Hist1020 Cold and Hot Wars march 22-24
Hist1020 Cold and Hot Wars march 22-24 World history II
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World history II
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to World history II at Auburn University taught by Dr. Cathleen Giustino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see World History 2C in History at Auburn University.
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The Korean War and Vietnam War March 24 Study Questions: I. What was the Policy of Containment and who began this idea? II. Who were Syngman Rhee and Kim Il Sung? III. Who was Ho Chi Minh and what did he do? IV. What was decided at the Geneva Conference? I. Intro A. Client state: had financial and/or military backing from one of the big super powers. a. These were expected to share in political and economic systems of the larger superpower they were getting help from. b. Some countries avoided becoming client states B. Non-aligned states: didn’t become client states during the Cold War a. Egypt, Yugoslavia, and India b. These managed to escape the spheres of influence C. Cold war and Hot Wars a. There was no actual fighting between the super powers SU and US. b. Hot wars had actual fighting c. Hot wars during Cold War: Korean War, Vietnam War, and Soviet- Afghan War D. Hot Wars: Korea and Vietnam a. These began as local conflicts but because of the Cold War rivalry, Korea and Vietnam got entangled into that as well. b. Korea and Vietnam i. Similarity: both came to be divided into northern and southern halves during the cold war era. Both, the northern half was client state of the Soviet Union during the cold war era and the southern halves were client states of the United States. ii. Difference: Vietnam is now no longer divided (reunited in 1975 into a state with single party rule). Korea remains divided into northern and southern halves (north is single party with command economy and southern in multi-party rule and free enterprise. c. What led to the local conflicts becoming global? i. US foreign policy during the cold war era 1. The Policy of Containment II. Study Question 1 (I): What was the Policy of Containment and who began this idea? A. Policy of Containment a. Argued Soviet Union is expansionists’ power seeking to expand its reach to take over the entire world. b. Said the US had to work to contain the spread of soviet power making sure it didn’t spread and take over rest of the world c. The domino theory: argued if one country in region fell inside SU influence, all of neighboring countries would fall into the soviet influence. d. Started by US diplomat George F. Kennan. i. Worked as diplomat in Moscow starting in 1944 ii. While in Moscow, observed things Stalin was doing and how we was firming soviet hold in Poland and other countries in eastern Europe as well as eastern Germany. iii. He concluded SU was a very aggressive country iv. SU also only responded to military force; you couldn’t just reason with them in conversation v. The Long Telegram: by George F. Kennan 1946. This was the first writing of the Policy of containment. e. President Harry S Truman picked up on his ideas and created another part of US policy i. Truman doctrine: 1947. This was a public announcement that the US had officially adopted the policy of containment as US foreign policy aimed at stopping the spread of SU power. ii. Also added to the policy of containment that the US was prepared to offer military aid to any country threatened by possibility of soviet expansion into their territory. 1. This was a big promise that contributed to local conflicts becoming global. f. NSC 68 i. National security council 68: stated SU was a fiercely aggressive country aiming to take over the world ii. Added that US would work to stop soviet domination (red spread) iii. Said the US would use military intervention if necessary to stop spread of soviet power. iv. This was announced April 1950 1. This was one year after SU exploded first successful atomic weapon making US more nervous. 2. Also year Korean War began g. Korean War i. 1950-1953 ii. 19 century: Korea was plagued with political instability. It was so bad that a foreign power was able to step in and take over. 1. Japan took over Korea in 1910. 2. Japan had its own expansionist ideals 3. This was very harsh rule and made effort to wipe out Korean culture and religion 4. Also took over land in Korea and then forced native population to work the land. 5. Then, the food they grew they couldn’t sell or eat. This was sent to Japan. Koreans worked hard with little to eat so famines happened. 6. Revolts were suppressed cruelly. 7. Korean nationalist movement emerged showing the spread of European ideas. 8. Koreans embraced this idea because they saw it as liberating and could maybe help them get out of Japanese hold. 9. In 1919, it grew strong enough that the nationalist leaders in Korea went to Paris hoping to meet with President Woodrow Wilson to help convince him to give Korea independence in line with the fourteen points. This failed because he wouldn’t meet with them. 10.They went home to look for new ideas. Some of the Korean leaders of nationalism moved to Leninist ideas. 11.Korean revolutionary movement happened and were taken by the ideas of Lenin (revolutionary vanguard). This was a Bolshevik movement. 12.Finally at end of WWII, Korea was liberated from Japanese rule because Japan lost WWII. They didn’t get their freedom. 13.The SU invaded North Korea and liberated them from Japanese and US did the same in the south. This is how it divided. 