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Week 4 Notes - Grammar

by: Annalise Parnello

Week 4 Notes - Grammar LING 100

Annalise Parnello
Fundamentals of Grammar
Emily Curtis

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About this Document

I know we just had a midterm on this material, but I thought I'd make this week's notes available for anyone who wanted to brush up on it for the final or just because (: These notes primarily cove...
Fundamentals of Grammar
Emily Curtis
Class Notes
grammar, Linguistics
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annalise Parnello on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING 100 at University of Washington taught by Emily Curtis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Grammar in Linguistics at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 10/24/15
LING 100 FUNDAMENTALS OF GRAMMAR WEEK 4 EVIDENCE FOR A HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE IN PHRASES Ambiguity 2 meanings due to 2 possible structures Movement Constituents can be moved around Replacement Pronouns can replace constituents WHAT MAKES A SENTENCE 0 Every sentence needs a noun phrase and a verb phrase o The subiect and the predicate respectively 0 Sometimes there s an object o The object is the noun phrase inside the verb phrase this creates a complex predicate 0 It s the person or thing that gets VERBed 0 Sometimes there s an indirect obiect 0 It s usually a noun phrase in a prepositional phrase o The subject VERBs something forinto somethingsomeone Sometimesomewheresomehow 0 quotat school quothopefullyquot etc 0 Can be at beginning or end of sentence MOVEMENT Typically sentences are SVO subject verbobject or subjectpredicate order Sometimes we move things around for questions or for emphasis Moving things around can also reveal constituents Focus position moving object to the front of the sentence Emphasis requires dummydo moving quotneverquot quotalwaysquot etc to the front Cleft for emphasis quotIt is SUBJECTOBJECT that Passivization moving things to takeout who was doing the action or move it to the back Indirect object shift switching place of direct and indirect objects Indirect object usually uses its preposition Particle shift little prepositions like quothangs gp or quotturn in can be moved to the other side of the object Moving things around is evidence of smaller meaningful units constituents IDENTIFYING CONSTITUENTS Can be done via 0 Moving the constituents around 0 Replacing them 0 Coordinating them with a likekind constituent another PP or NP etc When performing the tests you re far more likely to see a false fail than a false pass No test works every time so try multiple That said the cleft test works well for many When moving constituents move the constituent the whole constituent and nothing but the constituent Example sentence for the following sections quotMy cat sleeps in the middle of the bed REPLACEMENT Echo questions replacing it with a wh question 0 My cat sleeps in the middle of what NP replacement 0 My cat sleeps where PP replacement 0 My cat sleeps in what NP replacement Constituents can stand alone as the answers to questions lnterrogatives involve replacement and movement 0 Where does my cat sleep 0 In what does my cat sleep Proforms phrase replaced by it she there those etc The type of proform depends on the antecedent the phrase the proform will refer back to Possible ambiguity via misinterpretation of antecedent ltshe sleeps in the middle of the bed 0 She sleeps in it 0 My cat sleeps there 0 My cat does so 0 My cat sleeps in the middle of the bed and so do Coordinationconjunction conjoining 2 like constituents using a conjunction This can only be done for units of the same type two NP s two VP s etc Conjoining makes one big constituent of the same type FANB0YS for and nor but or yet so 0 My cat sleeps in the middle of the bed or the blanket NP coordination 0 My cat sleeps and eats in the middles of the bed VP coordination SUMMARY OF TESTS FOR CONSTITUENTS 0 Coordination 0 Movement only works for noun phrases o Passivization 0 Indirect object shift 0 Cleft works for some prepositional phrases 0 Move object for focus 0 Replacement o Proform o Wh question 0 Echo question


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