Psych notes Thoughts
Psych notes Thoughts Psych 105
Popular in Intro to psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105 at Washington State University taught by Arig Aboulenein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Intro to psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
Reviews for Psych notes Thoughts
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/24/15
Psych 105 Thought Cognition mental activities involved in and Thinking 1 using mental images 2 creating concepts 3 solving problems 1 Using mental images mental representation of objects or events that are NOT physically present picturing images of object in your head 2 Creating concepts mental grouping of similar objects events or ideas I Mental shortcuts I Saves mental resources for harder situations Types of concepts Formal concepts mental category formed by learning rules 0 these are rigid Natural concepts formed by everyday experiences 0 0 think of birds and how penguin somewhat fits in the bird category Prototypes best or most typical example of a particular subject Examplars individual instances Natural Concepts 1 Prototype most typical instance I bird eagle crow pigeon 2 Exemplars individual instances held in memory I bird all the birds you know Prototypes these can be real examples combo of features from many different examples the averagequot category vehicle prototype car Typicality Effect items that are more similar to prototypes in question are processed faster if you are familiar with the item or animal in question you process the question faster Prototypes amp Priming Priming when exposed to one stimuli affects your response to another stimulus Priming with the typicality effect objects that are higher in similarity to the prototype are primed more strongly 9reaction time faster Exemplars the memory stores actual instances of the category I Category membership decided by comparing the object to all exemplars in the memory Exemplars vs Prototypes Different by Exemplar not as abstract as prototypes made up of specific examples able to handle variable categories quotgamequot sports video games board games Prototype more likely to be used when you have little experience and don t have any known exemplars 3 Solving problems we manipulate mental images and use concepts including prototypes and exemplars when we need to solve a problem Trial and Error 9trying different solutions and eliminating those that do not work most basic strategy impractical too many tries takes too long to solve Algorithms a strategy that involves following a specific rule procedure or method that always provides the right answer Ex math problems recipe step by step Instinct 9a sudden realization of a solution often occurs when you recognize the problem is similar light bulb momentquot Heuristic a mental shortcut to reduce the number of solutions rule of thumbquot 9NOT GUARENTEED Obstacles to Problemsolving 0 Functional fixedness the inability to see a problem form a new perspective 0 Mental set the tendency to approach a problem with a mindset that has worked in the past using the same method that was used in a past event to solve the current problem Language and Intelligence The purpose of language to communicate to express meaningful information in a way that can be understood by others a system for combining symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful ideas Displacement language can communicate meaningful ideas objects and activities that are NOT physically present Generativity language is creative there are infinite number of new and different phrases Sign Language 9is a language has syntax displacement generative for the hearing impaired Multilingualism knowing multiple languages is important Balanced proficiency Equal proficiency Knowing multiple languages produces better ability to control attention and inhibit distracting information better at switching your attention to new stimuli when needed better at taking another person s perspective build up cognitive reserves Intelligence The global capacity to think rationally act purposefully it is re ected in effective rational and goaldirected behavior and Intelligence Tests French scientist Created a test to measure mental ability for the government memory attention ability to understand similarities and differences 0 Mental agethe average age at which each question should be answered correctly Ex 7 year old with a mental age of 9 StanfordBinet Intelligence Test Created by Took Binet s test and revised it Developed the concept of IQ Mass intelligence testing the army developed a way to test millions of recruits during WWI 0 Army Alpha test administered in writing 0 Army Beta test administered orally to recruits and draftees who could not read 9This is the first wide spread use of these test Ellis Island there were so many immigrants trying to move to this island that the immigrants were given an intelligence test those who failed were considered stupid and were not allowed to immigrate WAIS Wechsler Intelligence Scales developed specifically for adults Includes 0 Verbal score vocab comprehension and general knowledge 0 Performance score completing pictures telling stories lQ is calculated by comparing your score to the score of people who are the same age Two types of intelligence tests 1 Achievement test measures how much you already know from education or training Aptitude test assess a person s ability to benefit from education of training Requirements of a good test 1 Theories of Intelligence Standardization administration of a test to a large population to received large amounts of data to find the norm score Norm typically following a pattern Reliability the ability of a test to produce consistent results Validity the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure believed that single factor g affects many different kinds of mental abilities is equivalent to one s level of intelligence 9 Believed that all mental intelligence is connected so if one does bad in verbal ability then they tend to do poorly on other test proposed 7 different primary mental abilities these mental abilities are all separated from each other 0 Believed that intelligence was too diverse to fit as a single number mental abilities are independent of each other identified 8 different types of intelligence Different culturesdifferent kinds of intelligence Emphasized both universal aspects of intelligence behavior the importance of adapting to a particular social and cultural environment Proposed successful intelligence involves Analytic Creative Practical know how to compare and contrast Theories of Intelligence Description Spearman s Theory believed a single factor affects intelligence mental ability is all connected Mental energylevel of intelligence Thurston Theory proposed 7 different primary mental abilities all separated from each other believed that intelligence is too diverse to be numbered Gardner s Theory proposed 8 different primary mental abilities mental abilities are independent can NOT be re ected in a test Different cultures Different intelligence Sternberg s Theory universal intelligence adapting to a social and cultural environment Successful intelligence Analytical Creative Practical