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Week 4 Notes

by: Taylor McAvoy

Week 4 Notes Com 201 A

Taylor McAvoy
GPA 3.5
Intro to comm 1
Ekin Yasin

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About this Document

Here are week 4 notes which include both lectures, all article reading notes with the suggested notes as well and some helpful key terms from Friday session! Keep up the good work guys!
Intro to comm 1
Ekin Yasin
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Saturday October 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Com 201 A at University of Washington taught by Ekin Yasin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro to comm 1 in Communication Studies at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/24/15
Lecture 5 Monday October 19 2015 Media effects Individual and collective Reminders Extra credit worksheets covering suggested readings for extra credit are on canvas allowed to do this twice per quarter and due the Friday after suggested reading assigned Participate in class discussion 0 Research in action series begins on Wednesday with rst visitor Dr Katy Pearce Today Media effects individual and collective action Wednesday Use of media by politicians to reach political ends Future Should media be regulated Framing Future of newspapers and public media 1 How does media impact individual behavior 1 Our interactions with media form our identities EX Sesame Street We start our relationship with media from a very early age News and literature now focuses a lot on how media and new technologies affect children and adolescents Danah Boyd lt39s complicated The social lives of networked teens 2 Our interactions with media determine the type of political personality we will have Cynicism An inclination to believe that people and companies are mainly self interested a cynical outlook on life There is a correlation between political participation and media messages Midterm elections have been less popular than presidential elections in the past and especially in 2014 with 364 participation in midterm elections and 582 participation in the presidential election Voting population in 2012 presidential election Age 1829 3044 4564 65 Percentag 45 595 679 72 e Even in an election geared toward the younger generation there still wasn39t a huge turn out amongst 1829 year olds Spiral of Cynicism Cappella and Jameson More media involvement results in an increase in cynicism Many media companies were actively trying to increase cynicism Certain groups are more politically cynical than others does media have something to do with this Susan D Moeller Compassion Fatigue Why don39t people feel moved to act on issues in the world Many media consumers want quick solutions and happy endings and don39t care as much after hearing about a story continuously Why does more media not equal more action 3 Media depictions generate an idea of what the world is like for us lnclass conversation 1 1 How much content do you see on TV and lms that you would qualify as violent 1 List the types of content that depict violence lms shows games etc 1 Discuss the impact violent media has on your life How does it make you feel How does it in uence your acts Heterogeneous population Homogenization Cultivation theory George Gerbner Light watchers 2 hours per day Heavy watchers 4 hours per day With heavy watchers the media creates a quotMean worldquot syndrome in which people tend to see the world as a mean place Documentary clip on media violence Sound in video was introduced in the 2039s and since then violence in lms and shows was a growing concern There is a big idea that violence in the media makes us more violent but the question there is why do most media viewers never commit a violent act What Gerbner found was that it often makes us instead more scared that we will be the victim of a violent crime because it seems like there is more violence in the world than there actually is Gerbner ed Hungary to escape fascism and then fought in one of the bloodiest battles in WWII for the US He earned a bronze star for his bravery and then went to study violence Cultural indicators research project exposure to media violence was effective in complicated ways like not only quantity of violence but quality as well Religion art family and oral tradition combined in media to tell a story Visual media is a global language and violence is a big part of it Violence has become a ritual and daily intake which makes it dangerous and different from stories in the past Fairy tales had violence and pictures and news has violence that is valuable to showing the severity of a situation or truth However most violence we see are quothappy violencequot that has entertainment value and usually ends happily humor also is integrated in it to make the violence easier to swallow and writers can get away with more of it Effects on children people think that violence makes children act violent as a quotmonkey see monkey doquot kind of thing but its more complicated than that Children who were exhibiting more violent behavior were also from more violent areas No notoriety campaign to motivate media to remove the names of the people committing crimes like mass shootings This is because there is a quotcopy catquot factor in which criminals will want to do the same to get on TV CNN clip 2 How do media impact collective behavior 1 Some claimed that it has a direct and total in uence on people or communities