experienced divorce at a young age gt Should parents stay together for the sake of the children o It depends People who experienced parental divorce between the ages of 23 and 33 show an increase in emotional problems caused by negative con ict and emotionality in the home experienced during adolescent years Unhappy parents unhappy kids 0 Exposure to marital con ict is dangerous Reducing con ict is the 1 goal 0 Family con ict has stronger effects than family structure 2 parent vs 1 parent homes 0 The process of divorce also matters A clear clean divorce is most effective gt Strong change in nancial stability often seen 0 Kids stay with mom mom only has 50 of initial income or less gt Best Living arrangements 0 The relationships between parents and child before divorce is important If child was more attached to dad before divorce it is advised that child stay more with dad Needs continuity where child spends most of their time Impact of Remarriage gt Girls have more problems than boys during period of remarriage gt Younger women remarry quickly gt Younger children create better quality relationships with step parent than do adolescents 0 Older children have less involvement in home slower fostering of stepparentstepchild relationships gt There is an initial resurgence of problem behaviors that were seen right after the divorce 0 There are more problems in single parent homes Chapter 8 Self conceptions and Self Esteem 3 Aspects of Self System gt Self Conceptions o How we think about ourselves Traits attributes characteristics that describe ourselves Who we are and who we could be increase in future development Adolescents become adept at presenting different parts of themselves to different groups Acts differently with close peers than they do with parents or siblings There are multiple versions of the self gt Self Esteem o The extent to which you feel positive or negative about yourself gt Identity 0 Understanding who they are and how they are different and similar to others 0 What does it mean to have a certain identity They learn this in adolescence Thinking about the self gt Teens can think about themselves in more abstract ways gt They move from concrete factual based descriptions of themselves to abstract personality based descriptions They are more trait focused complex and explain self in nuanced ways gt Learn to reconcile contradictory aspects of themselves Differentiation of the self gt Develop multifaceted view of self 0 They can be one person in one speci c situation and another person in another situation 0 Actual Self Who you actually are at the present moment 0 Ideal Self Who you want to become 0 Feared Self Who you are afraid to become Discerning disparities between these 3 types of self helps in self evaluation and regulation of behaviors and cognitive decisions The False Self gt True vs False Self o The false self is the best impression of oneself presented in certain situations Putting on airs 0 True self is who you are and how you act day to day in comfortable situations 0 Most likely to exhibit false self to Romantic partners Parents Close Friends gt Why 0 Clinical reasons to devalue the true self Teens who use false self more are devaluing the self Who they are doesn39t seem valuable to themselves 0 Social reasons to impress others Being liked and accepted is more important than being honest with others and yourself This is a biologically driven behavior teens feel more reward when near peers 0 Developmental reasons role experimentation A normal developmental stage where teens are guring out who they want to be and which quotrolequot is really them Self Esteem gt Fluctuations in Self Esteem Rosenberg o 2 types of self esteem Barometric selfesteem that is effected by day to day changes in experience Base line what the selfesteem eventually falls back to as it is how one feels about themselves on average 0 Teens see lots of uctuations in selfesteem particularly during early adolescence 0 Global vs Domain Speci c Global how you generally feel about yourself Domain aspects of yourself where you have a different level of selfesteem does not affect global selfesteem o Selfesteem is also in uenced by the incorporation of attitudes from others Cooley and the selfjudgement about competencies James gt What Contributes most to global selfesteem o 1 Physical appearance The 1 contributor to selfesteem diverges for males and females at puberty 2 Scholastic Competence 3 Social Acceptance 4 Behavioral Conduct 5 Athletic Competence Peers reach peak in uence on selfesteem during adolescence Classmates have higher in uence than the adolescent39s close peer group gt Selfesteem across different groups 0 Females show signi cant drops in selfesteem during adolescence compared to males Will always have an average lower selfesteem than males throughout lifespan o Asians and Hispanics have the lowest selfesteem in American culture 0 White girls have 2nCI highest though still fairly low 0 Black girls have the highest selfesteem because black culture seems impervious to the majority cultures expectations for beauty gt Consequences 0 High selfesteem associated with better well being 0 Low selfesteem associated with Deviant activity Psychological distress depression and anxiety Victimization Has both short and long effects OOOO Identity gt Erick Erikson39s Theory of Identity framework based on passing identity c ses 0 Most important for adolescence is the identity vs role confusion that Erikson proposed occurs between the ages of 12 and 14 Also important is the crises of Intimacy vs isolation which is broadly between 15 and 30 o Erikson39s framework is very rigid and identity searching takes much longer and goes well into adulthood Determining Identity Status James Marcia gt Based on the independent dimensions of Exploration and Commitment to an identity 0 Identity Achieved The goal of identity searching Shows the best psychological outcome They have gone through the exploratory period tried on different identities and have come to a nal sense of who they are They are able to commit to an identity 0 Identity Moratorium They are in the process of discovering their own identity They have not yet committed to an identity but this is a normal and healthy process that precedes Identity achievement 0 Foreclosed Identity They chose and committed to their identity without having the opportunity to explore the possibilities Theoretically they won t be able to realize their full potential 0 Identity Diffused They haven39t committed to an identity and they aren39t motivated or able to explore themselves and different identities Disjointed sense of self don39t make decisions no real future goals Ethnic Identity Status Phinney et al gt On the dimensions of strong or weak identi cation with their own ethnic group vs strong and weak identi cation with the majority culture group 0 Bicultural They identify strongly with both cultures and can easily transition between ethnic and majority culture 0 Assimilated No attachment to the individual ethnic group but holds complete integration into majority group Often see familial con icts arise Marginalized was not able to t themselves into either group 0 Separated Strong ethnic identity with a lack of identi cation with majority culture Restricted to success in only ethnic culture 0 What Role Does Personality Play gt Personality Traits o Allport Trait Theories Big Five or Five Factor Model Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Temperament based there is a strong continuity for temperament during the life span 0 Identity Achieved Hi Extraversion Lo Neuroticism More likely to go through identity moratorium Foreclosed Identity Lo openness not imaginative wanting to stay the same 0 Identity Diffused Hi neuroticism Lo agreeableness Lo openness Personal Situations gt Study of personality measured at the beginning of college 0 25 years later 0 Depending on whether they had positive or negative life experiences Positive events showed increase in extraversion decrease in neuroticism Negative events increase in neuroticism decrease in extraversion gt There is a strong stability for most dimensions of personality 0 McCrae and Corta 1994 Thought personality was xed by age 30 o Robins et al 2001 Shows slight improvement in most dimensions of personality but can only be changed so much 0 Ages 10 20 showed an increase in social vitality social dominance both attributed to extraversion and openness
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