14.This was divided at the 38 thparallel. This is literally a line on the map and became the official dividing line. 15.Also agreed that eventually multi-party elections in Korea would happen to unify the two halves. This never happened because North and South leaders had very different ideas and didn’t get along. III. Study Question 2 (II): Who were Syngman Rhee and Kim Il Sung? A. Syngman Rhee a. 1875-1965 b. Korean nationalist to supported US c. Spent most of his life in US (get life dates) d. Very pro US e. Hated SU and what they stood for f. Killed people who supported the SU (who were in the south) B. Kim Il Sung a. 1912-1994 b. Supported SU and longtime admirer of Lenin (revolutionary vanguard) c. Hated the US his whole life. d. Grandson Kim Jong Un who also hates US e. He wanted north Korea to have total control over Korea f. Wanted North Korea to invade south and take it over. i. Felt like he needed to ask SU permission to invade the south and needed soviet backing. ii. 1950, asked Stalin for the green light to invade and he did give him permission thinking US wouldn’t be interested in stopping this. He was wrong. iii. The US did protest the invasion and sent US forces to fight on side of South Korea iv. This was seen as putting the policy of containment into action v. US and SU sent troops to their respective sides. g. US was advancing into North Korean territory but they were stopped by China in the fall of 1950. i. 1949, china was taken over by communist party ii. Able to push troops back to 38 thparallel iii. Continued to 1953 h. Truce was thclared 1953 i. 38 parallel became the truce line in 1953 ending the war. i. South Korea official name: Republic of Korea i. 1988, South Korea became democratic with multi-party rule due to pressures inside of south ii. Students were mainly responsible iii. Had enormous economic success which changed after 1988 j. North Korea official name: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea i. Authoritarianism ii. Korean Workers Party is in power iii. Leader: Kim Jong-un 1. Came to power in 2011 2. Calls himself “Supreme Leader” C. Vietnam War a. Indochina – area between India and china b. 1802, government of Vietnam was taken over local native dynasty: Nguyen Dynasty i. This wasn’t only group who desired to rule over Vietnam ii. France wathalso interested in ruling over Vietnam 1. 16 century when catholic missionaries is when interest began and grew over time especially 19 th century imperialism. 2. By 1887, France had complete control over Vietnam 3. Took land away from small farmers and made large farms owned by small number of wealthy privileged individuals. Some of these were French, others were members of the Nguyen Dynasty (worked together a lot to maintain control). 4. No means of sustenance they owned themselves. To survive, many worked on this land for long hours for low pay. Very miserable. Some worked on rubber plantations of the French (compete with Belgium and Leopold II). iii. Some Vietnamese tried to overthrow France 1. Ho Chi Minh was the most successful IV. Study Question 3 (III): Who was Ho Chi Minh and what did he do? A. Ho Chi Minh a. 1890-1969 b. Name means “bringer of light” which was given to him. Not real name. c. He liked nationalism and travelled to France and also in 1919 tried to meet with Woodrow Wilson to make a request for US backing in Vietnamese independence. i. Wilson wouldn’t meet with him. ii. Ho stayed in France and became exposed to Leninism iii. Taken by idea of revolutionary vanguard. iv. Ho became Leninist/Bolshevik v. He travelled and lived in SU and trained with SU in military leadership and revolution. vi. He became very Pro-Soviet d. 1941 Ho went back to Vietnam. i. Japan had taken over Vietnam by this point. ii. France was conquered by Germany so gave ally Japan Vietnam. iii. Still wanted independence and organized a movement e. Viet Minh was the independence movement i. Adopted Lenin theory and revolutionary vanguard ii. Pro Bolshevik and Pro Soviet iii. Fierce guerilla fighters who directed military efforts against Japanese. iv. Guerilla tactics: nontraditional fighting – ambushes, hit and run tactics, small units of operation that are lightly armed. Easily hide and move around. v. Japanese left Vietnam after being defeated in WWII vi. Viet Minh declared independence of Vietnam f. France wanted their old colony back. i. End of 1945, France sent troops to fight against Viet Minh forces ii. This was the first Indochina war. g. First Indochina war 1946-1954 (9 years) i. Ended in battle of Dien Bien Phu (March to May 1954) ii. Traditional military v. guerilla forces iii. France lost iv. Us didn’t want Ho to be in charge v. Geneva Conference was held V. Study Question 4 (IV): What was decided at the Geneva Conference? A. Geneva Conference a. Held in Geneva Switzerland b. Vietnam would be divided into north and south th c. This would be the 17 parallel d. Ho Chi Minh was in control of North Vietnam i. Pro SU e. Ngo Dinh Diem was in charge of south Vietnam i. Pro US and against Ho B. Geneva Conference a. Were supposed to be multi-party election in 1956 to reunite North and South b. This never happened and war broke out c. 1957 war broke out: second Indochina war or the Vietnam War C. Vietnam war a. Started local but expanded because US became very involved sending military advisors to help Vietnam and sent combat troops in 1965. b. Jan 1973, US announced it would leave fighting of Vietnam and ended all military fighting while SU kept funding military in North c. April 1975 war ended with north conquering south creating a new unified Vietnam d. Socialist Republic of Vietnam (communist party of Vietnam) i. Single party rule and still exists today ii. Free enterprise is kind of coming in