lnclass conversation 2 1 Whowhat structures or in uences your opinions about politics Family location community culture Political campaigns Professors TA39s classes Figures celebrities Internet information social media Highlight the sources people and institutions that play a key role in how we shape political opinions H0000 The hypodermic needle theory Developed in the 192039s193039s Linear communication theory 0 Passive audience o No individual difference EX 193039s Radio show War of the Worlds that caused mass panic when mistaken for real news 2 Some feared the in uence it would have on the masses Mass Society theory Propaganda Utilizes mass media to congregate and express ideas started people thinking collectively 3 Others advocated that media had limited effects on the society 0 Media strengthened an already formed opinion Personal in uence Twostep ow Katz and Lazarsfeld 1955 Novel pattern that mass media had a process that opinion leaders family gures professors celebrities classes culture etc serve in in uencing opinion in their groups about the media Twostep model Mass Media D Opinion leaders General Public 4 Media organizations pick for us what to think about Priming and agenda setting Compartmentalizing issues Agenda setting theory Selection Omission and framing of stories Reality D Agenda Perception of reality 5 Media organizations are involved in manufacturing consent Herman and Chomsky Manufacturing consent Clicker Questions 1 Which media effects theory assumes the strongest media impact on 1 individuals Homogenization theory What percentage of media products and content you ownconsume is not controlled by a large media conglomerate Majority of the class voted 020 If a media company integrates a talent agency a lm studio and a movie theater this is called Vertical integration The twostep flow model asserts that mass media messages flow from Opinion leaders to general public Which country is having elections today Canada to Lecture 6 Wednesday October 21 2015 Media and politics reaching strategic ends using media and communication Clicker question They hypodermic needle model proposes that audience members have agency True guest speaker studies communication technology and looks at extreme cases like the one in Azerbaijan Fun facts 1 She has a twin who is funnier than her 2 If she wasn39t a professor she would be a radio DJ 3 She prefers fruity dessert avors Teaches Com 303 Social effects of technology in the winter and 301 Navigating information networks in the spring Azerbaijan Authoritarian state with economical gender and political inequality Azerbaijan used to be part of the Soviet Union most thought that it would be a democracy when it split from the Soviet Union but that was not the case US somewhat turns a blind eye to the authoritarian state in Azerbaijan because they have big oil wells Authoritarianism How leaders keep their subjects in control jailed if you critique the regime Loss ofjobs if you critique the regime Lower grades if you critique the regime Parents teach children not to critique the regime because bad things will start to happen to you Dictators historically liked the internet because they could use it as a harassment tool to go after the people that opposed them it also made it easier to spy on citizens Ways government used social media Harassment campaigns fake Twitter Instagram Facebook accounts that post bad things about individuals 0 Copy accounts of certain people that made them look bad Ex Ruslan a man who skipped his military service was a target of government produced attack cartoons Ex attacks against women are often sexual cameras are often hidden in homes and apartments and video from these can be used as blackmail What can you do Leave most have no money to leave and even then the government can target your family and nd you 0 Delete social media pro le Social movement groups still use social media but most are swiftly taken out by the government39s control of information Many social movement groups have 2 accounts one personal and one movement account so they try to remain anonymous but still the government can track them Facebook gives up information if asked How does it work 0 Of ce of trained professionals in making fake accounts 0 Head of ce coordinates attacks and chooses individuals to target 0 Many make fake accounts all at the same time so one can tell that its faked but it still creates an impact The people behind these jobs are trying to climb the political latter and most of them think they are actually doing a good thing This type of government watching and censorship makes people constantly stressed There is no of cial truth in this state no one really knows whether or not the government is attacking someone for a good reason so many people believe these attacks Ex man get accused of being an informant for the CIA because his wife works for the US embassy government attacks him and most people don39t know whether or not to believe them This type of government puts the smell out there so to speak Even though the accusations are ridiculous it still has impact Rumors and conspiracies run rampant in these types of governments because there is no information security lnclass conversation 1 1 What kind of qualities in a president in uences you What makes them presidential List some adjectives of outstanding qualities of a president Charisma Authentic Engaged Down to earth Well rounded Family oriented Expenenced Relatable Humbm Assertive