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Notes 5 - 17th C. England

by: Allison Lock

Notes 5 - 17th C. England ARCH 143

Marketplace > Drexel University > Architecture > ARCH 143 > Notes 5 17th C England
Allison Lock
GPA 3.4
Architecture and Society III
Paula Spilner

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About this Document

Major ideas of 17th century English architecture as discussed in class. Good for main ideas needed for essay exam questions.
Architecture and Society III
Paula Spilner
Class Notes
ARCH 143
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Lock on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 143 at Drexel University taught by Paula Spilner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Architecture and Society III in Architecture at Drexel University.

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Date Created: 10/24/15
17th Century English Architecture King James I and his architect Inigo Jones King Henry VIII and his son King Edwards VI continued protestant ideas His sister Mary brought the country back to Catholicism in a bloody name which was why she was named bIoody Mary None of these ruIers Iived very long Elizabeth then ruled she was protestant but terri ed her cousin bIoody Mary Queen of Scots wouId overthrow here therefore she had her sister killed The next in line was James I Stuart who was originally catholic and the King of Scots Elizabeth made a deal with him that if he became protestant he would become king He did both However he was not even English therefore he campaigned to prove his validity He did this partly through architecture and the architect Inigo Jones who was obsessed with PaIIadio the Italian revivaIist architect and who was considered the Vitruvius of his age a Inigo Jones made plans for King James I Stuart called Whitehall Palace which was intended to rival the French palaces of the Louvre and Versailles Only one small section dubbed the banqueting house was built Even this as an individual was huge and the most classic English architecture of its time The space is completely unobstructed space which features cIassicaI cqumns orders and an overhanging wrap around balcony The plan of the balcony house is similar to that of a basilica which occurred because PaIIadio stated that basiIicas were meant to be royaI houses The niche that held the emperor39s stature in Rome was used to house the King39s throne in 17th century Europe The hall also does not have cqumns obstructing the free space but the room is decorated with halfcolumns which are reminiscent of Palladio39s elevation drawings which do not indicate how far the columns should be from the walls b A new facade for Old Saint Peters Cathedral in London was also designed by Inigo Jones Similarly to the banqueting hall the facade is similar to the Temple of the Sun and the Moon in Rome which was drawn by PaIIadio Both images have a lower coIonnade supporting statues and three triumphaI arches It is believed thatJones chose this design because PaIIadio stated the building was designed by a quotRoman Kingquot that may not have ever existed Nonetheless Jones believed that the patronage was appropriate for the building c PaIIadio also helped King James to establish England as a city with signi cant Roman routes This is true as London had been a Roman city with structures such as basiIicas temples and forums of this only Hadrian39s Wall survived PaIIadio went to stone henge and mapped the site He drew star and triangle formations around the plan and compared it to a Roman theater that also had triangles and circles inlayed over it This was simply not true it was built likely by druids but it most de nitely based on archaeology preceded the Romans The Earl of Bedford owned a large estate and Covent Garden which was agricultural land He decided to develop his property as the city of London was expanding a Covent Garden was developed by the Earl of Bedford by lnigo Jones to make money It is still referred to as Covent Garden The earl desired to attract wealthy to middle class families therefore he included a church in the space The area is very similar to the Place des Vogues in Paris It consists of large stately houses that repeat to create regularity and uniformity which appear as a large palace This also means that no neighbors can outshine or out build one another The church was the rst new protestant church in England since King George Vlll left the Roman church The church is oriented so that the alter faces the east so that light may be able to ood the apse This meant that the back of the church faces the piazza The entrance to the church is very plan with simple rounded windows quoins and a lowsloped triangular roof The interior is similarly plain with no sculptures and little decoration which is traditional for the protestant religion The side of the church that faces the square appears very like Greek and Roman cathedrals The earl only wished for a barn Jones insisted on the handsomest barn The facade has a fake door and four large simple columns two circular two rectangular The roof is sloped at a low angle with the roof trusses showing Jones says the design is in the Tuscan order because Palladio said that the order was appropriate for utility buildings such as barns Unfortunately for London by 1666 the city was built primarily of wood with close quarters and narrow winding streets a re occurred and burnt all of the city that was enclosed in the Roman walls The city burnt for ve days destroying thousands of buildings There were many plans that were made for the reconstruction of the city Some were orthogonal and worked to rationalize the city and include public works while others were more lavish Sir Christopher Wren was an astronomy professor at Oxford College He was not an architect builder or designer Wren had travelled Europe and read architecture books therefore was considered self educated His design was the most lavish was favored by the king and featured streets radiating out from signi cant buildings a rebuild of Saint Peters which and the Royal exchange The radiating street design was similar to that of Pope Sixtus39 plan for Rome This plan out emphasis on the King s power and the church but also included bridges This plan was not built either Despite the rational plans that were proposed the city was rebuilt in a similar manner to the destroyed city because the people who had their buildings destroyed still owned and wanted their lands a The major reconstruction was of St Paul39s Cathedral which occurred from 16751709 The facade was designed by Christopher Wren the selftaught architect His overall structure is magni cent but it barrows and combines many architectural ideas from differently places It features anking towers that are similar to St lvo39s cupola in Rome the circular portico is similar to the facade of St Maria della Pace in Rome and the double columns come from the Louvre Palace in Paris France The interior also barrows ideas such as the dome but modi es them this dome is a double dome The design for this had to be magni cent because it was to be the church of England b Christopher Wren along with his assistants were also in charge of the rebuilding of many of the smaller churches They came up with a variety of different oor plans and design They used classical porticos engaged columns and bright white spaces and light They built St Mary le Bow in 1670 and St Stephen39s Walbrook which is named for a tributary that no longer exists The church has plain glass windows classical articulation and an absence of columns which creates a large wide space in front of the alter that is capped with a dome The pulpit is the focus of the church as opposed to the alter IV The country houses of 17th century Europe were incredible lavish a Castle Howard in Yorkshire was designed byJohn Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor It features a traditional plan centered about a great hall but with extensive wings The exterior features columns orders and rusti cation This house also features a dome which wasn t common but had been done before by Palladio The dome features a painting which implies bravery as it shows the scene of a man stealing one of the god39s chariots and dying as he failed but he was brave enough to try b Blenheim Palace was built for the Duke of Marlborough after winning a signi cant battle for the queen The houses were dif cult to hold onto and the rich men often married wealthy Americans to support them


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