Notes from 10/15-10/22
Notes from 10/15-10/22 PHI 115
Popular in Normative Ethics: Contemporary Moral Problems
Popular in PHIL-Philosophy
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 115 at Pace University taught by Dr. Mitchell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Normative Ethics: Contemporary Moral Problems in PHIL-Philosophy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 10/24/15
101515 Chapter 19 Social Contract Thomas Hobbes o Advocated for social contract Without organizing then couldn t function as humans 0 No peaceful life Social Contract 0 Agreement to content ourselves with only so much liberty against others as we would allow them to have against us Justice and injustice are grounded in this contract Seek peace and follow it Covenants social contract 0 An understanding with our fellow citizens I We abide by the constitution Advocated for strong ruler to enforce the laws Alternative is self destruction 0 Because no peace 1020 15 Social Contract Thomas Hobbes Social Contractagreementconvent Natural condition of humankind war everyone against everyone 0 Competition for scarce goods wealth security honor Feels people would be 0 Solitary 0 Poor 0 Nasty o Brutish 0 Short Hobbes o Bleak view of human nature a Thinks people are bad and have to be controlled at all times a Warring type because people are aggressive 0 Life is brutal I Goal is to seek peace and follow it 0 Do this though social contract 0 Its how we will get justice Rousseau opposite view a People are born good but are corrupted by society Social Contract 0 Agreement to content ourselves with only so much liberty against others as we would allow them to have against us Justice and injustice are grounded in the social contract Law of nature 0 General rule forbidding us to do What is destructive of our own lives and obligating us to do Whatever best preserves them I Peace and prosperity depend 11 some limitation of natural rights 0 Hobbes 0 Wanted absolute ruler Will keep people from killing each other I EX the English had a monarchy 0 Envisions society being like lord of the ies 0 Justiceabiding by the social contract 0 If we agree we have a civil society 0 No wars people getting along and not killing each other because of lack of trust 102015 Chapter 20Theory of Justice 0 Justice social contract that rationally selfinterested free individuals would agree on if they were deliberately from a hypothetical original position of perfect equality 0 Veil of ignorance o Deliberators in original position have no knowledge of own social status class positions or even natural abilities and inclinations o Regardless of characteristics life would be considered fair 0 Behind veil of ignorance there is not biases 0 Only inequalities allowed to exist are those that result in compensating benefits for everyone especially least advantaged 0 Open to a number of things a Raises question of is this fair not knowing who you would be 0 Fair Principles of Justice 0 Equal rights to most extensive scheme of equal basic liberties I Some individuals for all 0 Political liberty freedom speechassembly personal property a My freedom has to be compatible with others I Cant infringe on other peoples freedom 0 Wealth and income need not be equal I We are all different regardless this is not going to let this stop someone from running from office 0 Difference I Inequality of wealth and authority are just only if they result in compensating benefits for everyone in particular for least advantaged members of society 0 Veil of ignorance 0 Behind veil don t know our personal characteristics 0 Decide what forms of justice are good for all I Looking for what s fair because don t know who you will be when you leave the veil 102215 Chapter 21 Defense of Abortion Morality states that a fetus has a right to life Thomas agrees that the baby doesn t exceed the mother that has her own right to life 0 Therefore an abortion can be morally permissible Example 0 Violinist analogy 167 I Plugged into you on life support and can only live plugged into you are you then responsible to save his life If baby has right to life is argued that mother has a right to her own life Does rape allow a woman to get an abortion 0 Some say no never permissible 0 Thompson says it is allowed Chapter 22 Moral and Legal Status of Abortion Agrees with Noonan s thesis debating issue on whether or not a fetus is a person Warren s thesis is the fetus is not a person Characteristics central to concept of personhood o Sentience capacity to have conscious experience Emotionality Reason Capacity to communicate Selfawareness o Moral agency 0000 Fetus cant experience sentience therefore not persons with rights Fetus Lack these characteristics so according to Warren they aren t persons Being a fetus doesn t mean you are a member of the moral community Woman has right to protect her own life and health it out weighs the potential of a fetus being born Infanticide a Baby born over a year and then killedmorally wrong to kill
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