Passionate N EX Justin Trudeau wins Canadian election Good looking appears presidential his father was one of the most popular prime ministers in Canada familiarity with the system 0 shows an ideological shift in Canada from more experienced politicians to being open to new policies Media movements now focus more on personal appearance and appeal than policies Ex Trump realitybusiness star running for president Media personality has a direct correlation with political success Good candidates appear more in media and media entertainment bleeds into politics EX actors from Hollywood seeking political of ce positions 1 A part of politician39s work is to deal with media representation Televised debates as a way to connect with the audience and in uence opinion there are political structures in media and entertainment 2 In fact there are professionals who deal with managing the media personalities and identities of politicians EX Hilary Clinton39s staff helps her appear more relatable Movie Way the Dog Dustin Hoffman plays a strategic planner for a president caught in a sex scandal so he hires a Hollywood movie producer to help him create a fake war to draw away attention Photo ops are another example of appearances they are preplanned and look spontaneous but they really aren39t This creates a Hyper reality Hyper Reality people base their reality on what they see in the world and in the media Every reality is a production of another reality Media representation does give us an idea of what really goes on in the world too though Ex photo of Obama with his head of military of cer and board of people making a decision whether or not to go after Bin Laden Obama not at the head of the table Only Hilary Clinton is displaying emotion Obama is not smiling seems candid Everyone looking one direction at something Event is captured in close quarters with photographer Was this really a candid shot 3 There are professionals who also deal with political communication 0 If you show an interest in a campaign you get more information and get followed Automated systems create customized emails based on who you are to appeal to you like cookies Democratators use some democratic systems but act like dictators in their democratic system EX Prime minister of Turkey Tayyip Erdogan president of Venezuela Hugo Chavez and president of Russia Vladimir Putin however all three relied on their popularity to get to the position they have Media structures can serve as watchdog role over government Manufacturing consent Noam Chomslq and the media 1 One way to control media outlets in order to exert political power would be by manufacturing consent Dominant framework hinted at corporate structures Worries about the kind of consent Cultural imperialism When one culture takes over another and heavily in uences their original culture Major networks in Turkey are progovernment of controlled by government Conglomeration as consent tactic The revolution will not be televised Hugo Chavez documentary 0 Those who supported the quo also owned media Russia 2002 MTV a nonsupporter of Russian government gets raided for tax evasion and ends up paying more than they should have Turkey Dogan vs Erdogon Dogan was raided in 2009 and charged 25 billion for evading and transferring taxes some claims were true and others were false 2 Utilizing entertainment and media as a depoliticizing weapon Ex Vladimir makes an appearance on Russia39s version of The Voice EX Chavez39s TV show about life as a president 3 Controlling consent How stories are framed and presented Ex Eat the rich Ex Gezi park protests Prime minister called people looters to frame them as thieves and bad people On the day of the protest international news stations were covering it and Turkey39s news station covered penguins and a cooking show 4 Control of Social media EX During Gezi park protests Twitter was blocked for Turkey citizens 5 Control of media by democratators does not mean a complete control of all media Ex channels to blow off steam 1 George Gerbner39s core argument is that long term exposure to violent content will lead viewers to A 1 The Turkish prime minister Erdogon is a dictator True 1 Which one is not correct about Azerbaijan 1 Entertainment programs can be used to manufacture consent False The War of the Worlds was an episode of an American radio drama series which premiered on October 30 1938 over Columbia Broadcasting system The episode is famous for causing mass panic by the reality of the broadcast because many people mistook it for a real news report quotBy its very nature radio is the medium par excellence for informing all segments of a population of current happenings for arousing in them a common sense of fear or joy and for exciting them to similar reactions directed toward a single objectivequot Why did this broadcast frighten some people when other broadcasts similar to this one did not Why did this broadcast frighten some people and not others quotA large proportion of listeners particularly those in the lower income and educational brackets have grown to rely more on the radio than on the newspapers for their newsquot The play used quotexpertsquot to enhance the feeling of reality such as professors of science and generals of war The reality was also enhanced by vivid descriptions and the fact that the announcer indicates that he too is having trouble believing what he sees quotThe events reported proceeded from the relatively credible to the highly incrediblequot Tuning in late was a big condition for the false judgement Two main reasons why the misinterpretation arose 1 People who tuned in to hear a play by the Mercury Theater thought that the regular broadcast had been interrupted by a news bulletin not uncommon with the recent war crisis in September 1938 2 People tend to not pay attention to the opening announcements of a program Classifying the listeners 1 Those who checked the internal evidence of the broadcast They were able to discern that it was a play 1 Those who checked the broadcast against other information and learned that it was a play Verifying a hunch that it was a play by comparing it to the newspaper program to see what was scheduled that night 1 Those who tried to check the program against other information but who for various reasons continued to believe the broadcast was an authentic news report 0 These people seemed not to check the authenticity but trying to discern whether or not they were in danger and they also used ineffective and unreliable ways to check like looking out windows and calling other people Those who made no attempt to check the broadcast or the event 0 So frightened that they ran around in frenzy or stopped paralyzed Some prepared for escape or death Some only knew there was some kind of con ict but tuned in too late to know what about Why the panic quota lack of critical ability seemed particularly conducive to fear in a large proportion of the populationquot Why the suggestion was or was not believed Why some people are suggestable Four psychological conditions create suggestibility 1 Individuals may refer a given stimulus to a standard or to several standards of judgment which they think are relevant for interpretation 0 So some people did not even try to check the broadcast because they had preexisting mental sets that made the stimulus so understandable to them that they immediately accepted it 0 Others were in uenced by the recent war scare Some built up fanciful notions of science and experiments When an individual lacks the standards ofjudgment to make a reliable check on his interpretation May check unreliable data May rationalize his check according to the original hypothesis he thinks he has tentatively accepted Kind of like nding evidence speci cally for your thought 0 People who really try to verify the information but do not have wellgrounded standards ofjudgment to determine the sources reliable or not When an individual doesn39t have the standards to adequately interpret A lack of information and formal educational training had left many persons without any generalized standards ofjudgment applicable to this novel situation 0 The prolonged economic unrest and insecurity was another cause for bewilderment 1 Lacks standards ofjudgment to orient himself and also lacks the realization that any interpretations are possible other than the one originally presented Why such extreme behavior quotas in all other panics the individual believed his wellbeing his safety or his life was a stakequot quotA panic occurs when some highly cherished rather commonly accepted value is threatened and when no certain elimination of the threat is in sightquot quotIn short the extreme behavior evoked by the broadcast was due to the enormous felt egoinvolvement the situation created and to the complete inability of the individual to alleviate or control the consequences of the invasionquot popularly elected autocrats quotInstead of relying on brute force and direct control they use stealth manipulations and subterfugequot Their goal quotto develop trade attract investment and exercise regional influencequot quotDictators rule by force Democratators rule by manipulation Dictators impose their will Democratators govern with the support of the majority Dictators do not claim to be democrats at least credibly Democratators always do Dictators control information Democratators manage itquot quotThey tolerate even encourage private media but manage critical expression through diverse measures such as national security prosecutions punitive tax audits manipulation of government advertising and seemingly reasonable content restrictions like prohibitions on graphic violence or hate speechquot Mostly these leaders had popularity and could win elections Turkey example Over 100 journalists were jailed in Turkey by the end of 2011 quotBut the ferocious assault on press freedom which sti ed critical debate and reshaped the media landscape did not immediately have an effect on Turkey39s international reputationquot The newspaper providing coverage of military con ict The government said the paper is directly integrated in the military structure and takes orders from the PKK Kurdish workers party but the paper editors deny this and there is no evidence to support it Prime Minister of Turkey Tayyip Erdogan quotUnquestionably Erdogan took advantage of the post911 antiterror environment to recast his crackdown on critical dissent not as quotcensorshipquot but as a legitimate response to a mounting threat to national securityquot Nedim Sener and Ahmet Sik two journalists accused of conspiring to overthrow the government and were arrested Sik an investigative journalist labor activist and academic with a leftist pedigree Sik was working on a book about the Gulen movement but without Sener and had a purely journalistic purpose quotThe arrests of Sik and Sener raised deep concerns among Turkey39s journalism community and sparked street protests in Istanbul They also vastly increased the level of international attention on press freedom issues in Turkeyquot quotWith the crackdown Turkey had become the world39s leading jailer ofjournalistsquot quotThe underlying problem in Turkey is the repressive legal structure developed over decades by militarydominated governments responding to security challenges from leftists lslamists and Kurdish nationalistsquot quotThe key to forging a new coalition in Turkey was to shift the focus of the debate around religionquot Erdogan pushed for less government in religion in an attempt to modernize the economy and push toward more European integration The media in Turkey is mainly produced by large conglomerates and ties to military establishment Erdogan distrusts the media and has lashed out at individual journalists In 2003 about 60 journalists were red or quit because of government interference quotMy own sense of the Kurdish prosecutions is that the government is so convinced of the direct ties between the Kurdish media and the PKK leadership that it is acting like a rouge cop doing whatever it takes to achieve convictions without paying too much attention to the law or the evidence But this is what distinguishes a country governed by the rule of law from one in which the state interest prevails Turkey has still not made the transition Yes Turkey is growing and has made strides But the weakness of independent institutions and ongoing government repression creates and environment in which the information that should fuel both domestic politics and global decision making is de cient and manipulatedquot May 2013 small protest in Gezi Park in Istanbul grew to crisis Protests over urban redevelopment restrictions on selling alcohol and Erdogans imperious governing style quotquotThe Gezi protests did two thingsquot said one prominent international journalist based in Istanbul quotThey exposed the authoritarian nature of the government and they simultaneously made the government more authoritarianquotquot Venezuela example Hugo Chavez president of Venezuela Feb 2 1999 Chavez focused less on his critics and more on changing the country39s traditional political order He held a national referendum in April 1999 for public support in creating a new constitution and the referendum passed quotThe document included some progressive elements Venezuela39s indigenous population was accorded special legal protections but its primary effect was to strengthen Chavez39s political hand It extended the presidential term from ve to six years and allowed for a second consecutive term It gave member of the military the right to vote a move that bene tted Chavez who was widely popular with the military rank and le It also abolished the Senate creating a unicameral National Assemblyquot The private media was controlled by large business interests and was opposed to Chavez39s political project In 199039s polls the press was named the most trusted institution in Latin America The media also challenged the autocratic government of Alberto Fujimori in Peru which collapsed Example Television channel 2 Frecuencia Latina 60 minutes style reporting produced investigative pieces on murder and torture of former intelligence agents army of cers and drug traf cker links and bribing journalists by national intelligence service Fujimori loyalists took over the station in july 1997 quotWhile Fujimori39s strategy of targeting the media through administrative sanctions legal harassment and smear campaigns all took a toll they also undermined his domestic legitimacy and ate away at his international support notable when he withdrew from the InterAmerican human rights system rather than abide by a court rulingquot In 2001 unions businesses and groups opposed to Chavez organized massive street protests that crippled the country quotThe Venezuelan media owners used their contacts in the international business community the US government and the NGO community to mobilize international opposition to Chavez39s power grab and international press groups were courted and urged to act aggressivelyquot 2004 Law on Social Responsibility in Radio and Television This made a legal framework for government regulation of news content F Social media provides government with an easier way to demonstrate its power and harass the people who oppose them quotthe new and creative ways that oppositionists are using social media for connective action could prove to be a successful means of dissentquot The government uses psychological techniques to control media to create sef censorship It also monitors and punishes social media users who oppose the regime Some opposition groups are able to use social media to organize opposition parties quotAzerbaijan is an quotelectoral authoritarianquot state where elections are held but always re ect what the regime wantsquot Key elements of Azerbaijani politics 1 The personalistclientelist nature where elite factions display loyalty and become dependent on resources allocated by the ruling party 2 De cient stateness and endemic corruption which dominate all aspects of political life 3 Marginalized political opposition which exists but represents few organized interests 4 Citizens sense of apathy and fear and lack of trust in others which leads to self censo ng The government has total control of the mainstream media with policies to control the internet Internet and social media provide the government with insight into how the elite are thinking and they use it as a monitoring tool The internet and social media have an impact on interpersonal relationships because they can foster connectedness and sociabiity and organizational relationships because it reduces barriers for creating organizing and participating in social movements with a reduced cost A social network site SNS is a platform where participants 1 Have uniquely identi able pro les that consist of content supplied by users others and systemlevel data 2 Can publicly articulate connections that can be viewed by others 3 Can consume produce and interact with streams of usergenerated content Social media can be a predictor of protest behavior Connective action through social media Creates individualization in which individuals are less guided by norms and collective identities Three levels of networks 1 Organizationally brokered networks 2 Organizationally enabled networks 3 Crowdenabled networks Networked microcelebrity activist politically motivated actor who successfully uses social media to present his or her political and personal self to get attention for a cause quotthe result of connective action is that seemingly disjointed networks can achieve coherent organizational forms in that they develop capacities for resource allocation and distribution they response to external shortterm events and they also can create longterm adaptive resourcesquot quotThese informational connective collaborations through social media are challenging the meaning of civil societyquot Generations framework First generation controls quotfocus on denying access to speci c internet resources by directly blocking access to servers domains keywords and IP addresses Filtering and blocking and policing cybercafes Second generation controls create a legal and normative environment and technical capabilities that enable state actors to deny access to information resources as and when needed while reducing the possibility of blowback or discovery Overtly legal infrastructure to control access to content Covertly procedures and technologies are deployed to control access at times of crISIs Third generation controls compete with potential threats through effecting cognitive change rather than deny access Surveillance state sponsored information campaigns trolling memes blocking Twitter shenanigans hashtag creation hashtag hijacking zombie tweets mimicking pro les kompromat Impact of government control of the internet quotBy using psychological techniques as well as selectively punishing online dissent it creates and environment of selfcensorship By not engaging in a great deal of rst generation controls the government can claim that it is not blocking access to content Yet second and third generation controls are likely more effective of the psychological effect and creation of selfcensoring user base Trolling is particularly effective means of controlling and deterring dissent in Azerbaijan in part because there is little that a target can do about itquot Quiz section activity 3 Powerful media effects Mostly in uential in the 18905 19405 1 Hypodermic needle model Media has all the power and the audience is passive and highly suggestable EX Cause panic when something big is reported on like the invasion from mars when people believed it was a real newscast or more recently the panic when people heard about the swine u Minimal media effects mostly in uential in the 19405 19605 1 Two step ow model Mass media goes through opinion leaders rst before it then goes to the public EX Celebrities Professors Pastors Art Critics people we listen to tell us what to think about mass media messages Limited or mixed media effects mostly in uential in the 19605 to present 1 Gate Keeping Filtering of the news and deciding what content gets produced EX Fox news produces heavily conservative news 1 Agenda setting Frequency of content repetition and emphasis EX ABC news pushing Star Wars produced by their parent company commercialization King 5 news is heavily liberal 1 Framing How we get our information EX tone of the news as in sarcasm or sincerity the delivery mechanism of news 1 Priming Trigger training viewers to react in a certain way EX lf news wants to trigger it can make a logo and theme music for the story so you react whenever you see that logo or hear that music 1 Cultivation theory Certain aspects of life like violence are displayed more often EX Gerbner heavy watchers tend to believe the world is a more violent and dangerous place 1 Cultural imperialism One country39s culture dominates another and diminishes the other country39s culture EX American has a heavy in uence on media culture in other countries McDonalds in the forbidden city 1 Spiral of Cynicism Understanding of hyper reality when things are depicted badly people stop caring about the news and leads to civil inaction A few more terms Homogenization If everyone watches the same things we start forming the same ideas and opinions about things Heterogeneous When people watch different things and different depictions of things so not everyone gets the same ideas Examples of Gate keeping Agenda setting and Framing as if they were related to a restaurant Gate keeping is what39s on the menu Agenda setting is what gets most prominently displayed in main dishes as opposed to side dishes and Framing is how the food is presented on a silver platter or on a paper plate


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